Ice Navigation in the Northwest Passage

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Information about Ice Navigation in the Northwest Passage
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Published on November 6, 2007

Author: FunSchool

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Ice Navigation in the Northwest Passage :  Ice Navigation in the Northwest Passage Captain David Snider Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. OCEAN INNOVATION 2005 The Northwest Passage:  Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. The Northwest Passage Specialized Skills:  Specialized Skills “The navigation of the Polar seas, which is peculiar, requires in a particular manner, an extensive knowledge of the nature, properties and usual motions of the ice, and it can only be performed to the best advantage by those who have long experience with working a ship in icy conditions.” - William Scoresby 1820 Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. Then and Now:  Then and Now First complete transit Gjoa over 2 ½ years 1905 RCMP St Roch 2 years M/T Manhattan 1969 Transits today 6 complete transits per year Several dozen Vessels within Canadian Arctic Waters in a given summer day Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. Slide5:  Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. Polar Star Ioffe Maria Desgagnes Clipper Adventurer Kelly Ovayuak Federal Fuji Jim Kilabuk Umiavut Smit Sakhalin Tuvaq Mirai Lady Franklin Canadian Evolution:  Canadian Evolution 1800’s and before – Ice Master 1970’s Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act and Regulations Predominantly dealt with hardware 1995 Ice Navigator Paper Predominantly skills and knowledge 1995 Joint Industry Guidelines Eastern Canada General Requirements for tank vessels in ice covered waters.. Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. Ice Navigator Skills and Knowledge:  Ice Navigator Skills and Knowledge Knowledge and understanding of ice physics Able to identity ice types and forms glacial and multi-year ice Ability to visually interpret conditions in vicinity of vessel signs of ice in the vicinity Ability to interpret the various ice imagery, charts and reports that are available Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. Ice Navigator Skills and Knowledge:  Ice Navigator Skills and Knowledge Understand the interaction of weather conditions, currents and ice Knowledge of the prevailing conditions that to be expected at particular periods of transit. Combine specialized knowledge with the more traditional aspects of passage planning develop the most effective and safe routing under dynamic conditions. Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. Ice Navigator Skills and Knowledge:  Ice Navigator Skills and Knowledge Knowledge of vessel limitations based on ice class Limitations based on power, hull strengthening & manoeuvrability Restrictions on ability to approach, enter and proceed within an arctic ice regime safely Skilled at avoiding besetment and freeing beset ship Skilled at handling a damaged ship Complete understanding of operations with icebreakers, the requirements & communications necessary Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. Regulations and Guidelines Specifying Ice Navigator/Advisor Requirements:  Regulations and Guidelines Specifying Ice Navigator/Advisor Requirements Canadian Arctic Shipping Pollution Prevention Regulations IMO Guidelines for Ships Operating in Arctic Ice Covered Waters Joint Industry – Coast Guard Guidelines for the Control of Oil Tankers and Bulk Chemical Carriers in Ice Control Zones of Eastern Canada (JIGS) Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. Ice Navigator Requirements:  Ice Navigator Requirements CASPPR Definition Ice Navigator “(a) be qualified to act as a master or person in charge of the deck watch in accordance with regulations made pursuant to the Canada Shipping Act; and (b) have served on a ship in the capacity of master or person in charge of the deck watch for a total period of at least 50 days, of which 30 days must have been served in Arctic waters while the ship was in ice conditions that required the ship to be assisted by an ice-breaker or to make manoeuvres to avoid concentrations of ice that might have endangered the ship.” Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. Ice Navigator Requirements:  Ice Navigator Requirements CASPPR Carriage Requirement Any tanker transiting Canadian Arctic waters Any vessel other than a tanker selecting to operate using Arctic Ice Regime Reporting System rather than CASPPR Zone Date Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. Ice Navigator Requirements:  Ice Navigator Requirements IMO Definition Ice Navigator Ice Navigator to “have documentary evidence of having satisfactorily completed an approved training program in ice navigation.” Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. Ice Navigator Requirements:  Ice Navigator Requirements IMO Carriage Requirement “all ships operating in Arctic ice-covered water should carry at least one Ice Navigator” Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. Ice Navigator Requirements:  Ice Navigator Requirements JIGS Definition Ice Advisor “must have a certificate of competency valid in Canadian waters, be medically fit and have sailed as Master or Senior Watchkeeping Officer or Ice Advisor during the last five year period, while making at least 6 one way trips, totalling a minimum 15 days experience navigating ice covered waters that required the ship to make extraordinary manoeuvres or to be assisted by an icebreaker.” Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. Ice Navigator Requirements:  Ice Navigator Requirements IMO Carriage Requirement “all ships operating in Arctic ice-covered water should carry at least one Ice Navigator” Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. Ice Advisor Model:  Ice Advisor Model Common Practice in Winter Navigation off Canada’s East Coast Ice Advisor Required by JIGs on Tankers when Ice Control Zones in effect Most others ships contract Ice Advisors for ice transit Shipping Federation of Canada publishes annual list of approved Advisors Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. Ice Advisor Model:  Ice Advisor Model Ice Advisor must meet specific skill &experience requirements Hired as supernumerary officer, adjunct to regular bridge team Remains with vessel throughout ice transit Arrives with latest ice and met information Familiar with local needs and requirements Educates Bridge Team Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. Ice Advisor Model:  Ice Advisor Model More cost efficient than trying to maintain necessary skills and knowledge in regular crew Provides higher level of experience and ability Ice Advisor responsible for maintaining skill and not knowledge, not ship owner/operator Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. Skill Development:  Skill Development Years to develop sound skill and knowledge base Practical experience in Arctic ice conditions Training to develop fundamental knowledge Simulators to assist skill development Simulators improving but not yet replacement for experience in ice Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. Enfotec/Philosoft Transas Continuing Challenges - Ice Environment:  Continuing Challenges - Ice Environment Glacial Ice in Davis Strait, Baffin Bay and Lancaster Sound Multi-year Ice throughout Archipelago Old Ice in McClure Strait, Beaufort Sea Changing Conditions year to year. Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. Animation Credit: T. Agnew Continuing Challenges - Ice Choke Points :  Continuing Challenges - Ice Choke Points Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. Peel Sound McClintock Channel Simpson Strait McClure Strait Dolphin & Union Strait Beaufort Sea Continuing Challenges - Charts and Charting:  Continuing Challenges - Charts and Charting Adjoining charts with different datums Some surveys date to 1800’s Sporadic soundings in some areas Track line soundings Chart projections such as polar gnomonic still in use CHS doing best to modernise Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. Continuing Challenges - Local Infrastructure:  Continuing Challenges - Local Infrastructure Remote Area Small villages (populations generally less than 1000) All served by fixed wing A/C Only two alongside berths capable of berthing large vessels Little Cornwallis Island Nanisivik Both ex mine sites Limited fuel sources Limited resupply Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. Continuing Challenges - Emergency Support:  Continuing Challenges - Emergency Support No commercial pollution response companies Virtually no repair facilities between Baffin Bay and Dutch Harbor Limited tow support Extremely limited medevac support CCG icebreakers if in vicinity fill emergency support roles Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. Thing of the Past Hanseatic Aground Conclusions:  Conclusions The Northwest Passage will continue to remain a navigational challenge for the foreseeable future. The skills necessary to ensure a safe and efficient transit take years to develop over numerous encounters with polar ice conditions. Modern simulators are gaining in capability, but as yet cannot replace actual time in ice covered waters. Transiting of the Northwest Passage is a “come as you are” voyage, as support facilities are virtually nonexistent. The Ice Advisor Model, where mariners that possess the skills and experience necessary to ensure safe navigation through the Northwest Passage are brought onboard when required is the most economical way to achieve safe and efficient transit. Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d. Ice Navigation in the Northwest Passage:  Ice Navigation in the Northwest Passage Captain David Snider Martech Polar C o n s u l t I n g L t d.

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