Published on March 21, 2014
Review Ac)vity: 1. list as many artefacts of Iceman as you can (items of clothing and equipment) Be as detailed as you can. 2. What was the name of the Alps where Otzi was found?
Reconstruc)ng Iceman’s Iden)ty Based on the evidence we have on his body
How the body was preserved and not destroyed by the glacial ﬂow The body Step 1. Iceman and belongings fell in between rocks. These rocks created a crevice or trench which would later keep the Iceman and his artefacts from being pulled down into the glacier. Step 2. Body dried out in sun and wind Step 3. Later buried by 15 feet of snow and ice
The Body • Well preserved natural mummiﬁed body of a man. • Height 1’6 metres (5 ft 5 in), Age: 40 -53 (most believe 46) - determine by bone analysis. • Thin -50kgs, when found it was 38kgs
• Left arm strange position, head - pressure mark on back.This and scattered arrow parts - ice melted body & gear ﬂoated then re-iced • Ribs distorted - ﬁrst theory damaged before death - ﬁght? Later view - damaged done by ice pressure after death. Also, if this is correct body must moved after death.
• Hair - traces of arsenic & copper – First theory worked as a copper smelting. – How changed: copper traces from copper mosses on the rocks he laid on. • Stomach - remains of two meals, last 6 to 8 hours before death. • Meals - grains (bread), meat and fruits • Discovery of pollen of the hop- hornbeam proved that time of death – SPRING not Autumn.
Initial reconstruction: • Isotope analyses of hair indicated either a life long vegetarian or gained most of his protein from seafood - both unlikely. This understanding changed when meat was found in stomach
Tattoos Evidence • 57 • Some near or on acupuncture points. Initial interpretation: • Initially thought they had some religious signiﬁcance How our understanding has changed: • May have been treated for lymes disease or suffered from arthritis.
Wounds 2001, a second CAT scan revealed a arrowhead lodged in shoulder which had not been detected in the 1994 examination.
Defensive cuts Autopsy in 2002 found cuts on right hand, one deep.
Reconstruc)ng Iceman’s society 1. Watch the youtube clip. 2. Write down three sentences about what life was like for the Natuﬁans during the Stone Age 3. Think about Iceman’s clothing and equipment, what clues does it give us about the kind of society he came may have come from? From examining Iceman’s body and artefacts what can we learn about the society or village he may have come from?
Ini)al thoughts • He was a hiker, caught out by a storm • Found near a mountain pass between the North (modern day Austria) and the South (modern day Italy) • Could have come from a stone age seSlement close by • BUT: which direcVon was he headed? How did scienVsts work this out?
Where he came from New Evidence: Hop Hornbeam pollen found in gut, from a type of tree. InformaVon it revealed: He died in Spring. It only grows the Schnal & Vinschgau Vallies, south of the Alps. New Evidence: Two types of moss found on Icemans clothing; Neckera complanta and Anomodon vi2culosus InformaVon it revealed: Grew on rocks in shady woodlands, South of where he was found Based on the work of Klaus Ogle, archo-‐botanVst, University of Innsbruck Iceman probably came from a stone age village in Southern Italy
Ac)vi)es + Use the South Tyrol Museum Website to: 1. Find out the name of the cultural group that archaeologists think Iceman came from (evidence used to support this idea). 2. Find out the name of the village he may have come from (evidence used) 3. List three features of the society, economy and religion of Icemans village (evidence used)
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