Hypertension - I

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Information about Hypertension - I
Health & Medicine

Published on March 31, 2014

Author: PPRCayur

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Hypertension also known as high blood pressure is an effect of fast paced life. This presentation discusses various medicines used to cure hypertension.

Advanced findings in Phytochemicals for control of HYPERTENSION (HTN – I) Presented by Dr. Sudhakar Kokate Director PPRC, India

Hypertension Also known as high blood pressure / arterial hypertension One of the most prevalent disorder Chronic medical condition, Silent killer Primary cause of stroke, kidney failure and blindness PPRC/INDIA 01

Hypertension Common disease in today’s fast life Disease of many symptoms Two types:  1. Primary hypertension  2. Secondary hypertension PPRC/INDIA 02

Primary Hypertension Most common form of hypertension 90 – 95 % cases of hypertension BP arises with ageing & due to environmental factors PPRC/INDIA 03

Blood Blood, a bodily fluid delivers nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste from same cells pH: 7.35 – 7.45 slightly basic below 7.35 too acidic above 7.45 too basic PPRC/INDIA 04

Composition: blood cells suspended in blood. Plasma which constitutes 55% of body fluid, is mostly water (92% of volume) contains proteins, glucose, mineral ions, hormones and carbon dioxide Blood cells constitute RBC (erythrocytes) & WBC (leucocytes and platelets) Blood PPRC/INDIA 05

Albumin: main protein in blood RBC: most abundant containing haemoglobin, an iron containing protein WBC: Soldiers of the body Blood circulated through blood vessels by pumping action of the heart Blood PPRC/INDIA 06

Supply of oxygen to tissues Supply of nutrients Removal of waste Circulation of WBC Functions of Blood PPRC/INDIA 07

Coagulation Regulation of body pH Transportation of hormones and signalling of tissue damage Regulation of core body temperature Functions of Blood PPRC/INDIA 08

Quantity: one micro litre 1. Male: 4.7 – 6.1 million erythrocytes 2. Female: 4.2 – 5.4 million erythrocytes 3. 4,000 – 11,000 leukocytes 4. 200,000 – 500,000 thrombocytes Contents of Blood PPRC/INDIA 09

Anaemia Aplastic anaemia Deep vein thrombosis Fanconi anaemia Haemochromatosis Blood diseases PPRC/INDIA 10

Haemolytic anaemia Haemophilia Pernicious anaemia Thalassemia Thrombocytopenia Von willebrand disease Blood diseases PPRC/INDIA 11

Classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited anti-genic substances on the surface of RBCs 33 major blood group systems are recognised by ISBIT in Oct. 2012 Blood group PPRC/INDIA 12

Blood Pressure (B.P.) Arterial blood pressure The pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels One of the principal vital signs During each heartbeat, blood pressure varies between maximum (Systolic) and minimum (Diastolic) pressure PPRC/INDIA 13

Blood Pressure (B.P.) Arterial blood pressure B.P. in Circulation is principally due to the pumping action of the heart B.P. varies as in healthy people and animals Blood volume, resistance and viscosity are physical factors that influence B.P. PPRC/INDIA 14

Blood Pressure (B.P.) Arterial blood pressure Blood pressure pathologically is: 1. Low – hypotension 2. High – hypertension PPRC/INDIA 15

Blood pressure in children AGE SYSTOLIC (mm Hg) DIASTOLIC (mm Hg) 1 – 12 months 75 - 100 50 – 70 1 – 5 years 80 – 110 50 – 80 6 – 12 years 85 – 120 50 – 80 13 – 18 years 95 – 140 60 – 90 PPRC/INDIA 16

B.P. in Adult CATEGORY SYSTOLIC (mm Hg) DIASTOLIC (mm Hg) Hypotension < 90 < 60 Desired 90 – 119 60 – 79 Pre-hypertension 120 – 139 80 – 89 Stage 1 hypertension 140 – 159 90 – 99 Stage 2 hypertension 160 – 179 100 – 109 Hypertensive emergency ≥ 180 ≥ 110 PPRC/INDIA 17

Prevalence of Age factor & BP. YEAR - AGE % B.P. 20 – 30 4 31 – 40 5 41 – 50 10 51 – 60 14 > 61 16 PPRC/INDIA 18

Secondary Hypertension Can be caused by endocrine conditions such as Cushing’s syndrome, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, acromegaly, Conn’s syndrome or hyperaldosteronism, hyparathyroidism and pheochromocytoma PPRC/INDIA 19

Secondary Hypertension Reasons to contribute: obesity, sleep apnea, caratation of the aorta, excessive liquorice and heavy dose of medicines PPRC/INDIA 20

Complications of high B.P. Thickening of the heart muscle Increased workload of the heart May lead to – heart attack stroke renal failure loss of vision PPRC/INDIA 21

DRUG THERAPY Allopath treatment a list of 107 synthetic chemicals for Hypertension PPRC/INDIA 22

High B.P. drugs  Acebutolol  Acetazolamide (Aceact 250 mg)  Aliskiren (Rasilez 300 mg)  Aliskiren and Amlodipine  Aliskiren and hydro chlorothiazide  Aliskiren and valsartan PPRC/INDIA 23

 Aliskiren, amlodipine & hydrochlorothiazide  Amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide  Amlodipine  Amlodipine, hydrochlorothiazide and olmesartan  Amlodipine and benazepirl High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 24

 Amlodipine and enalapril  Amlodipine and lisinopril  Amlodipine and losartan  Amlodipine and olmesartan  Amlodipine and valsartan  Amlodipine, valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 25

 Atenolol  Atenolol and chlorthialidone  Azilsartan medoxomil  Azilsartan medoxomil and chlorthalidone  Benazepril  Benazepril HCl and hydrochlorothiazole High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 26

 Benidipine  Bisoprolol  Bumetanide  Candesartan  Candesartan cilexetil hydrochlorothiazide  Captopril High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 27

 Captopril and hydrochlorothiazide  Carvedilol  Chlorothiazide  Chlorthalidone  Clevidipine  Clonidine High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 28

 Diltiazene  Doxazosin  Enalapril  Enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide  Epinephrine  Eplerenone High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 29

 Eprosartan mesylate hydrochlorothiazide  Esmolol  Ethacrynic acid  Felodipine  Fenoldopam mesylate  Flosequinan High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 30

 Fosinopril  Furosemide  Furosemide and Amiloride  Guanabenz  Guanethidine monosulfate  Guanfacine High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 31

 Hydralazine  Hydrochlorothiazide  Hydrochlorothiazide and spironolactone  Hydrofluemethiazide  Imidapril  Indapamide High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 32

 Irbesartan  Irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide  Isradipine  Ketamine  Labetalol  Lacidipine High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 33

 Lisinopril  Lisinopril and hydrochlorothiazide  Losartan  Mannitol  Mecamylamine  Methyclothiazide High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 34

 Methyldopa  Metolazone  Metoprolol  Minoxidil oral  Moexipril HCl hydrochlorothiazide tablets  Moexipril hydrochloride High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 35

 Nebivolol  Nicardipine  Nitrendipine  Olmesartan  Olmesartan medoxomil and hydrochlorothiazide  Perindopril High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 36

 Perindopril and Indapamide  Phenoxybenzamine  Phentolamine mesylate  Pindolol  Procainamide  Propranolol High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 37

 Quinapril  Quinapril HC-hydrochlorothiazide tablets  Reserpine  Spironolactone  Telmisartan  Telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 38

 Terazosin  Timolol ophthalmic  Timolol oral  Torsemide  Trandolapril  Trandolapril - verapamil High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 39

 Ubiquinone  Valsartan  Valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide  Verapamil  Xipamide High B.P. drugs PPRC/INDIA 40

Trying to lower blood pressure too much can actually increase your risk of both heart problems and death – Dr. Mercola Hypertension: Just cure it within some weeks, leaving behind you all medications and all side effects PPRC/INDIA 41

“Allopathic medicine will not find the cure to any heart related ills because they are not really looking for them. They are looking for new ways to manage diseases perpetually and to keep their patients sick enough to require drugs, but still live” - The Health Wyze Report USA PPRC/INDIA 42

Side-effects of Medications used to treat Hypertension PPRC/INDIA 43

DIURETICS  Extra urination  Erection problems  Weakness, leg cramps / fatigue  Decrease the body’s levels of the mineral potassium  Intense and sudden foot pain PPRC/INDIA 44

BETA-BLOCKERS  Asthma symptoms  Cold hands and feet  Depression  Erection problems  Insomnia and sleep problems PPRC/INDIA 45

ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME (ACE)  A dry, hacking cough that does not go away  Skin rash  Loss of taste ANGIOTENSIN II RECEPTOR BLOCKERS (ARBs)  Dizziness PPRC/INDIA 46

CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS (CCBs)  Constipation  Dizziness  Headache  Irregular or very rapid heartbeat (Palpitations)  Swollen ankles PPRC/INDIA 47

ALPHA-BLOCKERS  Dizziness  Fast heartbeat ALPHA - 2 RECEPTOR AGONIST  Dizziness ALPHA BETA-BLOCKERS  Dizziness  Weakness PPRC/INDIA 48

CENTRAL AGONISTS  Anaemia  Constipation  Drowsiness  Dizziness  Dry mouth  Erection problems  Fever PPRC/INDIA 49

PERIPHERAL ADRENERGIC INHIBITORS  Diarrhoea  Dizziness  Weakness  Erection problems  Heartburn  Stuffy nose PPRC/INDIA 50

VASODILATORS  Excessive hair growth  Fluid retention  Headaches  Irregular, very rapid palpitations  Joint aches and pains  Swelling around the eyes PPRC/INDIA 51

RENIN INHIBITOR  Cough  Diarrhoea  Stomach pain  Heartburn  Rash PPRC/INDIA 52

“KELP” SIDE EFFECTS (FUCUS VESICULOSUS)  Thyroid problem  Nausea  Diarrhoea  Allergic reactions  Watery itchy eyes  Shortness of breath PPRC/INDIA 53

TOPROL XL  Chest pain  Heart failure  Drowsiness  Diarrhoea  Dizziness PPRC/INDIA 54

FLOMAX  Back pain  Blurry vision  Cough  Diarrhoea  Drowsiness  Trouble sleeping  Weakness PPRC/INDIA 55

NORVASC  Swelling of hands, feet, ankles, lower legs  Headache  Upset stomach  Stomach ache  Dizziness  Drowsiness PPRC/INDIA 56

NORVASC  Excessive tiredness  Feeling of warmth  Chest pain  Irregular, rapid pounding heartbeat  Fainting PPRC/INDIA 57

TEVETEN  Runny nose  Sore throat  Cough  Excessive tiredness  Stomach pain  Joint pain PPRC/INDIA 58

TEVETEN  Depression  Swelling of face, throat, tongue, feet and hands  Hoarseness  Difficulty in breathing  Fainting  Decreased sexual ability PPRC/INDIA 59

DIOVAN HCT  Headache  Fatigue  Dizziness  Breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue  Kidney failure  Dry mouth PPRC/INDIA 60

DIOVAN HCT  Jaundice  Dry cough  Skin rash  Back pain  Stuffy nose, tired feeling  Dizziness PPRC/INDIA 61

ZESTORETIC (Lisinopril & hydrochlorothiazide)  Dizziness  Headache  Cough  Fatigue  Serious effect – hypotension (Low B.P.) PPRC/INDIA 62

Hypertension recognised as a main risk factor for deadly consequences 1. Micardis (Telmisartan):  Swelling of face, lips, tongue or throat  Difficulty in breathing  Rare cases – kidney failure PPRC/INDIA 63

2. Tirofiban (Aggrastat):  Nose bleeding  Black bloody stools  Cough Vomiting  Chest pain  Sudden weakness PPRC/INDIA 64

3. Altace (Ramipril) tablets:  During pregnancy, foetal toxicity  Slow heart rate, muscle weakness  Dry mouth, thirst, swelling, urinating less  Jaundice, bleeding in urine 4. Accupril (Quinaprilhydrochloride) tablets:  Foetal toxicity  Swelling of face, lips, tongue, throat PPRC/INDIA 65

5. Cupoten:  Severe stomach ache  Breathing difficulty  Swelling of face, lips, tongue / throat 6. Isoptin:  Difficulty breathing  Swelling of face, lips, tongue, throat PPRC/INDIA 66

7. Cardizem:  A red blistering skin rash  Swelling feet / hands Trouble breathing  Slow heartbeats  Dizziness, Fever, Sore PPRC/INDIA 67

8. Dopamine:  Chest pain  Heartbeat  Shallow breathing  Burning pain 9. Plendil:  Heartbeat, Chest pain  Short breathing PPRC/INDIA 68

10. Lopressor:  Short breath  Nausea  Hand & Feet swelling  Fainting  Dark urine  Itching PPRC/INDIA 69

11. Corzida:  Swelling  Heartbeat Weakness 12. Coreg:  Chest pain  Slow heartbeat  Loss of bladder PPRC/INDIA 70

Treatment of hypertension PROTOCOL Lifestyle modifications Introduction of drug therapy Change or addition in drugs More drug modifications PPRC/INDIA 71

Sequence of treatment Education Diet, Exercise, massage Yoga and meditation Brisk walking Maintain body weight Regular check-up Use of phytochemicals & Home remedies PPRC/INDIA 72

Thank You!! “BE WITH US”

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