Published on March 21, 2014
Otzi Update November 2010 Nine hour autopsy took place. Early results issued June 2011
• Importance –scienAﬁc value • Age -‐ carbon daAng proved that he had lived some 5,300 years ago. • Also the 'wet' nature of the mummiﬁcaAon process • Rare case in which mummiﬁcaAon took place by dehydraAon before the body became embedded in glacier ice
• 2001 radiologist Paul Gostner idenAﬁed previous thought of shadowing as an arrow head (leP shoulder). • Since then a full CT (computed tomography) scan conﬁrmed that the arrowhead tore through a major artery. • Gostner also conﬁrmed that Ötzi received a blow to the head.
Death • Forensic evidence indicated that he was shot in the back by a distant assailant at a lower elevaAon. • He was then struck on the head and fell on his back, where he died. • Finally, the murderer rolled Ötzi onto his front, with his arm folded under his body, and tugged the arrow shaP from where it was lodged his back. • Arrow would have caused internal bleeding and a rapid, shock-‐related cardiac arrest.
Ötzi’s body and the evidence • Hand • LeP hand has a number of parAally healed deep cuts, likely inﬂicted several days before death. • self-‐defence wounds and suggest he was involved in conﬂict. • Supports in part Splinder’s disaster theory (1995). Had a ﬁght the valley and had ﬂed into the mountains and was in the process of fashioning a longbow and quiver when he was killed.
• around 46 years of age. • Good condiAon for a man of his era. • Eyes blue • Stomach appeared empty • over 50 taaoos, created by rubbing charcoal into ﬁne incisions. • Possibly a form of pain relief
• Forensic botany: • Forensic botany found thirty diﬀerent types of pollen in his intesAnes. • Time of death is now thought to be Spring -‐ evidence pollen from the ﬂowers of the hop hornbean tree. • In 1994 DNA analysis links him to the living inhabitants of central Europe.
But wait, new evidence has caused changes again!
Late 2009 • In 2009 Gostner suggested that they had confused the colon with the stomach. • A full stomach conﬂicted with the view that Otzi was ﬂeeing. • In the iniAal invesAgaAon of the body a large gash was made across the lower torso (The Austrian window).
In late 2010 using these entry points and new technologies a comprehensive autopsy took place.
The latest reconstrucAon of the Iceman
IniAal ﬁndings -‐ 2011 • Dark shadow in the skull an internal clot -‐ blow to the head from being hit or hieng the ground aPer being shot. • CT scan – arrow pieced a major artery death almost immediate. • Related to southern not central Europeans. • Chemical traces in his bones and teeth indicated he grew up northeast of Bolzano, possibly in the Isarco River Valley, and spent his adulthood in the Venosta Valley.
• Not ﬂeeing – had a large and leisurely meal resAng in a spot protected from the wind. • He was unaware of any danger. • ExaminaAon of genes now indicate he had brown hair and eyes. • ParAally healed hand injury, suggesAve of a defensive wound from an earlier ﬁght. • Earliest known human infected by the bug that causes Lyme disease. • Likely lactose intolerant.
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