Published on February 14, 2014
IDENTIFYING EFFECTIVE POLICY TO ADDRESS THE MULTIPLE BURDENS OF MALNUTRITION A value chain approach Dr Corinna Hawkes Head of Policy and Public Affairs, WCRF International Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2) - Preparatory Technical Meeting, FAO, Rome 13-15 November 2013
Supporting more effective policy to prevent cancer and other NCDs 1. WE KNOW THE POLICIES & INTERVENTIONS AVAILABLE TO ADDRESS MALNUTRITION 2. WE KNOW THIS REQUIRES MULTI-SECTORAL ACTION – INCLUDING IN THE FOOD SYSTEM
Supporting more effective policy to prevent cancer and other NCDs 3. ONE WAY OF UNDERSTANDING THE FOOD SYSTEM IS AS FOOD SUPPLY CHAINS Inputs into production Crop breeders; extension services Food production Farmers, agricultural laborers, Primary food storage and processing Secondary food processing Food distribution, transport, and trade Food retailing and catering Food promotion and labeling Activities Packers, millers, crushers, refiners Processed foods manufacturers Importers, exporters, brokers, Informal retailers, supermarket chains, Advertising agencies Actors
Supporting more effective policy to prevent cancer and other NCDs 4. FOOD SUPPLY CHAINS, & THE POLICIES THAT AFFECT THEM, INFLUENCE DIETS – THE 3AS Agricultural policies Input policies Production policies Trade policies Influence on production Food Availability Food Affordability Food Acceptability Food consuming industries in the food supply chain & the policies that affect them Storage Primary processing Secondary processing Distribution Retail Marketing Influence on the consumer food environment Availability Affordability Diets Acceptability
Supporting more effective policy to prevent cancer and other NCDs 5. CONSUMER DIETS, & THE POLICIES DESIGNED TO IMPROVE THEM, INFLUENCE FOOD SUPPLY CHAINS BOTH SUPPLY AND DEMAND-SIDE DYNAMICS MATTER…. UP DOWN
Supporting more effective policy to prevent cancer and other NCDs 6. THERE ARE DIFFERENT INTERACTIONS IN TITLE HERE XXXXXXXXXXXXX SHORT & LONG CHAINS SECOND LINE FOR LONGER TITLES LONG CHAINS SHORT CHAINS ■ Longer, more complex, often ■ Rural areas in low/middle involving a number of steps income countries; Island “midstream” which lead to communities; local markets for significant transformations farmers; farm to school Agriculture ■ Blunts relationship – not ■ Able to transmit changes in always a direct link with Food production to consumers “agricultural production” consuming ■ Staples, legumes, fruits, ve industries ■ Commodities, processed getables foods, fruits & veg, fish etc Consumers ■ Focus on ■ Focus on private sector smallholder/family farmer
Supporting more effective policy to prevent cancer and other NCDs 7. “VALUE CHAINS” CAN HELP IDENTIFY FOOD SYSTEMS SOLUTIONS TO POOR DIETS Aim = to create value for actors in the chain to meet economic & social goals Analysis = how much “value” is created by & for the actors by the activities
Supporting more effective policy to prevent cancer and other NCDs 8. “VALUE CHAINS” ARE A KEY COMPONENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT LANDSCAPE • How can poor people in agriculture benefit more from supplying food? – increase efficiency between farmers & markets – greater involvement of farmers in value addition – participation in commercial … but value chain development supply chains in agriculture has generally not considered nutrition
9. VALUE CHAINS IDENTIFY LEVERAGE POINTS TO Crop breeders; extension services Inputs into production IMPROVE Activities DIETS THROUGHOUT THE FOOD SYSTEM Supporting more effective policy to prevent cancer and other NCDs Farmers, agricultural laborers, Food production Primary food storage and processing 3) Enables identification of Secondary food processing coordinated, multi-sectoral solutions which we know are Food distribution, transport, and trade needed to address malnutrition in all its forms Food retailing and catering Food promotion and labeling 1) Focus on creating value for nutrition through supply Food availability Packers, millers, crushers, refiners 4) Can help meet agricultural goals by identifying leverage Processed foods economic points wheremanufacturers value for agriculture and food system actors and valuebrokers, Importers, exporters, for nutrition can be created, where there is incoherence, and assess the Informal retailers, supermarket chains, trade-offs Advertising agencies Food affordability Diet Food acceptability 2) … and demand
Supporting more effective policy to prevent cancer and other NCDs 10. VALUE CHAIN APPROACHES SHOULD FOCUS ON SPECIFIC PROBLEMS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE TOTAL DIET
Example 1. Identifying policy actions to promote fruit intake in the Pacific Islands Supporting more effective policy to prevent cancer and other NCDs Source: Snowdon et al 2009
Example 2. Global policy incoherence in fats Supporting more effective policy to prevent cancer and other NCDs Input policies Research funding (e.g. Oil Palm Research Institute) Inputs into production Production policies Food production • • • • • Opening of new, degraded lands for cultivation Lower limits on plantation size Nucleus Estate Smallholder scheme Private sector investment World Bank investment in palm oil 1965 – 2007 US$ 1848.8 million; International Finance Corporation investment in palm oil in 1990-2007 = US$168.5 mill Primary food storage and processing Trade policies • • • Food distribution, transport, and trade Promotion of Investment Act Lower export taxes Low import tariffs Promotion policies Secondary food processing • Promotion of health benefits of palm oil Food retailing and catering Nutrition policies Food promotion and labeling • WHO recommendations to reduce saturated fat
Example 3. Trans fats policy in India Limited investment in domestic Supporting more effective policy to prevent cancer and other NCDs production of mustard/rapeseed, groundnut, saffl ower & sesame with healthier fatty acids profiles, but low cost palm oils favoured as trans fat replacement Food processing is a priority investment sector = incentives for food processors and increasing the affordability of processed foods HHH Vanaspati widely used by (priceconscious) street vendors. Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) proposed a regulation to set an upper limit of 10% trans fat in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils Source: Downs et al forthcoming
Example 4. Saturated fats policy in Singapore Supporting more effective policy to prevent cancer and other NCDs • Health Promotion Board wanted “Hawkers” to use less oils with less sat fat – but found resistance due to price disincentives • Invested in supply-side solutions research into reducing sat fat; logistics to improve efficiency of producers of lower sat fat oil • Despite success, existing relationships between hawkers and local suppliers impeded uptake; now assessing how to engage local markets Source: Ling, HPB
ACTING IN FOOD SYSTEMS ON THE BASIS OF VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS IS PART OF THE PACKAGE OF APPROACHES TO ADDRESSING MALNUTRITION THANK YOU For further information contact: Dr Corinna Hawkes Head of Policy and Public Affairs, WCRF International firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com @wcrfint @corinnahawkes facebook.com/wcrfint www.wcrf.org/policy_public_affairs youtube.com/wcrfint wcrf.org/blog
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