I OnGuard

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Information about I OnGuard

Published on March 4, 2008

Author: Julie

Source: authorstream.com

OnGuard: Protecting America’s Food System:  OnGuard: Protecting America’s Food System Slide2:  An affiliation of land- and sea-grant professionals reducing the impact of disasters through education. Food!:  Food! It’s Everywhere…:  It’s Everywhere… Sometimes We Take Food for Granted!:  Sometimes We Take Food for Granted! Sometimes We Don’t:  Sometimes We Don’t Bob McMillan/ FEMA Photo - From Hurricane Katrina Take a Few Minutes…:  Take a Few Minutes… Why do we eat? Why is food important? What does food mean to you? Your family? Pair and then “share” your thoughts… Slide8:  Sustains life Growth Defines our culture Conclusion 1 2 3 4 Part of holidays, celebrations Food… What else?:  What else? Economic importance of food “Comfort” food Other? Think About all of the Things That Must Happen…:  Think About all of the Things That Must Happen… To create an egg. To get a bowl of fruit cocktail onto your table. To prepare a meal of meatloaf, potatoes, and a fresh, green vegetable. Slide11:  Transport Storage Areas Processors Distribution System Farm and Input supplier Retail grocer or restaurant Small Group Assignment – Groups of 3-5:  Small Group Assignment – Groups of 3-5 Consider one or two specific food items from a memorable meal. It could be today’s breakfast. It could be a recent special event like a birthday dinner or holiday gathering. Draw out a simple diagram or picture to show how your food item originated and how it got to your plate. Consider These Things::  Consider These Things: Where was the food produced or grown? Where and how did it travel? Who produced it? Who transported it? Who processed it? Who sold it to you? Who cooked it? How many people did this whole process take? Wrap Up Point #1:  Wrap Up Point #1 Our food system is vital to sustain life, yet we take it for granted. While our system is rather amazing, we will next see why the system is vulnerable and the things you can do to protect yourself. Potential Threats to our Food System :  Potential Threats to our Food System Food Safety Risks:  Food Safety Risks Preventing the risk of foodborne illness. “Protecting the food supply from microbial, chemical, and physical, hazards or contamination that may occur during all stages of food production and handling-growing, harvesting, processing, transporting, preparing, distributing and storing.” Dr. Paul Mead and his Colleagues at the CDC: :  Dr. Paul Mead and his Colleagues at the CDC: “We estimate that foodborne diseases cause approximately 76 million illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths in the U.S. Slide18:  Deaths Due to Foodborne Illness Salmonella Listeria Toxoplasmosis Norwalk-like Campylobacter E. coli 0157 Other 31.0% 28.0% 21.0% 7.0% 5.0% 3.0% 5.0% Where Do Microbes Come From?:  Where Do Microbes Come From? Mead, et al, Emerging Infectious Diseases 1999:5(5); 607-625 How do These Numbers Compare With Other Significant Risks We Face?:  How do These Numbers Compare With Other Significant Risks We Face? Heart Disease: 696,947 Cancer: 557,271 Stroke: 162,672 Chronic lower respiratory diseases: 124,816 Accidents (unintentional injuries): 106,742 Diabetes: 73,249 Influenza/Pneumonia: 65,681 Alzheimer's disease: 58,866 Nephritis and other kidney diseases: 40,974 Septicemia: 33,865 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics – Leading causes of death in U.S. in 2002 We Will Talk More About Foodborne Illness Prevention in a Few Minutes:  We Will Talk More About Foodborne Illness Prevention in a Few Minutes Intentional Threats to Our Food System:  Intentional Threats to Our Food System Seems unreal. We learned much after 9/11. Tommy Thompson – December 2004:  Tommy Thompson – December 2004 “For the life of me, I cannot understand why the terrorists have not attacked our food supply because it is so easy to do,” In the Caves of Afghanistan :  In the Caves of Afghanistan Military found interest in food by the terrorists: Agricultural/food issues – 700 translated animal and plant disease documents and journal articles were recovered. Most of Us Wonder Why?:  Food system – MAJOR economic impact Potential major public health concerns A potential tool to instill fear, panic Conclusion 1 2 3 4 Food system symbolic to U.S. citizens Most of Us Wonder Why? Lessons from History:  Lessons from History Poisoning water supplies, food storage Attacks on crops, animals Using manure and viper venom as a bioweapon Hurling corpses over fortress walls Using catapults to launch hornet nests, beehives, and pots of scorpions History:  History In our more recent history, agriculture and food was targeted by countries including the U.S. WWII – Germany: Experimented with FMD, late blight, wheat rusts, Colorado beetle (1944) 1940-50’s Soviet Union developed and stockpiled anti-agriculture weapons U.S. program in (1941-42) Newcastle, fowl plague, FMD, hog cholera, rice blast, cereal stem rust, wheat scab, late blight The U.S. Program:  The U.S. Program Our programs expanded during Korean War (1950-53) and during the Cold War. 30,000 kilos of wheat stem rust spores stockpiled, 1951-69 1 ton of rice blast spores developed, 1966 Other crop targets: soybeans, sugar beets, sweet potatoes, cotton 1969, Richard Nixon closed the American offensive biological warfare program First “Documented” Attack on our Food in Recent History:  First “Documented” Attack on our Food in Recent History Michigan Hamburger Contamination – Jan 2003:  Michigan Hamburger Contamination – Jan 2003 Former grocery store worker poisoned 250 pounds of ground beef with insecticide. 148 people made ill. Randy Jay Bertram, 39, of Byron Center, pleaded guilty to a charge of poisoning food with the intent to cause serious bodily injury. Prosecutors described him as a disgruntled employee. Contaminated Cattle Feed in Wisconsin:  Contaminated Cattle Feed in Wisconsin The Wisconsin Experience:  The Wisconsin Experience Rendered products contaminated with chlordane Supplied to large feed manufacturer and to ~4,000 farms in four states Milk and products from farms contaminated $4 million to dispose of products – 4,000 tons of feed, 500,000 pounds of fat. Total cost >$250 million. Who did it? Note: Incident at Ntl. By-Products, rendering plant supplying product to Purina Mills Wrap Up Point #2:  Wrap Up Point #2 Despite having a bountiful and overall, a very safe food system, we do have some challenges. They are: Unintentional foodborne illnesses, which are very preventable. The possible threat of an intentional attack to our food system. Optional Activity:  Optional Activity Pick one of the three cases just covered and investigate or discuss further. What were the specific outcomes? What were the motives? What are the specific things that prevented these incidents from being larger issues? What do you think we have learned from these incidents that is helpful for the future? So What Do We Do? :  So What Do We Do? Food Safety & Food Defense:  Food Industry Our Government You Food Safety & Food Defense The Food Industry:  The Food Industry Some powerful motivations. Huge money spent on brand loyalty. It’s hard to win customers back if things go bad! Optional Activity:  Optional Activity Visit a local food processor, retailer, or food service company (like a local restaurant). Find out what they do to protect people from foodborne illness. Find out what they do to protect people from an intentional attack to the food system/supply. Government’s Role in the Partnership:  Food Industry Our Government You Government’s Role in the Partnership Government – HSPD #9:  Government – HSPD #9 The United States agriculture and food systems are vulnerable… America’s agriculture and food system is an extensive, open, interconnected, diverse, and complex structure providing potential targets for terrorist attacks. We should provide the best protection possible against a successful attack on the United States agriculture and food system, which could have catastrophic health and economic effects. Many New Regulations and Industry Guidance Initiatives:  Many New Regulations and Industry Guidance Initiatives FDA Regulations All food processors must be registered. Processors must carefully track all imported foods and ingredients. Food industries must keep records. FDA has new authorities to step in if something occurs. USDA/FSIS Works in partnership with FDA. Guidelines for security in industry Many existing regulations to protect meat, poultry, eggs, and other products Other Agencies Working on Very Complicated Issue!:  Other Agencies Working on Very Complicated Issue! Bananas Cheese Grains Cocoa Oils Seafood Vegetables Juices Fresh Meat Processed Meat Spices Optional Activity:  Optional Activity Review one of the food security guidance checklists from USDA-FSIS or FDA. What are the major areas of concern that food companies work to protect? What are some of the specific challenges they face? Why is it crucial for all people working within a food company and within the “food system” that they are connected with to be working as team members? Your Role as a Consumer:  Food Industry Our Government You Your Role as a Consumer Good News!!:  Good News!! The things we do to protect ourselves from UNINTENTIONAL foodborne illness are also protective against INTENTIONAL hazards. Some Examples…:  Some Examples… Cooking to the correct temperature destroys many known “biological” agents of concern. Washing fresh fruits and vegetables. Storing foods properly and securely minimizes their potential exposure to someone who might wish to cause harm. Reporting products that appear “out of the ordinary” (strange appearance, odor, color, etc.) Slide47:  Clean hands, food-contact surfaces, fruits and vegetables. Recommendation 1: CLEAN Slide48:  Wash Your Hands! Handwashing is the most effective way to stop the spread of illness. How to Wash Hands:  How to Wash Hands Wet hands with WARM water. Soap and scrub for 20 seconds. Rinse under clean, running water. Dry completely using a clean cloth or paper towel. Clean During Food Preparation:  Clean During Food Preparation Wash cutting boards, knives, utensils and counter tops with hot soapy water after preparing each food and before going on to the next. Avoid Spreading Bacteria:  Avoid Spreading Bacteria Use paper towels or clean cloths to wipe up kitchen surfaces or spills. Wash cloths often in the hot cycle of your washing machine and dry in a hot dryer. Recommendation 2: SEPARATE:  Recommendation 2: SEPARATE Separate raw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foods while shopping, preparing or storing foods. Recommendation 3: COOK:  Recommendation 3: COOK Cook foods to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms. Chicken and Turkey:  Chicken and Turkey Cook chicken and turkey (whole birds, legs, thighs & wings) to 165 degrees F. Ham:  Ham A "cook before eating" ham should reach 160 degrees F. To reheat a fully-cooked ham, heat it to 140 degrees F. Ground Meats:  Ground Meats Cook hamburger, ground beef and other ground meats to 160 degrees F and ground poultry to 165 degrees F. Leftovers:  Leftovers Reheat leftovers until a temperature of 165 degrees F is reached throughout the product. Egg Dishes:  Cook egg dishes such as quiche to 160 degrees F. Egg Dishes Beef, Lamb & Veal Steaks:  Beef, Lamb & Veal Steaks Cook beef, lamb and veal steaks and roasts to 160 degrees F for medium doneness (145 degrees F for medium rare). The ONLY way to know food has been cooked to a safe internal temperature is to use a food thermometer! :  The ONLY way to know food has been cooked to a safe internal temperature is to use a food thermometer! Recommendation 4: CHILL:  Recommendation 4: CHILL Chill (refrigerate) perishable foods promptly and defrost foods properly. The TWO-Hour Rule:  The TWO-Hour Rule Refrigerate perishable foods so TOTAL time at room temperature is less than TWO hours or only ONE hour when temperature is above 90 degrees F. Perishable foods include: Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, tofu Dairy products Pasta, rice, cooked vegetables Fresh, peeled/cut fruits and vegetables DANGER ZONE:  DANGER ZONE Bacteria multiply rapidly between 40 and 140 degrees F. A math quiz:  A math quiz How many bacteria will grow from 1 BACTERIA left at room temperature 7 hours? Bacteria numbers can double in 20 minutes! Answer: 2,097,152!:  Answer: 2,097,152! Refrigerate perishable foods within TWO hours. How About “Defending” Yourself Against the Threat of Intentional Food System Threats?:  How About “Defending” Yourself Against the Threat of Intentional Food System Threats? All of the Same Principles Apply!!:  All of the Same Principles Apply!! Report Possible Food Tampering :  Report Possible Food Tampering Carefully examine all food product packaging. Be aware of the normal appearance of food containers. That way you’ll be more likely to notice if an outer seal or wrapper is missing. Compare a suspect container with others on the shelf. Prompt Action is a Key!:  Prompt Action is a Key! If something does occur, prompt action by you, the consumer can save lives! Report unusual characteristics of meat, poultry, and egg products to local health agency, the USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline at 1-888-MPHotline (1-888-674-6854), or if appropriate, law enforcement. Additional Steps to Take:  Additional Steps to Take Save packaging materials. Write down the food type, the date, other identifying marks on the package, the location and store where the food was purchased, the time consumed, and when symptoms occurred. Seek treatment as necessary or immediately if in an at-risk group (the young, elderly, or ill). If symptoms persist call your doctor immediately. Call your local health department if the suspect food was served at a large gathering, from a restaurant or other food service facility, or if it is a commercial product. Optional Activity:  Optional Activity Review additional food tampering guidelines from FDA. Review the two cases that follow. Discuss the measures in place to protect consumers and the important steps consumers should take. Case Study #1:  Case Study #1 Debbie shops at a popular local seafood market that brings in fresh fish from around the world every morning. As she is getting ready to grill some fresh Red Snapper that was flown in from New Zealand, she notices a large round “puncture” hole in one of the thick fish filets. Debbie suspects that it is from a large (thick) needle. What should she do? What safeguards are in place to protect us from somebody injecting something bad into imported fish? Case Study #2:  Case Study #2 Bob and his family run a small dairy farm operation in the rural northeastern U.S. Early in the morning, after milking, Bob is cleaning up and notices several empty brown bags beside one of the feed bins near the barn. He quickly investigates. The bags are piled together and a empty pesticide bags. What should he do? What are some of the potential consequences? Also – For the People in our Audience Who Are Farmers…:  Also – For the People in our Audience Who Are Farmers… Slide75:  transport storage fuel labor water seed chemicals feed $$$ info Prevention - Biosecurity:  Prevention - Biosecurity Identify and secure vulnerable “nodes” Keep out harmful agents Hygiene (people, equipment, clothing) Regulate visitors Animal protocols (like quarantines) Focus on workers and their role Wrap Up Point #3 – It Takes a Team!!:  Food Industry Our Government You Wrap Up Point #3 – It Takes a Team!! Finally…:  Finally… Are You Ready?? As We Saw in Hurricane Katrina…:  As We Saw in Hurricane Katrina… Food and water was an issue!! Generally, it is assumed that citizens are the first line of defense. We must all plan to be “pioneers” for at least three days. While that’s frightening to think about, YOU are in the best position to help yourself in times of acute emergency in many cases. Preparedness can be a GREAT activity to bring families together! Guidelines from the American Red Cross and Department of Homeland Security:  Guidelines from the American Red Cross and Department of Homeland Security 3-day food and water supply. Purchase food that requires no refrigeration, cooking, water, or special preparation. Remember to include infant formula, pet food, and foods for family members with special dietary needs. Have a manually operated can opener on hand. Periodically use and refresh your supply. Store it in a safe spot, in a sealed container, away from animals. Optional Activity:  Optional Activity Review information from FEMA and the Red Cross related to a family emergency kit. Discuss the barriers and challenges in putting together a kit. Make a commitment or promise to others in your small group about assembling a kit. Set a date or deadline for your family to develop a kit. Questions? Comments? Discussion?:  Questions? Comments? Discussion? Photo and Slide Credits:  Photo and Slide Credits Select images and/or photos on this page are the copyrighted property of Jupiter Images, Inc. and are being used with permission under license. These images and/or photos may not be copied for use in other materials without permission from Jupiter Images, Inc. Select images from FEMA, www.fema.gov Select images from USDA, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Photo Unit (http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/graphics/photos/) and the USDA Online Photo Center (http://www.usda.gov/oc/photo/opclibra.htm) PowerPoint template(apple and corn template) used with permission under paid license from PoweredTemplates. Thank you to the Iowa State University Center for Food Security and Public Health for use of select materials. Select food safety education materials used with permission and developed originally by Alice Henneman, Extension Educator University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension. Cave images used with permission from University of Georgia, College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, Office of Global Programs. Global food image used with permission by the University of Minnesota’s National Center for Food Protection and Defense.

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