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idruspresentation

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Education

Published on January 7, 2008

Author: Mentor

Source: authorstream.com

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7th QHES – RMIT Melbourne:  7th QHES – RMIT Melbourne TRANSFORMING QUALITY FOR DEVELOPMENT Nirwan Idrus SCOPE:  SCOPE My message Dilemmas and paradoxes in education and quality in developing countries Priorities in transforming quality for developing countries Conclusion MY MESSAGE:  MY MESSAGE We need to transform quality or the basic definition of quality into parts that synchronize with the priorities of developing countries, in order for them to adopt quality and improve themselves so that they can become an active and a proactive member of the global village. In the end, only by raising the quality of their education can they be called upon to contribute positively to the global improvement and quality of life throughout the world. QUALITY:  QUALITY We all know the ISO 9000 definition, and in DCs, it is best to keep to the succint definition There is a tendency in DCs to talk quality as being quality control It is important that we move directly into quality assurance, but not to TQM as TQM involves a much wider horizon that may not be present in DCs. Therefore needs to define quality as simply as possible Slide5:  PROCESS INPUT OUTPUT BASIC SYSTEM Slide6:  TEACHING & LEARNING PROCESS CURRICULUM TEACHER MATERIAL FACILITIES LEARNING –METHODOLOGY STUDENTS LEARNED GRADUATES QUALIFIED GRADUATES EDUCATED PEOPLE USEFUL AND PRODUCTIVE PEOPLE LEADERS, MANAGERS Quality Control:  Quality Control Process Process Input Output I Good Reject Rework Slide8:  TEACHING & LEARNING PROCESS CURRICULUM TEACHER MATERIAL FACILITIES LEARNING –METHODOLOGY STUDENTS LEARNED GRADUATES QUALIFIED GRADUATES EDUCATED PEOPLE USEFUL AND PRODUCTIVE PEOPLE LEADERS, MANAGERS E Quality Assurance:  Quality Assurance Process Input Output Feedback loop to improve process only CHALLENGES IN DCs:  CHALLENGES IN DCs Economy Dependency on “handouts” from overseas Wealth Distribution Poverty level Misdirected nationalism Low overall educational level Inequitable educational opportunities High population growth rates CHALLENGES (contd):  CHALLENGES (contd) Lack of access to education for the majority Archaic & anachronistic public policy and system Proliferation of abuse of public positions Poor understanding of and persistent refusal to recognize ethics and ethical issues Very low level of pro-activeness in the population POLITICAL SYSTEM:  POLITICAL SYSTEM Generally centralistic with a tinge of militarism  dictatorial Top down Public service/servants are the long arm of the ruling elite – no questions asked of instructions from the ruling elite Err on the customers’ side Positional promotion based on seniority rather than performance Pseudo democracy TECHNOLOGY UPTAKE:  TECHNOLOGY UPTAKE Slow  educational level; politics; financial Ownership paradigm vs Leasing paradigm  financial Infrastructure: electricity, communication At a time when technology determines the rates of advances of a country EMPOWERMENT:  EMPOWERMENT Political system discourages empowerment Misunderstanding of “empowerment” Fear of losing power when power is the source of financial as well as political success At a time when advances and innovation are determined by the amount of empowerment the people have When what’s required to ensure quality in higher education is::  When what’s required to ensure quality in higher education is: Empowerment 5 levels of empowerment in the education system: Government to institution (to the Vice-Chancellor) Vice-Chancellor to Deans Deans to Heads of Departments/Sections Heads to faculty/lecturers Faculty/lecturers to students EMPOWERMENT must::  EMPOWERMENT must: Involve the devolution of responsibility as well as the devolution of authority Otherwise like a coin without one of the sides?!?!? Herein lies the difficulty of empowerment in the political system previously mentioned SOME STATS:  SOME STATS 80% of the earth’s population are living in poverty 50% of HE students live in the DCs Teachers and lecturers in developing countries are under-qualified and poorly paid National budgets for education in DCs are generally less than 2% (c.f. 6% and more in developed countries) and in absolute terms DC’s budgets are much smaller than those in developed countries 70% of the Indonesian workforce are only Primary Schools graduates SOME STATS (contd):  SOME STATS (contd) In Indonesia there are 68 State HE institutions and more than 1200 private ones More than 70% of faculty at an Indonesian leading State university either have degrees from overseas universities or have spent more than three months at an overseas universities. Open Learning or Distance Education in DCs has not been as pervasive as expected. The ratio of households with internet connection to internet users in Indonesia is 1 to 4 Dilemmas and paradoxes in education and quality in developing countries:  Dilemmas and paradoxes in education and quality in developing countries QUALITY This concept originated in modern manufacturing but DCs are normally later participants in modern manufacturing The Myth that Quality = High costs while DCs are attempting only to survive from day to day Achievements in Quality are predicated on empowerment, while DCs will not now empower yet Dilemmas and paradoxes in education and quality in developing countries (contd):  Dilemmas and paradoxes in education and quality in developing countries (contd) The status of women in DCs is such that the majority of women do not participate in education and thus do not participate in quality improvement while observations have shown that women’s participation in many areas including education, has uplifted the quality of the areas that they are involved in. Globalization chases DCs to compete with the developed world in the latter’s terms, while DCs do not have the wherewithal and in fact have other more important priorities Dilemmas and paradoxes in education and quality in developing countries (contd 2):  Dilemmas and paradoxes in education and quality in developing countries (contd 2) EDUCATION DC governments cannot afford democracy while educating people makes them wish to be empowered and it is one best way for the country to survive The low level of education of the people to start with makes it challenging to educate them Dilemmas and paradoxes in education and quality in developing countries (contd 3):  Dilemmas and paradoxes in education and quality in developing countries (contd 3) For those DC governments that wish to educate their population, they do not have the resources to do so DCs have been left behind quite some way and therefore need to leapfrog to catch up, but they cannot afford the risk of the unknowns by leapfrogging Dilemmas and paradoxes in education and quality in developing countries (contd 4):  Dilemmas and paradoxes in education and quality in developing countries (contd 4) ALTERNATIVE LEARNING MODELS Distance Education (learning at a distance) Problem-based learning Competency-based learning ICT-based learning Etc. Slide24:  NEEDS ANALYSIS SYLLABUS DEVELOPMENT MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT MATERIAL PRODUCTION MATERIAL DELIVERY ASSIGNMENTS’ MANAGEMENT EXAMS’ MANAGEMENT GRADUATION AND POST GRADUATION MANAGEMENT Slide25:  NEEDS ANALYSIS SYLLABUS DEVELOPMENT MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT MATERIAL PRODUCTION MATERIAL DELIVERY ASSIGNMENTS’ MANAGEMENT EXAMS’ MANAGEMENT GRADUATION AND POST GRADUATION MANAGEMENT INTERNET I C T INCREASED EXPECTATIONS K-based Slide26:  INTERNET IHARDWARE SOFTWARE CONNECTION RECIPIENTS’ EQUIPMENT RECIPIENTS’ TECHNICAL EXPERTISE SIZE OF MATERIAL SENT/RECEIVED LOCAL RULES COMPATIBILITY Multiplicative nature:  Multiplicative nature Overall Performance = Product of the performances of the elements. Similarly with Quality QTotal = Q1 x Q2 x Q3 x Q4 PRIORITIES IN DCs RE:EDUCATION:  PRIORITIES IN DCs RE:EDUCATION Curriculum Faculty & their development Teaching and learning methodology Facilities Students Slide29:  PROBLEM DEFINITION STRUCTURING THE CURRICULUM IMPLEMEN-TATION AND EVALUATION MISSION STATEMENT INDUSTRY NEEDS SOCIETAL NEEDS PROFESSIONAL NEEDS DOMAIN KNOWLEDGE STUDENT CONSTRAINTS ACCREDITATION RESOURCES TEACHING & LEARNING METHODS ADVISORY BOARDS EXTERNAL EXAMINERS INDUSTRY FEEDBACK OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT EDUCATIONAL MASTER PLAN:  EDUCATIONAL MASTER PLAN Given all the conditions most DCs are under, a fitness for purpose (i.e. Quality) Educational Master Plan is required. STEPimmediate alleviation of all obstacles to access and elevation of the minimum education level MTEP more pervasive use of knowledge focusing on the areas of national strength and purpose LTEPcreation of and higher level use of knowledge CONCLUSION:  CONCLUSION Basic definition of Quality viz. fitness for purpose is potent in developing appropriate educational policy and practices in DCs The word Quality does not need to be used An Educational Master Plan can be developed based on appropriate quality requirements and measures that have been transformed into more appropriate language which is better understood by the population CONCLUSION (contd):  CONCLUSION (contd) Cultural and cross-cultural issues do not appear to influence the quality of education and educational policies Therefore, Quality is a management challenge that has to be solved by applying appropriate management tools and persuasion. This also applies in Higher Education

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