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Hyphens &dashes(1)

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Information about Hyphens &dashes(1)
Education

Published on March 14, 2014

Author: Mffna

Source: slideshare.net

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 Use hyphen to divide a word or to form a compound. Raimes, A., & Miller-Cochran, S. K. (2014). Keys for writers. Boston: Wadsworth Pub Co.

 Many word with prefixes are spelled without hyphens: cooperate, nonrestrictive, unnatural.  Others are hyphenated: all-inclusive, anti- intellectual, self-effecting.  Always, use a hyphen when the main word is a number or a proper noun: all- American, post-2010.  If you are unsure about whether to insert hyphen after a prefix, check a big dictionary to see if it lists the word as hyphenated. Raimes, A., & Miller-Cochran, S. K. (2014). Keys for writers. Boston: Wadsworth Pub Co.

 Some compound nouns are written as one word (toothbrush),  others as two words (coffee shop),  and still others with one or more hyphen(role-playing, father-in-law).  Always check an up-to-data dictionary. Similarly, check a dictionary for compound verbs(Cross-examine, overemphasize). Raimes, A., & Miller-Cochran, S. K. (2014). Keys for writers. Boston: Wadsworth Pub Co.

 Preceding a noun: a well-organized party, a law-abiding citizen, a ten-page essay.  When the modifier follows the noun, no hyphen is necessary:  The party was well organized.  Most citizens try to be law abiding.  The essay was ten pages long. Raimes, A., & Miller-Cochran, S. K. (2014). Keys for writers. Boston: Wadsworth Pub Co.

 Do not insert a hyphen between an- ly adverb and the word it modifies or often an adjectives in its comparative(-er) or superlative (-est) form:  a tightly fitting suit, an expertly written essay, a sweeter sounding melody.  Treat a series of hyphenated prefixes like this:  A verdict of either first- or second- degree murder was expected. Raimes, A., & Miller-Cochran, S. K. (2014). Keys for writers. Boston: Wadsworth Pub Co.

 Use hyphens when spelling out two- word numbers from twenty-one to ninty- nine.  Twenty-two applicanta arrived early in the morning.  Also use a hyphen in spelled-out fractions: two-thirds of a cup. Raimes, A., & Miller-Cochran, S. K. (2014). Keys for writers. Boston: Wadsworth Pub Co.

 Most words processor either automatically hyphenate words automatically wrap words around to the next line.  Choose the later option to avoid the strange and unacceptable word division that something appears with automatic hyphenation.  Do not insert a hyphen into a URL to spilt it across lines. Raimes, A., & Miller-Cochran, S. K. (2014). Keys for writers. Boston: Wadsworth Pub Co.

 A Dash (-) alerts readers to an explanation, to something unexpected, or to an interruption. Form a dash by typing two hyphens with no extra space before, between, or after them. Some word processing software will transform the two hyphens in to one continuous dash. Raimes, A., & Miller-Cochran, S. K. (2014). Keys for writers. Boston: Wadsworth Pub Co.

 Dashes should enclose a phrase, not a clause.  She bragged that her dog—a Pomeranian –had a complete wardrobe of sweaters.  The accused gasped, “But I never–” and fainted.  In America there are two classes of travel—first class and with children. Raimes, A., & Miller-Cochran, S. K. (2014). Keys for writers. Boston: Wadsworth Pub Co.

 Commas can be used to set of an appositive phrase, but a pair of dashes is preferable when appositive phrase form a list already containing commas.  The content of his closet—torn jeans, frayed jackets, and suits shiny on the seat and elbows—made him reassess his priorities.  Overusing the dash may produce a staccato effect. Use it sparingly. Raimes, A., & Miller-Cochran, S. K. (2014). Keys for writers. Boston: Wadsworth Pub Co.

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