hydrogeneconomychall enges

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Published on January 24, 2008

Author: Riccard

Source: authorstream.com

Commercialization Challenges for a Hydrogen Economy :  Commercialization Challenges for a Hydrogen Economy James Dunn Center for Technology Commercialization Conference on Future Energy Sept 2006 Hydrogen:  Hydrogen A unique ‘Energy Carrier’, which can produce Electricity (& Heat) using Fuel Cells, (or be Combusted in ICE/Turbines), forming water, with NO Emissions. H2 must be separated from chemical compounds, like CH4, by chemical ‘reforming’ (SMR), or by Electrolysis, or ThermoChemical splitting of H2O Electricity for Electrolysis from Nuclear plants or Renewable Energy sources like Solar PV, Wind, Hydro A "Hydrogen Economy" is the ultimate solution for Energy and Environment, but Commercializing Hydrogen Production, Storage, & Delivery is Not an Easy or Economical Process Why Hydrogen?:  Why Hydrogen? Sustainable Renewable Minimal Environmental Impact Reduce Dependence on Foreign Oil Create new Clean H2 Economy Good ‘Energy Carrier’ ? Major issues: COST and Infrastructure! Hydrogen Sources:  Hydrogen Sources Reformed from CNG (96% of today’s H2) Reformed Gasoline – CO, CO2 issues Electrolyzers – H2O + Electricity BioMass, Methanol/Ethanol – Direct/reformate ThermoChemical – Solar/Waste Heat + H2O Oxidizing Aluminum, Zinc, ? Hydrogen Storage:  Hydrogen Storage H2 Gas - High Press. Tanks 5-10,000 psi Liquid Hydrogen – Cost + Cryo issues Hydrides – Na, Mg, others – high losses Carbon NanoTubes – only 2-4% Wt. H2 NH3, or other liquids, (like Methanol) Other – Urea, Ammonium borate, etc. Hydrogen Issues:  Hydrogen Issues Making H2 uses more energy than it yields Storing/Delivering H2 uses too much energy H2 can’t be distributed in existing Natural Gas pipelines We need a safe/cheap way to store H2 in cars Hydrogen Challenges:  Hydrogen Challenges H2 is currently too COSTLY to compete with gasoline or CNG Nat’l H2 infrastructure could cost over $100 B Renewable energy too costly for making H2 (vs. nuclear or off-peak power) NEW H2 production and delivery industry needs to be developed (non HC based) Hydrogen Costs:  Hydrogen Costs At today's energy prices, it is still more expensive to make H2 by electrolysis than reformed fossil fuels Delivered H2 cost from Nat. Gas too high to compete. H2 Cost driven by base fuel - Nat’l Gas ($5-15/mcf), plus Transportation and Storage costs Estimated H2 costs are approx.: $ 8 + per GJ of H2 energy from nat. gas, $10 per GJ from coal, and $20 per GJ, by electrolysis of water Natural Gas Reserves – US 2%:  Natural Gas Reserves – US 2% Efficiency of H2 Energy production, storage, and conversion/use :  Efficiency of H2 Energy production, storage, and conversion/use Production - Electrolyzer = 70% NG SMR Reform = 90% Storage (Compression) = 85% Delivery (per 1000 kM) = 90% Fuel Cell Conversion = 50-60% Total NET ‘Turnaround Effic.’ = 25-35% H2 Storage/Delivery Losses:  H2 Storage/Delivery Losses Compression – 800 bar – 15% Liquification – Comp.+Cryo - 30-40% Hydrides – Chemical + Heat = 60% Delivery – Truck Wt. of 35,000 kg to haul 500 kg H2 (takes 20 H2 trucks to dlvr. same energy as one Gasoline truck!) Pipeline Loss = 25-30% for 3000 kM H2 Storage/Delivery losses exceed liq. fuels Real Costs of H2 ($/kg):  Real Costs of H2 ($/kg) Base Fuel (LNG/NG) – $2.50 – 5.00+ Reforming (SMR) $1.30 - $1.60 Liquifying $2.00 – 3.00 Transport/Dlvy. $1.00 – 12.00 Dispensing $2.00 – 7.00 Carbon Tax ??? Total Cost/kg $8 – 30+ (vs. Gasoline cost $3/Gal) Source – Doty Scientific - 2004 Critical Success Elements:  Critical Success Elements H2 must be made Close to Point of Use H2 must NOT depend on Petroleum or HC’s (Ideally produced from H2O or Biomass) Production must NOT produce C-Emissions COST must be equal or less than PetroFuels Key Issues for Commercialization :  Key Issues for Commercialization COST, COST, COST Cost to Produce H2 Cost to Store/Deliver/Dispense Cost to Convert to H2 usage If H2 Economy costs More than existing Petroleum Economy, will people convert? Summary – H2 Benefits:  Summary – H2 Benefits Hydrogen is a key link between electric energy from renewable sources and chemical energy. H2 an ideal fuel for new ‘clean energy’ conversion devices, like fuel cells, or hydrogen IC engines. BUT Hydrogen is NOT a good medium for carrying energy from primary sources to Distant End Users. New solutions needed for commercial bridge between H2 sources and Fuel Cells & H2 ICE’s. Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers still Very Costly – New Ideas for H2 Generation/Use:  New Ideas for H2 Generation/Use Solar Thermal processes: High T Power Tower - Sodium Iodide process - Florida Solar Energy Center New Low T (450C) Vanadium catalyzed ThermoChemical process – Reaction Sciences, Inc. New H2 ICE programs and Free Piston engines: Ford, Volvo, BMW, Sandia Labs New Hydrogen vehicles and Total Hydrogen Home Florida Solar Energy Center:  Florida Solar Energy Center High Temp Solar Thermochemical process Objectives

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