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Published on January 16, 2008

Author: Dorotea

Source: authorstream.com

Sub-Saharan Africa is a Dark Zone for World Internet: Sounding an Alarm:  Sub-Saharan Africa is a Dark Zone for World Internet: Sounding an Alarm Prepared by: Les CottrellSLAC, presented by Warren MatthewsGATech Presented at the “Supporting International Collaborations in Emerging Research and Education Networks” SIG at the Internet2 Members Winter meeting, Chicago December 6, 2006 http://www.slac.stanford.edu/grp/scs/net/talk06/i2-dec06.ppt PingER:  PingER PingER project originally (1995) for measuring network performance for US, Europe and Japanese HEP community Extended this century to measure Digital Divide: Collaboration with ICTP Science Dissemination Unit http://sdu.ictp.it ICFA/SCIC: http://icfa-scic.web.cern.ch/ICFA-SCIC/ Monitor ~30 African countries (~25 sub-Sahara), contain ~75% African population ~120 countries (99% world’s connected population) ~30 monitor sites in 14 countries World Measurements: Min RTT from US:  World Measurements: Min RTT from US Maps show increased coverage Min RTT indicates best possible, i.e. no queuing >600ms probably geo-stationary satellite Between developed regions min-RTT dominated by distance Little improvement possible Only a few places still using satellite for international access, mainly Africa & Central Asia 2000 2006 Effect of Losses:  Effect of Losses Losses critical, cause multi-second timeouts Typically depend on a bad link, so ~distance independent > 4-6% video-conf irritating, non-native language speakers unable to communicate > 4-5% irritating for interactive telnet, X windows >2.5% VoIP annoying every 30 seconds or so Burst losses of > 1% slightly annoying for VoIP Loss by country weighted by population of country Note increased coverage Unreachability:  Unreachability All pings of a set fail ≡ unreachable Shows fragility, ~ distance independent Developed regions US, Canada, Europe, Oceania, E Asia lead Factor of 10 improvement in 8 years Africa, S. Asia followed by M East & L. America worst off Africa NOT improving US & Canada Europe E Asia C Asia SE Europe SE Asia S Asia Oceania Africa L America M East Russia Developed Regions Developing Regions World thruput seen from US:  World thruput seen from US Behind Europe 6 Yrs: Russia, Latin America 7 Yrs: Mid-East, SE Asia 10 Yrs: South Asia 11 Yrs: Cent. Asia 12 Yrs: Africa South Asia, Central Asia, and Africa are in Danger of Falling Even Farther Behind Throughput ~ 1460Bytes / (RTT*sqrt(loss)) (Mathis et al) Divide within Divide: Latin America:  Divide within Divide: Latin America Brazil Alberto Santoro Africa:Satellites vs Terrestrial:  Africa:Satellites vs Terrestrial Terrestrial links via SAT3 & SEAMEW (Mediterranean, Red Sea) Terrestrial not available to all within countries PingER min-RTT measurements from S. African TENET monitoring station EASSy fibre for E. Africa Will it share sorry experience of SAT3 for W. Africa? Mike Jensen, Paul Hamilton TENET, S. Africa Satellite $/Mbps 300-1000x fibre costs Routing from S Africa:  Routing from S Africa Seen from TENET Cape Town ZA Only Botswana & Zimbabwe are direct Most go via Europe or USA Wastes costly international bandwidth Need IXPs in Africa Africa: Fibre Links Future:  Africa: Fibre Links Future SAT-3 shareholders such as Telecom Namibia, which has no landing point of its own find it cheaper to use satellite Will EASSy follow suit? Another option to EASSy: since Sudan and Egypt are now connected via fibre, and the link will shortly extend to Ethiopia, there are good options for both Kenya and Uganda/Rwanda and Tanzania to quickly link to the backbones via this route SAT3 connects eight countries on the W coast of the continent to Europe and the Far East. Operating as a cartel of monopoly state-owned telecommunication providers, prices have barely come down since it began operating in 2002 Mike Jensen Costs compared to West:  Costs compared to West Sites in many countries have bandwidth< US residence “10 Meg is Here”, www.lightreading.com/document.asp?doc_id=104415 Africa: $5460/Mbps/m W Africa $8K/Mbps/m N Africa $520/Mbps/m Often cross-country cost dominates cf. international 1 yr of Internet access > average annual income of most Africans, Survey by Paul Budde Communnications Overall (Aug 06):  Overall (Aug 06) ~ Sorted by Average throughput Within region performance better (black ellipses) Europe, N. America, E. Asia generally good M. East, Oceania, S.E. Asia, L. America acceptable C. Asia, S. Asia poor, Africa bad (>100 times worse) Monitored Country UNDP Human Development Index (HDI):  UNDP Human Development Index (HDI) A long and healthy life, as measured by life expectancy at birth Knowledge, as measured by the adult literacy rate (with two-thirds weight) and the combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio (with one-third weight) A decent standard of living, as measured by GDP per capita. Africa PingER - Strong Correlation - Non subjective - Quicker / easier to update Med. & Africa vs HDI:  Med. & Africa vs HDI N. Africa has 10 times poorer performance than Europe Croatia has 13 times better performance than Albania Israel has 8 times better performance than rest of M East Med. Countries E. Africa poor, limited by satellite access W. Africa big differences, some (Senegal) can afford SAT3 fibre others use satellite Great diversity between & within regions Scenario Cases:  Scenario Cases 4. Sep 05, international fibre to Pakistan fails for 12 days, satellite backup can only handle 25% traffic, call centres given priority. Research & Education sites cut off from Internet for 12 days Heloise Emdon, Acacia Southern Africa UNDP Global Meeting for ICT for Development, Ottawa 10-13 July 3. Primary health care giver, somewhere in Africa, with sonar machine, digital camera and arrangement with national academic hospital and/or international health institute to assist in diagnostics. After 10 dial-up attempts, she abandons attempts to connect School in a secondary town in an East Coast country with networked computer lab spends 2/3rds of its annual budget to pay for the dial-up connection. Disconnects 2. Telecentre in a country with fairly good connectivity has no connectivity The telecentre resorts to generating revenue from photocopies, PC training, CD Roms for content. Conclusions:  Conclusions Last mile problems, and network fragility Decreasing use of satellites, expensive, but still needed for many remote countries in Africa and C. Asia Africa ~ 10 years behind and falling further behind, leads to “information famine” E. Africa factor of 100 behind Europe EASSy project will bring fibre to E. Africa, hopefully better access than SAT3 Africa big target of opportunity Growth in # users 2000-2005 200%, Africa 625% Need more competitive pricing Fibre competition, government divest for access, low cost VSAT licenses Consortiums to aggregate & get better pricing ($/BW reduces with BW) Need better routing - IXPs Need training & skills for optimal bandwidth management Internet performance correlates strongly with UNDP development indices Increase coverage of monitoring to understand Internet performance More information/Questions:  More information/Questions Acknowledgements: Harvey Newman and ICFA/SCIC for a raison d’etre, ICTP for contacts and education on Africa, Mike Jensen for Africa information, NIIT/Pakistan, Maxim Grigoriev (FNAL), Warren Matthews (GATech) for ongoing code development for PingER, USAID MoST/Pakistan for development funding, SLAC for support for ongoing management/operations support of PingER PingER www-iepm.slac.stanford.edu/pinger, sdu.ictp.it/pinger/africa.html Human Development http://www.gapminder.org/ Role of Internet Exchanges event-africa-networking.web.cern.ch/event%2Dafrica%2Dnetworking/workshop/slides/The%20Role%20of%20Internet%20Exchanges.ppt Case Studies: https://confluence.slac.stanford.edu/display/IEPM/Sub-Sahara+Case+Study http://sdu.ictp.it/lowbandwidth/program/case-studies/index.html

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