IEEE Kerala LINK - Humanitarian Technology Project 2010

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Information about IEEE Kerala LINK - Humanitarian Technology Project 2010
Education

Published on July 22, 2014

Author: jaisonsabu

Source: slideshare.net

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LINK HTC Project was a novel initiative by IEEE Kerala Section Student Activities Chair in 2010 to engage Indian engineering students in Humanitarian Technology Projects. The first such project was the electrification of a rural village using solar power.

2010-11 Local Integrated Network of Kerala IEEE Students (IEEE LINK) [IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT ] Project report

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 2 Table of Contents 1. Introduction......................................................................................................................................................4 1.1 IEEE and Humanitarian Technology Challenge (HTC)...............................................................................4 1.2 Local Integrated Network of Kerala IEEE Students (LINK)........................................................................5 1.3 LINK HTC Initiative - 2010.........................................................................................................................5 1.4 Electrification Project at Karikoune..........................................................................................................6 2. Project Idea.......................................................................................................................................................6 2.1 Objectives.................................................................................................................................................7 2.2 Challenges.................................................................................................................................................7 3. Project Phases .................................................................................................................................................8 4. Phase 1: Surveying............................................................................................................................................8 4.1 Details that were collected.......................................................................................................................8 4.2 Collection of information .......................................................................................................................10 4.3 Site surveying .........................................................................................................................................10 4.4 House surveying .....................................................................................................................................11 4.5 Census Details.........................................................................................................................................11 4.6 Occupation .............................................................................................................................................11 4.7 Availability of water................................................................................................................................12 4.8 Availability of various sources that could be tapped .............................................................................12 4.9 Solar survey ............................................................................................................................................12 4.10 Analysis of survey results .......................................................................................................................12 5. Phase 2- Designing the system.......................................................................................................................13 5.1 What were the different aspects considered?.......................................................................................13 5.2 Challenges faced.....................................................................................................................................13 5.3 Defining the deliverables of the system.................................................................................................14 5.4 Lighting design........................................................................................................................................14 5.5 System design.........................................................................................................................................14 6. Phase 3- Implementation ...............................................................................................................................20 6.1 Planning..................................................................................................................................................20 6.2 Estimated work.......................................................................................................................................21 6.3 Man Power .............................................................................................................................................22

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 3 6.4 Tools used...............................................................................................................................................22 6.5 Division of work......................................................................................................................................23 6.6 Error tracking..........................................................................................................................................23 6.7 Operating the system.............................................................................................................................24 6.8 Summary of the implementation stage..................................................................................................24 7. Project Management......................................................................................................................................25 7.1 Team structure .......................................................................................................................................25 7.2 Timeline of the project...........................................................................................................................25 7.3 Delays caused.........................................................................................................................................27 8. Phase 4 - Maintenance and sustainability......................................................................................................28 9. Impact of the project on IEEE.........................................................................................................................28 10. Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................................28 Appendix 1: Solar circuitry .................................................................................................................................30 Appendix 2: Experience of few onsite volunteers..............................................................................................33 Appendix 3: Photos of switch on ceremony.......................................................................................................36 Appendix 4: Photos ............................................................................................................................................39 Appendix 5: Census Details ................................................................................................................................42 Appendix 6: Project team...................................................................................................................................44

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 4 1. Introduction The Homo sapiens are the greatest resources available on earth today- resources which can think for themselves, decide for themselves and work for themselves. No other animate or inanimate creation has been endowed with such power. ‘With great power comes great responsibility’, so the saying goes. With so much control in our hands, it becomes our duty and responsibility to make existence easier for other creations. It becomes our obligation to extend a helping hand to the underprivileged. Even in this 21st century, when man is planning missions to moon, there exists a section of people still living in darkness and dying of illness everyday because of insufficient medical access. The inhabitants of "Chetad Chathapu", Karukone, Kollam district of Kerala find themselves blanketed in a wave of darkness- both outside and inside their lives. Electricity, which has grown, from a basic necessity to live, to an indispensable luxury, is unavailable here. An initiative of LINK (Local Integrated Network of Kerala) began aiming at the electrification of this remote village. This endeavor by LINK aimed at the overall development of about 35 people living in this village using a technology that can be applied anywhere around the world. 1.1 IEEE and Humanitarian Technology Challenge (HTC) IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) is the largest international nonprofit organization that is dedicated to the development of technology for the benefit and service of Humanity, which is what engineering, is all about. The Humanitarian Technology Challenge (HTC) , established by leading technologists, humanitarians, students, is an innovative, collaborative endeavor that implements potential technological solutions to the identified vital humanitarian challenges in developing countries. It aims at coherently meeting the needs of those exposed to sufferings by providing solutions that are environment friendly, flexible, economically feasible, sustainable and highly reliable while maintaining high standards of professionalism and thus improving living conditions of the needy.

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 5 1.2 Local Integrated Network of Kerala IEEE Students (LINK) LINK is an innovative concept, a network that originated in IEEE Kerala Section in India, aimed at networking Student Branches in an efficient way, thereby increasing the value of IEEE Student membership. LINK was formally inaugurated by past IEEE President Mr. Cleon Anderson in January 2005 and since its inception LINK has achieved tremendous results, causing an exponential increase in the number of Student Branches and quality of student activities both technical and managerial, in IEEE Kerala Section over the past 5 years. The model of LINK was adopted by IEEE Region 10 as R10 GINI (Global Integrated Network of IEEE Students). 1.3 LINK HTC Initiative - 2010 Student activities in Kerala Section has been exemplary over the years, gratitude to IEEE LINK found in the year 2005 for the better coordination and networking among the Student Branches in Kerala. However over the years the student members in LINK began excelling in management and social activities while their technical aspirations trailed behind. Thus it was decided that the primary focus of LINK in the year 2010 would be to provide the much lacking technical momentum by involving the student members in technical activities. The IEEE LINK HTC (Humanitarian Technology Challenge) project is a major technical project initiated by LINK in 2010. The idea of doing such a technological project for bettering mankind was the brain wave of two IEEE volunteers in Kerala Section, Mr. Jaison Abey Sabu (Student activities Chair, Kerala )and Mr. Rayees Amar Nishad (former LINK Treasurer). It was their collective idea to involve the students in LINK in a real world technical project which will also give them an opportunity to serve humanity. It was decided that the project would be undertaken in accordance with the norms and guidelines of the IEEE International HTC committee-2010. Reliable electricity, one of the humanitarian challenges defined by IEEE worldwide was identified as the theme of the project. The student branch of T.K.M College of Engineering, Kollam submitted to IEEE LINK, Kerala Section, an idea of electrification of a remote village in Karukone, Kollam District, Kerala, India as a part of this plan. The idea was accepted whole heartedly and a project team was formed comprising of members from LINK. This was the first ever major technical project in the history of IEEE LINK Kerala Section and can be considered a milestone in the student activities of Kerala Section.

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 6 1.4 Electrification Project at Karikoune Once the LINK decided to undertake projects aimed at ‘Reliable Electricity’, one of the challenges defined by the Humanitarian Technological Challenge (HTC), efforts were made to identify the kind of assignments that could be taken up. As a consequence, meeting with several engineers of Kerala State Electricity Board (KSEB) helped locate a small pocket of un-electrified site in Kollam District. After interacting with the residents which included school dropouts, it was found that people have been living in darkness over the past 60 years and many had started to migrate. Also, there was fear of wild animals at night. It would have been unfair to let those 35 people, including a lot of members from the upcoming generation, continue to lead the kind of life they endured. A technological solution had to be found that would revitalize the life of the natives and could be implemented in similar terrain. 2. Project Idea The aim of the project was to electrify eight houses in the area using solar panels. 5 houses were located in such a way that individual panels could not be provided due to the lack of ample sunlight. The project aimed at providing a common source for these five houses. The rest of the houses were to be provided with individual solar panel units.

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 7 2.1 Objectives  Reliable electricity to the inhabitants of the remote village at Karukone, Kollam by setting up an eco-friendly, safe, economically affordable, and efficient electrification system for overall development and growth of the village.  Future scope: The technology developed need to be flexible enough to be employed in other similar terrains of the world and with least modifications in diverse locations.  IEEE for benefit of humanity: Project the image of IEEE as a body of professionals who continuously strive for the benefit of humanity and to bring forward similar initiatives that benefits mankind, inspired by the same.  Significant Accomplishment: As such a project addressing the humanitarian challenges was happening for the first time in the history of Kerala Section Student activities. The project could be a motivating factor for other students to take up similar projects in the future.  Member concern: Opportunities for members to apply their knowledge in a real life arena. Contributions from the students towards this project can help enhance their engineering skill set and mould them into future professionals who are committed to use their technical expertise for the benefit of the humanity. 2.2 Challenges The project aimed at electrifying the village using solar energy. The electrification was to be done in two segments. Technical challenges  Presence of thick forest that would have to be cut down for drawing wires.  Reluctance of the Government to spend a huge amount for a small population (35 inhabitants).  Possibility of forest fire.  Lack of enough sources for in situ generation  Difficulty in drawing lines to the area.

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 8  Future maintenance and sustainability of the project. Management challenges  To form a team comprising of students from LINK with the necessary talents.  To give maximum exposure to the students.  To do the work in a professional manner with students doing all the labour. 3. Project Phases For the ease of management the project was divided into four phases. In the first phase, the complete data was acquired. In the second phase the data acquired was evaluated and the various resources required was estimated. Suitable sources for the resources required were found out. Resources were made available. Once the resources were found out the implementation works began in the next phase. The final phase was the maintenance part. Sustainability of the project was determined in this phase. 4. Phase 1: Surveying In this phase the complete information regarding the site was collected. What were the resources available, what were the various opportunities etc were determined in this phase. 4.1 Details that were collected Surveying was done in a number of fields. All the information collected was not of project concern. But one was not able to avoid or neglect any information at the beginning. The various areas where surveying was done are as follows:

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 9 Sl. No. Area of Survey Details collected 1. Site survey The location of houses. The distance between the houses. The nature of ground. Slope of the land. 2. House survey The approximate area of the house. The nature of building material used. The gadgets present. 3. Social survey The number of residents, their economic status, literacy etc. The social relationship between the people. Their needs and demands. 4. Availability of Water Checked availability of potable water. 5. Sources of Energy available. Checked for nearby water streams. Checked if any bio matter was produced. (Cattle wastes etc.) Checked if enough sunlight was available. Check and exploit if any other sources are available. 6. Mode of governance. Collected the details of the local governing body.

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 10 4.2 Collection of information Surveying was done by visiting the site with a team of four students initially. They interacted with the residents and found out their needs and necessities. The team then visited the local authorities and collected information about the site. Survey was also done in the presence of a local leader and this was very effective. We could get accurate information then. The surveying could not be completed in one visit. The site had been visited three to four times for the collection of details. Each visit to the site yielded some new information, which had great value later on. 4.3 Site surveying The site consists of eight houses. Out of these 5 are located on a single plot and the remaining three houses are located at a distance of 500m away from the former. The maximum distance between the houses in the former is about 50 meters. The approximate layout of the location of houses is as shown below:

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 11 4.4 House surveying The approximate layout of each house is as shown below: The building material used is hollow bricks. All the residents use cell phones. Two lamps would be well enough to satisfy their basic lighting requirements. 4.5 Census Details The details of the residents (name and age) were collected from the local governing body. Please refer APPENDIX 3. 4.6 Occupation Most of them work in the forest by assisting the forest guards. Some of them work for daily wages.

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 12 4.7 Availability of water Potable water is available in abundance. There are three wells in the site. Also there is nearby a small stream from which water is used for domestic purposes. 4.8 Availability of various sources that could be tapped The only source that could be tapped was the solar power. In the plot where 5 houses are situated sun light is continuously available only at one particular location. The rest of the houses do not receive enough sunlight throughout the day. 4.9 Solar survey A team visited the site and stayed there for one full day and observed the number of hours effective sunlight was available. About 5 hours of effective sunlight was available. This was available only at one particular location at the plot of five houses. This could be effectively tapped. 4.10Analysis of survey results Area of Survey Survey result Analysis Sources Available Only source that could be exploited is Solar Energy. Sunlight is available at one particular area at the plot of five houses. Sunlight was available for the rest three houses.  A common panel could be used to tap the sunlight for the five houses.  Individual panels could be provided in the remaining three houses. Availability of vegetation Huge trees were present on the site.  Therefore for transmission overhead cables cannot be used.  UG cable was preferred for transmission. Governance Local Panchayath was the governing body.  The maintenance of the system could be

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 13 managed by the Panchayath member for that particular ward. 5. Phase 2- Designing the system The system design defines the deliverables of the system and the various aspects of the components used. System design varies in accordance with the deliverables, the topography of the site, the nature of the sources available, future expansion etc. The system design played a vital role in the success of the project and its prolonged sustainability. 5.1 What were the different aspects considered? The different aspects that were considered in system design are the follows:  Defining the challenges that could possibly arise based on the survey data.  Defining the deliverables of the system. This in turn could give us a rough idea about the total load of the system.  Defining the mode of generation, storage and transmission of the power to meet the required load demand.  Designing the system voltage so as to minimize the losses.  Ensuring reliability and sustainability of the system.  Designing the various aspects of generation, storage and transmission of the power. 5.2 Challenges faced 5.2.1 Location of the houses

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 14 The site had a total of eight houses. Out of these, five houses were located such that the maximum distance between the houses is 30 meters. The three other houses were located a bit far away. 5.2.2 Terrain of the site The site was surrounded by forest. The site was covered with bushes throughout. The terrain of the site wherein the five houses are located is sloping and continuous sunlight is available only at the top of the site. The other three houses receive ample amount of sunlight throughout. 5.2.3 Generation Generation of the power was from the solar energy as it was the only source which could be tapped effectively at the site. The sunlight was available throughout only at a particular location of the site. Also due to presence of vegetation ample sunlight was unavailable. 5.2.4 Transmission The generated power using solar panel was DC. For transmission in DC the losses incurred would be high and also the line would carry high current comparatively. This could lead to insecure transmission. 5.3 Defining the deliverables of the system The site is devoid of electricity for about 60 years. The present source of lighting is kerosene lamps which are inefficient. The system aimed at providing the basic lighting requirements for the residents. The needs that could be met by the traditional power supply would not be met with this project. The system acts as a temporary solution which satisfies the basic lighting needs of the houses. 5.4 Lighting design Considering the basic requirement, two CFL lamps of 11 W and 450 lumen output were provided for each house. The locations of lamps were in such a way that light would be evenly distributed across the lit area. 5.5 System design

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 15 5.5.1 Modifications made from initial system design The initial proposed solution was modified in the following ways. The reason for the same is also provided.  The initial system design had an operating voltage of 12v .It was changed to 24 v due to the inefficiency of operating at lower potential.  Television was included, it was removed owing to the huge power consumption, social consequences of keeping it at any particular place and the warranty not provided due to the same by the manufacturers for the components of the system.  The specification of the components were brought on compromise with the availability and other factors  The distributed system was employed for the 5 houses that were close by and the others were provided individual units as the distance is too impractical for the later.  The exact specification of the components and the design was finalized on meeting with the vendor who supplied the components. 5.5.2 System components  Solar Panels: It consists of one or more modules wired together to generate a specific voltage and current, depending upon the demand. Present day solar panels come along with the combiner. The output of the panel will be a direct current supply depending upon the rating of the panel used.  Charging circuit: This circuit is used in order to increase the efficiency of the circuit. Typical battery voltage is 12 V. The voltage output of the panel varies and on an average it is around 16 V. When the panel is directly connected to the battery, the voltage of the panel is reduced and the charging current reduces. In the charging circuit, an efficient DC-DC power converter is used. This reduces the voltage of the panel to that of the battery voltage at the same time it increases the charging current. This allows the maximum utilization of the energy generated.  Battery: It is used for the storage of the power generated from the panel. The battery can be either lead acid battery or Lithium ion. Considering the cost factor and availability factor lead acid battery was preferred.

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 16  Inverter: It converts direct current produced from the panels to alternating current. The input of the inverter would be direct current at a voltage of 24 Volts and output would be at 230 Volts (ac).  Main control Panel: It consists of an isolator and Miniature Circuit Breakers (MCB). The output from the inverter is fed into the main control panel. It is then divided into different lines through Isolators.  Electrical Load: o Basic Lighting load: Each house will have 2 Compact Fluorescent lamps for lighting purpose. o Charging kiosk: A small charging station will be provided in order to charge mobile phones, radios etc. 5.5.3 Design of the components Expected Power Demand Power demand per house: 22W (2*11W) Number of hours of operation of the equipment in a day per house: 5hrs (7pm-11pm and 5am-6am) Total Watt-Hour demand per day per house= 130 Wh (Watt hour) Total watt hour demand for all the houses in a day= 550 Wh Wattage rating for Charging Kiosk= 20 W Expected hours it is expected to work= 5 h Total watt hour for kiosk= 100 Wh Maximum total demand for five houses=650 Wh After considering loses, Demand = 675 Wh

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 17 Battery bank Calculation Days backup required = 1.33 Amp storage = 36.74 Ah (Ampere hour) Depth of discharge = 50% Required battery backup = 73.28 Ah Battery Ampere ratings (20 hr) = 60 Ah Number of batteries required = 1 Solar panel calculation Sun hours per day = 8 h Worst weather multiplier = 1.561 Effective hours = 5.16 h Panel size chosen = 80W, 24V Peak Amperage of panel = 3.33 A Number of panels = 2

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 18 Summary of all the solar calculations Type of Calculation Description Unit Value Estimated Watt demand Total Watts Per Hour (DC) Hours per day DC Amps x 12 Watts 130 Hours Equip is expected to run (24hr) as per application Hrs d-1 5 Watt-Hours per day Total daily usage Watts x Hours Watt-Hrs d-1 650 Amp-hour calculation Total watts Daily requirements Watt-Hrs d-1 650 Corrected for battery losses Assumes static average loss Watt-Hrs d-1 675 System voltage DC voltage only Volts 24 Amp-hours per day Watts divided by Volts Amp-Hrs d-1 27.625 Battery bank calculation Days backup power required Average 24 hour periods Days 1.33 Amp-hour storage Raw capacity you need Amp-Hrs 36.74 Depth of discharge Assumes 50% fraction 0.5 Required amp backup Prevents excessive discharge Amp-Hrs 73.48

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 19 Battery Amp Rating (20 hr) Battery Capacity in Amps Fraction 60 Actual # batteries wired in parallel Raw number Number 1.22 Batteries wired in series Relates to system voltage Number 2.00 Rounded batteries Always rounded up Number 1 Solar Panel Array calculation Sun hours per day (Direct only) Hrs 8 Worst-weather multiplier* 1.55 default Fraction 1.561 Total sun hours per day Assumes average sun Amp-Hrs 5.161 Select panel size (Watt rating) Watt hour rating Watts 80 Nominal Panel Voltage Approximate Solar output Volts 24 Amps required from solar panels Total daily consumption Amps 28 Peak amperage of solar panel Watts divided by Volts Amps 3.33 Number of solar panels in parallel Raw Number Number 9 Rounded number of solar panels Always rounded up Number 2

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 20 Note: The system was designed inclusive of the charging kiosk. But due to some social issues it has not been implemented till now. 5.5.4 Points considered while designing the system Sl No Points Reasons 1 High system voltage was preferred. The limiting factor was the cost of the inverter. Higher efficiency 2 Television, fans etc were avoided from the load. The usage of these gadgets cannot be controlled and this may lead to huge wastage of power. 3 In all calculation approximate percentage was considered as loss. To take into consideration the worst case loss. 6. Phase 3- Implementation 6.1 Planning The total resources available must be utilized in the most efficient manner for the implementation of the project. In the planning stage the following were estimated:  The total amount of work present and classified them.  The resources (materials and man power) required to complete the work on schedule.  Approximate time for each work. 

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 21 6.2 Estimated work 6.2.1 Wiring of the house The wiring works were estimated as follows:  Two points for each house The total number of points to be wired adds up to 16 points. Each point was provided in such a manner that the area is uniformly lit. Conduit type wiring was used for wiring.  Isolator An isolator was provided in each house so as to isolate the house in case of any faults. It plays the role of a main switch in a house. 6.2.2 Transmission Lines The transmission line used is underground cable. The main work in this area was to dig for the UG cable. This was the most time consuming part in the implementation stage. About 150 meters of earth had to be removed for the cable. The depth was about 2 foot. 6.2.3 Solar Circuit The following works were present:  Fixing the panels For five houses a common panel was used. The panel was placed on the roof of one of the houses where uninterrupted sunlight was available throughout the day. For the remaining houses individual panels were provided.  Connecting the charging circuit, battery and the inverter Inverter was used only for the five houses where a common panel was used. For the rest of the houses dc supply was used for lighting.

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 22 6.3 Man Power No workers were hired to do the works. All the works were done by the students under the guidance of a professional. This provided an opportunity for the students to learn all the basics in a professional manner. A separate team was formed for the onsite implementation. All the interested students were taken to the site in turn. Objective of including a separate onsite team:  To involve more students in the project. This could motivate them to initiate future humanitarian projects.  To provide an opportunity for all interested students to learn.  To complete the work on schedule. 6.4 Tools used Sl. No. Tool 1 Mallet 2 Hammer 3 Wire Stripper

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 23 4 Line and continuity Tester 5 Hack saw and blades 6 Screw drivers 7 Poker 8 Chisel 9 Plain saw 10 Multi Meter 11 Emergency light 12 Candles 13 Matches 14 Insulation tapes (black and red) 15 Blades 16 Hollow metal pipe (for drilling) 6.5 Division of work In wiring the house, division of work was followed. First house was wired with the help of the instructor. Then groups were formed and the rest of the houses were wired in parallel. Each student in a group was specialized in one kind of work. 6.6 Error tracking The error could be tracked by checking the voltages at all the points from the beginning using a multimeter.

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 24 6.7 Operating the system The system must be finally operated and maintained by the residents. Therefore they were made aware of the technology used and how to use the same. Instructions were given to them on how to operate the system and the maintenance procedures. All the instructions and the possible maintenance measures were written down in their common language and provided to them. 6.8 Summary of the implementation stage Sl. No. Works Reasons for delay/points to take care 1 Wiring of the house Lack of materials. The quantities of minor elements like nails where in short. 2 Laying of the UG Cable More time than expected in digging the pits. The estimated length of the UG was not sufficient. 3 Solar circuit ------

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 25 7. Project Management For the effective management of the project a team was formed under the LINK (Local Integrated Network of Kerala IEEE Students). The team was formed in a professional manner and the project also aimed at providing some amount of managerial skill also. 7.1 Team structure Sl. No. Committee Works Number of members 1 Project Mentor To guide the team at bottle necks. 2 2 Advisory Panel To guide the students. 4 3 Main EXECOM Management of the whole team 4 4 Technical All the designing and technical works 4 5 Reporting and Documentation Documents all the data and all the reporting works would be done by them. 4 6 Finance All the money transactions would be taken care by this team. 2 7 On site team For the implementation works 7.2 Timeline of the project Sl. No Task Month 1. Identification of the proposed area. February, 2010 2. Preliminary survey based on the necessity of electricity and their occupation. February, 2010 3. Secondary survey (database) based on their personal as well as social profiles. March, 2010 4. Proposal of a solution – submitted to IEEE LINK for their suggestions and forward approval. April, 2010

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 26 5. A team under LINK was formed May, 2010 6. Detailed Technical report - submitted to the immediate authorities for their suggestions and forward approval. May, 2010 7. Detailed financial report – On research made we could fetch the exact cost for each and every item required to complete this project. June, 2010 8. Various options for funding were exploited July- August, 2010 9. Submitted the proposal for funding to IEEE Micro Grants October, 2010 10. A new onsite team was recruited based on the nominations received. November,2010 11. Funding of $4400 was approved December, 2010 12. Various companies were approached for the panels January, 2011 13. Quotes were collected for various components from different companies January, 2011 14. The company was finalized based on the quotes and reliability factor. February, 2011 15. The materials were procured February, 2011

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 27 7.3 Delays caused Task Reasons for delay Purchasing Quotes were collected only after the approval of the funds. On site team selection It could have been done earlier. Shipping delay The panels were received after a time delay of 25 days. UG cables The laying of cables took more time than expected. 16. The onsite implementation began February, 2011 17. The onsite implementation was completed and the system was successful March 10th , 2011 18. Formal switch on ceremony March 20th ,2011

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 28 8. Phase 4 - Maintenance and sustainability This was the biggest challenge. We had to ensure the sustainability of the project done. For this purpose we had approached many authorities. Finally, we had decided to form a local committee consisting of residents of the site and the ward member of the site. A small amount would be collected per month to an account jointly held by the convener of the committee formed and the ward member. The remaining amount of the approved fund would also be transferred to this account. Also, the panchayat told they could get some amount for the future development in their next budget. An agreement would be written for the proper utilization of the funds for the sustenance and future developments of the project. The final agreement is yet to be signed. 9. Impact of the project on IEEE  The project has leveraged the image of IEEE as a professional organization working on technology for humanity, across the state.  This is the first of its kind undertaken by LINK (Local Integrated Network of Kerala IEEE students). The project provided a common platform for student members from different student branches across the state to work on a technical project. The students could learn the very basics of wiring, electrification which are usually neglected in engineering studies.  It definitely motivated many volunteers and helped in raising their membership value. Similar project targeting humanitarian challenges are definitely expected in near future after the success of this project. 10. Conclusion The official switch on ceremony of the project was held on March 20th , 2011 and it was attended by Kerala Section office bearers and other IEEE members. The project was officially inaugurated by Er Amarnath Raja, Chairman, IEEE humanitarian Adhoc committee. The project was officially declared as a success during the function.

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 29 The project which was the initiative of IEEE LINK was a huge success. It not only provided a great impact on the life of residents instead it also threw light on IEEE as an organization working for the benefit of humanity. The project could be implemented in any part of the world with similar terrain and problems. The project team consisted of about 46 members across the state and each of them feels that working on the project were a life time opportunity. It helped them a lot in building themselves into professionals in various aspects of engineering and management. The project also provided a strong motivation to bring about similar projects aiming at the benefit for humanity in the near future. Report by, Sankar R, IEEE Student Member, LINK Deepthi P, IEEE Student Member, LINK Sruthy S, IEEE Student Member, LINK Sera Selvin, IEEE Student Member, LINK Bhavna S N, IEEE Student Member, LINK Jery Althaf, IEEE Student Member, LINK

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 30 Appendix 1: Solar circuitry CHARGING THE BATTERY Consist of the following modules  Panel  Charge controller  Battery BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE SOLAR CIRCUIT# #AC IN GENERATOR AND ITS CIRCUIT IS NOT REQUIRED .THE CAPACTIY OF BATTERY BANK MAY VARY

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 31 AS MODULES Solar Panels Charge Controller Power Inverter Mains Electricity Battery Bank BLOCK DIAGRAM SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION FROM THE BOARD

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 32 BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR INDIVIDUAL HOUSE HOLD

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 33 Appendix 2: Experience of few onsite volunteers Sreevas S, IEEE Student Member, IEEE SB CET The first day of the onsite implementation of the HTC project was successfully completed. The day’s work started at around 10 am in the morning. We started off with the first house and our lack of experience was clearly showing at the rate of progress of work. Thanks to the guidance from the staff from TKM the work got accelerated and we managed to complete the first house by around 1.30pm. We then dashed off for a quick lunch, however the terrain was quite challenging. Back from lunch and with experience of one house we divided ourselves into two groups and started off work by 2.pm. In our solo effort we faced quite a number of hiccups. We found it difficult to clamp the PVC pipes to the wall at certain places because of the curvature in the wall. However, we solved this problem by heating the pipe and then shaping in the required form. The strength of the wall in the third house was quite weak, so we used wood pieces to support the screws. We winded up the work by 4.30 after completing the full wiring of the three houses.

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 34 We really understand the impact of our work on the lives of the people there from the sheer fact that we had to use mobile lights, torch lights and candles for doing the work. Annie Mariyam Elias, IEEE Student Member, IEEE SB TKMCE 15th February,2011 While waiting for the bus, that day, some of us did not have any idea that we have to board four buses to reach our destination. There were eight of us –three girls and five boys. We started at about 7.00am. We were visiting the site wherethe HTC project is going on. We girls were going to the place for the first time. By the time we got into the third bus, we were sceptical about reaching the location before lunch time. After sleepy hours in 4 buses, we reached the site by about 11.30. After we got off the bus at aanakulam, the first view was the limitless stretch of acacia trees, with a narrow path through the forest, which gave the impression of a cave. We were to go along the path to reach the site. The sounds of the “jungle” were loud and unidentifiable noises could be heard from the forest. However the only animals which made their presence felt were dogs. It seemed that canines form an exclusive part of the wildlife in the woods!!Even as we reached the tiny village in the middle of the forest, two “seemingly fiery”, but “actually docile” dogs received us with menacing barks!Fortunately the dogs turned out to be not as threatening as their barks! However, some of us did have a phobia for dogs and that revealed their true colour. Later someone said that these dogs were for driving off the wild boars which were a danger to their crops. The men had gone to work and only the ladies and a few men were seen. When we reached a house a lady with a baby greeted us. There were many more dogs running around and that scared the “dog-phobic” people in our group. Some of the equipment had arrived and the wiring works in the houses were almost finished. The electricity from the common panel area is to reach the houses through UG cables. It is required to dig channels to lay the cables.Since none of the men were available to dig, the lot naturally fell on us. Some of the residents provided us the digging tools and there. The interesting part was that everybody got to dig!And some of us turned out to be quite talented “diggers”. Some others laboured to displaytheir “digging talents” which made a fairly lavish feast for our cameras!!Sometimes the heads of the shovels and the pick-axes dangerously came off while digging and tightening those using chunks of wood became another totally unavoidable job! So did drawing water from the well with a barely reachable rope! Later the hands got swollen and painful. The people in the area gave us water and lemonade and pickle. After sometime everybody got tired. We had actually thought we would miss lunch, but again the folks of the village came to our rescue. Tapioca with spicy chilli chutney… It was so spicy that our eyes watered and we gulped down tumblers and tumblers of water! After lunch, we went on a walk cum trekking cum hiking through the forest. We trudged along the paths and creeks and made our way through the bushes and thorns. It was fun and we took snaps. We had to catch the

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 35 bus at 3.00pm in order to reach hostel early. However, by the time we reached aanakulam, the bus had just left. We had to wait at the bus stop for another hour to catch the next bus. It was quite dark by the time we reached our hostel. The day turned out to be quite a memorable one. Hopefully, we will be able to finish the project soon enough and prove that it is possible for advancing technology to reach out to the common man. The humanitarian arm of technology has stroked the underprivileged layer of the society through the HTC of IEEE. Betsy Sebastian, IEEE Student Member, IEEE SB TKMCE When I was in my fifth semester, getting ready to step out into the world as an electrical engineer, looking back into the curriculum i was really sad. Only monotonous classes and labs, practical knowledge gained was very little. It was into this scenario, the IEEE HTC PROJECT was launched, an initiative from some students who didn’t want to pass out merely with the bookish knowledge. When the team members of HTC project came up with the idea of electrification of a rural village, the idea sounded pretty much simple. The students were always enthusiastic in narrating the day to day updates, right from the beginning, which had created an urge in me to visit the site. On Jan 22, 2011 I had the privilege of visiting the site as an onsite volunteer. At that time the wiring of all the houses were complete, two points were provided in each house. The next step was to lay the UG cable. The team members were making all arrangements such as digging pits for laying the cable etc. They also showed me all the equipments that were to be installed on the site. On visiting the site I was convinced that practical experiences must start from simple things. What I feel about the project is that ideas may sound simple when we merely talk about them, but making them reality needs great patience, sheer hard work, dedication and excellent teamwork.

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 36 Appendix 3: Photos of switch on ceremony The analysis of the project at the site Er. Amarnath Raja, Chairman, IEEE Humanitarian Adhoc committee, switching on the system

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 37 (clockwise) with the residents, Sreenivasan R, vice chairman, IEEE Kerala Section, Sasi P M, past Chairman, IEEE Kerala Section

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 38 The Team

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 39 Appendix 4: Photos Photos of onsite works The way leading to the site

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 40 Kerala Section EC members and others at the site during switch on ceremony The circuit elements

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 41

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 42 Appendix 5: Census Details Names Sex Age(in years) Kalen Podiyan Male 75 Radha Female 58 C Balan Male 45 Shyamala Female 40 Vineetha Female 24 Binu Male 22 Surendran Male 48 Valsala Female 36 Sindhu Female 11 School Student Surya Male 10 School Student Sreedharan Male 43 Vilasini Female 40 Rajeev Male 28 Sreekumaran Male 23 Kumar Male 24 Satyasheelan Male 37 Sandya Female 31 James George Male 48 Mercy George Female 43 Lincy Female 24 Student (Nursing) Lijo Male 26 Student (ITI)

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 43 Ghee Warghese Samuel Male 67 Chinamma Samuel Female 60

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 44 Appendix 6: Project team Sl. No. Name Committee College/ Designation 1 Jaison Abey Sabu Mentor SAC Kerala Section 2 Rayees Amar Nishad Mentor GOLD Chair, Kerala Section 3 Sankar R Project Head TKMCE 4 Hisham Jamal Steering coordinator TKMCE 5 Jery Altaf Technical Head CET 6 Sarath P Finance Head TKMCE 7 Deepthi Prabhu Documentation Head FISAT 8 Unnikrishnan V T EXECOM member TKMCE 9 Akshay M EXECOM member KMCT 10 Achala J S EXECOM member MBT 11 Faisal P S Technical member CET 12 Bipin T P Technical member TKMIT 13 Ajay K Technical member CET 14 Sera Selvin Documentation member FISAT 15 Bhavna S Nambissan Documentation member CEC 16 Sruthy S Documentation member MES 17 Akhil Vyshakh M T Finance member TKMCE 18 Anirudh Chandrachoodan on site volunteer CET 19 Akhil S Kumar on site volunteer CET 20 Sreevas S on site volunteer CET 21 Sarath N S on site volunteer CET 22 Imthiaz M on site volunteer CET 23 Hameem C Hamza on site volunteer CET 24 Sankar R on site volunteer CET 25 Betsy Sebastian on site volunteer TKMCE 26 Shana Moothedath on site volunteer TKMCE 27 Jothy Babu on site volunteer TKMCE 28 Amrutha M on site volunteer TKMCE 29 Annie Mariyam Elias on site volunteer TKMCE 30 Manjusha K P on site volunteer TKMCE 31 Arjun Pandian on site volunteer TKMCE 32 Jijith Roy V on site volunteer TKMCE 33 Jibin Vazhakkal on site volunteer TKMCE 34 Ashwin D on site volunteer TKMCE

IEEE LINK HTC PROJECT 2010-11 Page 45 35 Sujai Sudheeran on site volunteer TKMCE 36 Rijil Raveendranath on site volunteer TKMCE 37 Sajeev P on site volunteer TKMCE 38 Fadhil Sabah on site volunteer TKMCE 39 Shad Mohammed on site volunteer TKMCE 40 Salman Pooladan on site volunteer TKMCE 41 Vikas V on site volunteer TKMCE 42 Antony Joseph on site volunteer TKMCE 43 Anoop K on site volunteer TKMCE 44 Harsh Suresh on site volunteer TKMCE 45 Nikhil Das on site volunteer TKMCE 46 Arbin C on site volunteer TKMCE 47 Harisankar M A on site volunteer TKMCE 48 Nanditha Sundareshan on site volunteer TKMCE NB: TKMCE : IEEE SB T K M College of Engineering, Kollam CET : IEEE SB College of Engineering Trivandrum, Trivandrum TKMIT : IEEE SB T K M Institute of Technology, Kollam FISAT : IEEE SB Federal Institute of Science and Technology, Ernakulam MES : IEEE SB MES College of Engineering, Kuttipuram MBT : IEEE SB Mar Baselios College of Engineering and Technology, Trivandrum CEC : IEEE SB College of Engineering, Chengannur

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