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Information about Hyperbolas

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Algebra 2 Section 9.5 Hyperbolas

A hyperbola is a set of points in a plane the difference of whose distances from two fixed points, called foci, is a constant. For any point P that is on the hyperbola, d2 – d1 is always the same. P d1 F1 In this example, the origin is the center of the hyperbola. It is midway between the foci. d2 F2

A line through the foci intersects the hyperbola at two points, called the vertices. V F V C F The segment connecting the vertices is called the transverse axis of the hyperbola. The center of the hyperbola is located at the midpoint of the transverse axis. As x and y get larger the branches of the hyperbola approach a pair of intersecting lines called the asymptotes of the hyperbola. These asymptotes pass through the center of the hyperbola.

The figure at the left is an example of a hyperbola whose branches open up and down instead of right and left. F V C V Since the transverse axis is vertical, this type of hyperbola is often referred to as a vertical hyperbola. F When the transverse axis is horizontal, the hyperbola is referred to as a horizontal hyperbola.

x2 – y2 a2 b2 y2 – x2 a2 b2 = 1 Horizontal Hyperbola = 1 Vertical Hyperbola The center of these hyperbola is at the origin, although the center can be moved if we add an (h,k) Unlike an ellipse, the positive term , or first term tells you whether or not it is horizontal or vertical. The equations of the asymptotes are y= b x a and y= -b x a

Graph: x2 – y2 = 1 4 9 Center: (0, 0) The x-term comes first in the subtraction so this is a horizontal hyperbola From the center locate the points that are two spaces to the right and two spaces to the left From the center locate the points that are up three spaces and down three spaces Draw a dotted rectangle through the four points you have found. Draw the asymptotes as dotted lines that pass diagonally through the rectangle. Draw the hyperbola. Vertices: (2, 0) and (-2, 0) c2 = 9 + 4 = 13 c = √13 = 3.61 Foci: (3.61, 0) and (-3.61, 0)

Graph: y2 – x2 = 1 16 9 Center: (0, 0) The y-term comes first in the subtraction so this is a vertical hyperbola From the center locate the points that are four spaces up and down From the center locate the points that are three spaces left and right. Draw a dotted rectangle through the four points you have found. Draw the asymptotes as dotted lines that pass diagonally through the rectangle. Draw the hyperbola. Vertices: (0, 4) and (0, -4) c2 = 16 + 9 = 25 c = √25 = 5 Foci: (0,5) and (0,-5)

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