IETF 6TiSCH, a New Standardization Effort to Combine IPv6 Connectivity by Xavier Vilajosana at gogoNET LIVE! 4 IPv6 & IoT Conference

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Published on February 15, 2014

Author: IPv6slides

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gogo6 IPv6 Video Series. Event, presentation and speaker details below:

EVENT
gogoNET LIVE! 4: IPv6 & The Internet of Things. http://gogonetlive.com
November 12 – 14, 201, Silicon Valley, California
Agenda: http://gogonetlive.com/gogonetlive4-agenda.asp

PRESENTATION
IETF 6TiSCH, a New Standardization Effort to Combine IPv6 Connectivity
Abstract: http://www.gogo6.com/profiles/blogs/my-presentation-at-gogonet-live-4
Presentation video: http://www.gogo6.com/video/ietf-6tisch-a-new-standardization-effort-to-combine-ipv6-connecti
Interview video: http://www.gogo6.com/video/6-xavi-interview-iot

SPEAKER
Xavier Vilajosana - Teacher/Researcher, UC Berkeley
Bio/Profile: http://www.gogo6.com/profile/XavierVilajosana

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IETF 6TiSCH, a New Standardization Effort to Combine IPv6 Connectivity with Industrial Performance Xavier Vilajosana UC Berkeley Universitat Oberta de Catalunya

The Internet of Things Stack web-like interaction CoAP UDP Internet Integration 6LoWPAN scheduling “gap” Low-power reliability IEEE802.15.4e simple hardware IEEE802.15.4

Outline 1. Wireless Challenges 2. IEEE802.15.4e 3. 6TiSCH

Wireless Challenges

First Challenge: External Interference IEEE802.11 (Wi-Fi) IEEE802.15.1 (Bluetooth) IEEE802.15.4

Second Challenge: Multipath Fading

Second Challenge: Multipath Fading • Separate sender and receiver by 100cm • Have sender send bursts of 1000 packets • Have receiver count the number of received packets • Move transmitter around in a 20cmx35cm area and start over

Second Challenge: Multipath Fading ch.11

Second Challenge: Multipath Fading ch.11 ch.12 ch.19 ch.20 ch.13 ch.14 ch.21 ch.22 ch.15 ch.16 ch.23 ch.24 ch.17 ch.18 ch.25 ch.26

IEEE802.15.4e

The Internet of Things Stack web-like interaction CoAP UDP Internet Integration 6LoWPAN scheduling “gap” Low-power reliability IEEE802.15.4e simple hardware IEEE802.15.4

Status • Published 16 April 2012 • Only amends MAC layer of IEEE802.15.4-2011: – Does not modify PHY layer • “Timeslotted Channel Hopping” (TSCH) mode: – Ultra low-power operation by synchronizing nodes – Ultra high reliability through channel hopping

Communication Schedule A • A super-frame repeats over time – Number of slots in a superframe is tunable – Each cell can be assigned to a pair of motes, in a given direction B C 16 channel offsets E D F G I H J e.g. 31 time slots (310ms)

A Slot 9.976ms 2.120ms 2.000ms ≤ 4.256ms 0.800ms 0.400ms 2.400ms

2268 2273 2278 2283 2288 2293 channelOffset=11 slotOffset=14 =14 16 channel offsets 2263 ASN*=2277 Channel Hopping e.g. 31 time slots (310ms) frequencyChannel=(channelOffset+ASN)%16+11 Now: Ch. 11 (2.405GHz) Next slotframe: Ch. 26 (2.480GHz) *Absolute Slot Number

Slotted Structure: Trade-Off • • A Cells are assigned according to application requirements Tunable trade-off between – packets/second – latency – robustness B C …and energy consumption 16 channel offsets E D F G I H J e.g. 31 time slots (310ms)

Timeslotted Channel Hopping B D A DATA ACK C->A A->C C 10s to 1000s D->C D->B B->A slotOffset Typically 16 channelOffset C->A • Trade-off bandwidth, redundancy, latency for power consumption. • 50% PDR: schedule more links • Average power consumption: function of number of scheduled cells. • How Mechanisms to monitor and maintain schedule is out of scope.

IEEE802.15.4e: Heritage • 2006: Dust Networks’s Time Sync. Mesh Protocol (TSMP) – Break-through technology [1] • • • • 26 days 3.6 million packets generated only 17 packets lost 99.9995% end-to-end reliability – Applicable to industrial application • 2008: WirelessHART – Wireless extension of HART, the de-facto standard for industrial monitoring • 2012: IEEE 802.15.4e – Amends MAC protocol of IEEE 802.15.4-2011 • Proven Technology. Commercial solutions are available. [1] Channel-Specific Wireless Sensor Network Path Data, Doherty, Linday, Simon, ICCCN 2007

6TiSCH

The Internet of Things Stack web-like interaction CoAP UDP Internet Integration 6LoWPAN scheduling “gap” Low-power reliability IEEE802.15.4e simple hardware IEEE802.15.4

6TiSCH: Status • Discussions started in December 2012 • Very traditional IETF procedure – IETF mailing list created 01/24/2013 – 160+ members (mix between academic and nonacademics) – First face-to-face meetings at IETF 86 in Orlando (March 2013) – BOF at IETF 87 in Berlin – IETF 88 draft adoption in Vancouver

6TiSCH: In Practice • Mailing list – 6tisch@ietf.org – https://www.ietf.org/mailman/listinfo/6tisch • Weekly Webex calls • Homepage – https://bitbucket.org/6tisch/ • Internet drafts: – An Architecture for IPv6 over Time Synchronized Channel Hopping – Terminology in IPv6 over Time Slotted Channel Hopping – Using IEEE802.15.4e TSCH in an LLN context: Overview, Problem Statement and Goals – 6TiSCH Operation Sublayer (6top) – Minimal 6TiSCH Configuration – 6TiSCH Data Model for CoAP – Security Framework and Key Management Protocol Requirements for 6TiSCH – A standard compliant security framework for Low-power and Lossy Networks

Charter • Define an architecture to describe the design of 6TiSCH networks. • Define an Information Model containing the management requirements of a 6TiSCH node. • Define a Minimal mode of operation outlining how to build a 6TiSCH network using the Routing Protocol for LLNs (RPL) and a static TSCH schedule. SCOPE: Charter limit the scope to distributed routing over a static schedule

Architecture

6top Operational Layer • Logical positioning of layers Higher Layers Information and Data Model for interacting with 6top 6top 802.15.4e TSCH

Commands

Using 6top with a PCE • PCE has full knowledge of topology and traffic requirements • PCE computes schedule • Communicates with nodes to configure their schedule • PCE-node protocol – e.g. CoAP • PCE typically schedules hard cells • Charter Scope: define operational API an 6top mechanisms PCE backbone BBR LLN CoAP 6top TSCH node

6top with distributed scheduling • Distributed scheduling can use RPL routes • Neighbor schedule bandwidth with each other, rather than explicit cells – Soft cells • 6top monitoring process monitors performance of cells and reschedules the ones that perform bad. • Charter Scope: define operational API an 6top mechanisms A B C D E

6TiSCH Resources • Management Resources using CoAP 6top management resources and the related URI paths Name Accessibility 6top Commands URI path Neighbor Table CREATE/READ/DELETE/UPDATE 6t/Neighbor Slotframe Table CREATE/READ/DELETE/UPDATE 6t/slotframe Cell Table CREATE/READ/DELETE/UPDATE 6t/Cell Time Source CREATE/READ/DELETE/UPDATE 6t/TimeSource Bundle Table CREATE/READ/DELETE/UPDATE 6t/Bundle Track Table CREATE/READ/DELETE/UPDATE 6t/Track EB Table CREATE/READ/DELETE/UPDATE 6t/EB

Minimal Static Schedule

RPL on Minimal • RFC6552 “Objective Function Zero for the Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL)” • Definitions – Rf: rank_factor – Sp: step_of_rank – Sr: stretch_of_rank P R(P) N R(N)=R(N)+rank_increase rank_increase = (Rf*Sp + Sr) * MinHopRankIncrease

Thank you! xvilajosana@eecs.berkeley.edu 32

Example • Given: – – – – – – – Rf = 1 Sp = 2* ETX Sr = 0 minHopRankIncrease = 256 (default in RPL) ETX=(xmit/ack) r(n) = r(p) + rank_increase rank_increase= (Rf*Sp + Sr) * minHopRankIncrease – rank_increase=(512*xmit/ack) 0 R(0)=0 DAGRank(R(0)) = 0 1 R(1)=R(0)+683=683 DAGRank(R(1)) = 2 2 R(2)=R(1)+683=1366 DAGRank(R(1)) = 5 3 R(3)=R(2)+683=2049 DAGRank(R(1)) = 8 4 R(4)=R(3)+683=2732 DAGRank(R(1)) = 10 5 R(5)=R(4)+683=3415 DAGRank(R(1)) = 13 • Example: – 5-hop network – r(0)=0 – xmit=100 ack=75 for all links

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