Published on March 12, 2014
Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI Hydropower development and livelihoods: A quest for a balanced approach through research and partnerships Sonali Senaratna Sellamuttu, Olivier Joffre, Nguyen Duy Phuong, Jharendu Pant, Bounthanom Bouaham and Anousith Keophoxay Fifth International Conference on Water Resources and Hydropower Development in Asia, Colombo, Sri Lanka 11-13 March 2014
www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Background • The Mekong River Basin faces massive development investment with regard to hydropower. • Little attention given to how dams can be constructed and operated in ways that optimize benefits for all water users, including riparian communities. • Involuntary displacements mean local people are often unable to engage in their original livelihood activities. • Innovative livelihood options through R4D and partnerships.
www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Participatory impact pathways and partnerships • Expected to maximize impact by designing an uptake strategy at onset of the project (rather than leaving it to chance/after the project is completed). • Participatory impact pathways – used to identify key actors to target and strategies to do this through behavioural changes in outcomes (knowledge, attitude, skills and/or practice of key actors). • Develop partnerships with key actors from the onset of the project (e.g., dam operators, local authorities). 3
www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Sites CPWF Mekong Project are focusing on • Theun Hinboun Expansion Project (THXP), Lao PDR • Yali, Vietnam
www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Broad scale and household livelihood surveys Yali Project, Vietnam • Conducted a survey of 250 HHs in 4 communes (Sa Binh, Yali, Ya Xier and Ya Tang) around the Yali reservoir. Included Kinh and ethnic minorities - Jarai. • Survey revealed - drawdown area was highly productive and considered crucial to the livelihoods of local farmers. THXP, Lao PDR • Survey of 100 HHs in the Downstream Relocation Site (Phoumakneng) • In survey HHs raised concerns regarding decreased access to fishery resources upon their relocation.
www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Learning from the broad scale and household livelihood surveys • Site specific livelihood strategies with community (i) already resettled and (ii) in the process. • Wide spectrum of situation with communities dependent on natural resources in Lao PDR and more market oriented livelihoods in Vietnam. • Objectives of pilots: diversified livelihood activities using the new environmental condition created by the hydropower development. • Pilots implemented in partnership with key actors: local authorities in Vietnam and Hydropower company in Lao PDR.
www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Vietnam • Drawdown area of Yali reservoir is used by farmer to grow cassava, but: – risk of flooding is high at the end of the crop – duration on land exposure is too short to achieve maximum yield with the commonly used variety
www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Duration of land exposure in Yali ReservoirMonths 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Water level 505-510 mls ---- ///////////////////////////////////////// /////// ----------------- Land expostion 170 days Water flooded 510 – 512 mls ---- ///////////////////////////////////////// //////////// ------------------------ Land expostion 210 days Water flooded 512-515 mls ---- /////////////////////////////////////////////// ////////////// ----------------- Land expostion 240-260 days Water flooded Which crops can grow in context of reservoir? And provide a better income to farmer HHs?
www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Vietnam livelihood pilot – Key outcomes • Introduction of a new short term variety (KM98-7) – 2012: 3 farmers – 1.5 ha – 1 commune (Sa Binh) – 2013: 36 farmers – 20 ha – 2 communes (Sa Binh and Yali) • Increase yield and starch content – 32 tons/ha vs 21 tons/ha – 26% starch vs 21% starch – Increased net benefit over $350 USD/ha to $850 USD/ha
www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Up-scale livelihood pilot results • Due to success of pilot demand for new variety has increased. • Training courses and field visits were organized in 2012-2013 for over 500 farmer HHs (both men and women) in the 4 communes (both Kinh and Jarai ethnic groups). • DARD plans to expand the cultivated area of KM 98-7 to about 400 ha - 500 ha by 2016-2017.
www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Vietnam livelihood pilot – Lessons learned • Drivers of success – Development of communication channels with the hydropower company – Water level calendar – Involvement of local extension services (DARD) – Development of seedling replication system - including informal farmer groups
www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Lao PDR • Context – Development of Irrigation in resettlement site for dry season rice, flooded in rainy season – Depletion of fisheries resources caused by hydropower development • Pilots- Rice fish Culture – Use the access to water for integrated rice-fish culture – Expend the productivity of flooded rice fields during the rainy season
www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Feasibility of rice-fish Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture (IAA) • Technical feasibility • Social feasibility • Financial feasibility 13 Methods: Focus group discussions and interviews. Using participatory methods & tools
www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Implementing rice-fish IAA pilot • Implemented over a 6 month period with 15 farmer households (men and women) who volunteered. Date Activity 25 Oct – 20 Nov Excavation of refuge pond 25 – 30 Nov Fertilization of pond 29 Nov – 5 Dec Paddy transplant 14-18 Dec Stocking fingerlings 15-18 Jan Refuge pond connected to paddy field 18-25 March Paddy and fish harvested.
www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Lao livelihood pilot – key outcomes • 15 farmers tested the pilot – Increase productivity of rice fields : fish yield : 317 kg/ha – Improve protein supply for households – Reduce time spent fishing – Synergy with other livelihood activity: Homestead aquaculture pond • Adoption of the technology by most of the farmers and development of more aquaculture
www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Lao livelihood pilot – Lessons learned • Diversification of livelihood options with Integrated rice-fish • Support of THPC – funding the pilots and supported the feasibility study. Cooperation between NAFRI, THPC and CPWF. • The potential for scaling out to other villages and irrigated areas supported by THPC is great. • But sustainability without supported/with limited support from THPC is questionable.
www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Take Home Messages • Modified environment may provide new opportunities – e.g., drawdown area, irrigation, integration of aquaculture. • In case of newly introduced technology, communities will require more than a one year trial to continue and adopt the technology. • While some technology may be easily transferable, others may require more monitoring and training from extension services and other groups.
www.iwmi.org A water-secure world Take Home Messages • Capacity building of local staff took place as a result of the livelihood pilots. • A combination of strong partnerships from the onset with the private sector or government authorities and credible research results can gain support for livelihood-enhancement activities in relation to sustainable hydropower development.
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