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Hydrogen Workshop

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Information about Hydrogen Workshop
Education

Published on April 22, 2008

Author: Sigfrid

Source: authorstream.com

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Hydrogen Workshop for Fleet Operators:  Hydrogen Workshop for Fleet Operators Module 1, “Hydrogen Basics”:  Module 1, “Hydrogen Basics” Hydrogen Basics Outline:  Hydrogen Basics Outline Why Hydrogen? Department of Energy’s Hydrogen Program President’s Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Energy Policy Act of 2005 Hydrogen Efforts in the United States Hydrogen Highway International Hydrogen Efforts Hydrogen Basics Hydrogen Combustion Properties Hydrogen Fuel Safety Bright white blobs show stars formed 5-10 million years ago, reddish pink clouds indicate hydrogen clouds where stars are currently forming (NASA) Why Hydrogen?:  Why Hydrogen? ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP ENERGY SECURITY ECONOMIC PROSPERITY Why Hydrogen? – Energy Security:  Why Hydrogen? – Energy Security Why Hydrogen? – Energy Security:  Why Hydrogen? – Energy Security Petroleum demand Gasoline and diesel fuel are currently above $3.00 per gallon Nation’s previous high weighted average for all 3 grades was $1.38 a gallon in March 1981 ($3.03 in today’s dollars) Spikes have occurred despite declines in the cost of crude oil Hurricane Katrina decimated refineries along the Gulf Coast cutting 11% of the refining capacity for all petroleum products Why Hydrogen? – Energy Security:  Why Hydrogen? – Energy Security Petroleum demand US consumes approximately 20 million barrels per day (bpd) Over 97% of US transportation fuel comes from oil Almost 2/3 of the 20 million barrels of oil is used for transportation Oil consumption in 2004 was up 3.4% or 2.5 million bpd US imports 55% of the oil it consumes; that is expected to grow to 68% by 2025 “BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2005: Record Demand Drove Energy Markets in 2004”, Press Release from BP, June 2005 Energy Information Administration, “Annual Energy Outlook 2004” Why Hydrogen? – Energy Security:  Why Hydrogen? – Energy Security Energy demand World’s overall energy consumption grew by 4.3% in 2004 Largest-ever annual increase in global energy consumption and is the highest percentage growth since 1984 Chinese energy demand has risen by 65% over the past 3 years China now consumes 13.6% of the world’s total energy BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2005: Record Demand Drove Energy Markets in 2004”, Press Release from BP, June 2005 Why Hydrogen? – Environmental Stewardship:  Why Hydrogen? – Environmental Stewardship Environmental protection Hydrogen can be used in vehicles powered by either internal combustion engines (ICEs) or fuel cells Near-zero (ICEs) or zero (fuel cells) emissions When produced from renewable sources, the entire chain of processes (fuel production through end-use in a vehicle) results in extremely low environmental impacts This is what hydrogen will eliminate Why Hydrogen?:  Why Hydrogen? Resource flexibility Hydrogen can be generated from a variety of feedstocks like fossil fuels (oil, coal) and renewable sources (biomass, sunlight). Because hydrogen exists in many different forms, in any one region, there are a variety of local feedstocks from which the hydrogen can be extracted Hydrogen Experience:  Hydrogen Experience Hydrogen was first produced in the 1400s when early European experimenters dissolved metal in acids Sir William Robert Grove used electricity to split hydrogen and oxygen in 1839 Ludwig Mond and Charles Langer coin the term “fuel cell” in 1889 First fuel cell powered vehicle in the world is demonstrated in 1959 Used since the early 1960s to power NASA’s space vehicles Fuel cell design by Mond and Langer, 1889 President’s Hydrogen Fuel Initiative:  $1.2 billion Hydrogen Fuel Initiative to reverse US’s growing dependence on foreign oil Lower the cost of hydrogen enough to make it cost competitive with gasoline by 2010 FY 2004 appropriation: $156 million FY 2005 appropriation: $225 million FY 2006 request: $260 million Advance the methods of producing hydrogen Provide R&D for hydrogen storage President’s Hydrogen Fuel Initiative US Department of Energy, “Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program: President’s Hydrogen Fuel Initiative”, May 2005 DOE’s Hydrogen Program:  DOE’s Hydrogen Program Chalk, Steven, “DOE Hydrogen Program Overview” , $22 per hp DOE’s Hydrogen Program:  DOE’s Hydrogen Program Chalk, Steven, “DOE Hydrogen Program Overview” DOE’s Hydrogen Program:  DOE’s Hydrogen Program Energy Policy Act of 2005 7 Federally sponsored and funded programs for hydrogen-related activities (vehicles, fuel cells, storage, production, infrastructure) $509 million for FY 2006 $567 million for FY 2007 $663 million for FY 2008 $745 million for FY 2009 $899 million for FY 2010 President George Bush Signs the Energy Policy Act of 2005 California Hydrogen Highway:  California Hydrogen Highway California Hydrogen Highway:  California Hydrogen Highway Governor’s Vision Every Californian has access to hydrogen along the State’s major highways by 2010 Early network of 150 to 200 fueling stations (1 station every 20 miles) Initial low-volume fueling network will cost $75 to $200 million Station concentrations in LA, Sacramento, San Diego and San Francisco California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger Illinois Hydrogen Highway:  Illinois Hydrogen Highway Network of demonstration projects to promote hydrogen-based technologies First conceived as part of the Illinois 2H2 report Northwest Chicagoland International Airport in Rockford Combines solar, wind and hydrogen technologies for airport support vehicles Heat and power for the airport building Terminal at Northwest Chicagoland International Airport in Rockford, IL Northern H Project:  Northern H Project Establish a multi-fuel hydrogen network in the upper Midwest Produce and provide hydrogen made from wind, biomass, solar, hydro and coal resources Place 9 or 10 stations 125 miles apart Stations would link urban centers along Manitoba, the Dakotas, Minnesota, Iowa and Wisconsin and link up with the Illinois Hydrogen Highway Project still not funded Northern H Project Hydrogen Highway New York Hydrogen Highway:  New York Hydrogen Highway International Hydrogen Efforts:  International Hydrogen Efforts Europe 2 billion Euro hydrogen vision designed to bring hydrogen technologies closer to large scale commercial viability Hydrogen supply based on renewable sources by 2050 70 on-going R&D projects Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) 27 hydrogen powered buses serving 9 cities Development of hydrogen infrastructure CUTE Transit Bus European Hydrogen Production:  European Hydrogen Production Shell Hydrogen International Hydrogen Efforts:  International Hydrogen Efforts Iceland World’s first public commercial hydrogen fueling station in the Icelandic capital of Reykjavik Ecological City Transport System (ECTOS) Operate a small fleet of hydrogen fuel cell buses that run on hydrogen produced by water Bramford, David, “Iceland Landmark Gas Station”, BBC News, April 2003 Hydrogen Fueling Station in Reykjavik, Iceland International Hydrogen Efforts:  International Hydrogen Efforts Japan Research fuel cell technologies since the 1980s Created the Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion in 1992 Goal to facilitate the commercialization of fuel cells 10 year program on hydrogen R&D Replaced by the New Hydrogen Project Liquid Hydrogen Storage & Hydrogen Supply Facility Ariake, Japan Japanese Hydrogen Production:  Japanese Hydrogen Production Shell Hydrogen International Hydrogen Efforts:  International Hydrogen Efforts Canadian Hydrogen Highway Coincide with the 2010 Winter Olympic Games in Whistler, BC Create small number of hydrogen stations by 2008 Focal point between Vancouver International Airport, the City of Vancouver, and Whistler with branches connecting Victoria, North Vancouver, University of British Columbia and Surrey Plan to link to similar projects in Alberta and California International Hydrogen Efforts:  International Hydrogen Efforts International Energy Agency’s (IEA) Hydrogen Program Established in 1977 with 15 member countries Global resource for technical expertise in hydrogen Vision Hydrogen future based on a clean sustainable energy supply Mission Accelerate hydrogen implementation and widespread utilization Strategy Facilitate, coordinate, and maintain innovative RD&D through international cooperation and information exchange International Hydrogen Efforts:  International Hydrogen Efforts International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy (IPHE) Purpose Provides a mechanism for partners to organize, coordinate and implement effective, efficient, and focused international research, development, demonstration and commercial utilization activities related to hydrogen and fuel cell technologies provides a forum for advancing policies, and common technical codes and standards that can accelerate the cost-effective transition to a hydrogen economy Educates and informs stakeholders and the general public on the benefits of, and challenges to, establishing the hydrogen economy International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy Hydrogen Basics:  Hydrogen Basics Simplest, lightest, and most plentiful element (#1 on Periodic Table) Hydrogen Basics:  Hydrogen Basics Diffuses Rapidly Rises 2 times faster than helium and 6 times faster than natural gas (hydrogen will escape up and away from the user) Dilutes quickly into a non-flammable concentration At room temperature, hydrogen is a very light gas Colorless, odorless, tasteless, nonpoisonous gas Will not contribute to groundwater pollution Second lowest boiling and melting points of all substances, second to helium Liquid below its boiling point of 20K (-423F, -253C) Solid below its melting point of 14K (-434F, -259C) Hydrogen Molecule Nuclei 0K (“absolute zero”) is the lowest temperature in the universe at which molecular motion stops. Temperatures below -100F are known as cryogenic temperatures and liquids below this temperature are cryogenic liquids Hydrogen Basics:  Hydrogen Basics Detectability Odorless, tasteless, and colorless Sensors can be used to detect hydrogen in enclosed areas No known odorants, such as mercaptans and thiophanes (as used in natural gas), can be used with hydrogen since the sulfur contaminate fuel cells Toxicity Non-toxic and nonpoisonous; does not create “fumes” Asphyxiation Hydrogen is of no more concern than other gases In open areas, hydrogen disperses rapidly College of the Desert, “Module 1, Hydrogen Properties”, Revision 0, December 2001 Hydrogen Leakage:  Hydrogen Leakage Natural Resources Canada, “Transforming the Future: Moving Toward Fuel Cell-Powered Fleets in Canadian Urban Transit Systems”, February 2005 Molecular Weight Density of Gas (lb/ft3) Viscosity of Gas at NTP (g/cm-s) Diffusion Coefficient in still air at NTP (cm2/s) Buoyancy (density relative to air) PROPERTY HYDROGEN METHANE PROPANE GASOLINE 2.02 16.04 44.06 ~107 5.2*10-3 0.04 0.12 0.27 8.9*10-5 11.17*10-5 8*10-5 5.2*10-5 0.51 0.16 0.12 0.05 0.07 0.55 1.52 3.4-4.0 Hydrogen Dissipation:  Hydrogen Dissipation Hydrogen Natural Gas Propane Gasoline Diesel Air Fuel Diffusion Coefficient in Air Vapor Density at NTP (lb/ft3) Buoyancy in Air at NTP Vapor Density at NBP (lb/ft3) Buoyancy in Air at NBP Rank in Confined/ Unconfined Areas 0.61 0.16 0.12 0.05 <0.10 Positive Positive Negative Negative Negative Negative Negative Negative Negative Negative Level 5/1 Level 4/1 Level 2/3 Level 1/4 Level 1/5 0 0 Unknown 0 Unknown Negative 0 0.0052 0.04 0.12 0.27 0.44 0.07 Natural Resources Canada, “Transforming the Future: Moving Toward Fuel Cell-Powered Fleets in Canadian Urban Transit Systems”, February 2005 Level 1 – low, Level 2 – minor, Level 3 – moderate, Level 4 – high, Level 5 – severe Relative Dissipation Hazard of Hydrogen Hydrogen Combustion Properties:  Hydrogen Combustion Properties Energy Content of Comparative Fuels College of the Desert, “Module 1, Hydrogen Properties”, Revision 0, December 2001 Hydrogen Combustion Properties:  Hydrogen Combustion Properties Energy Density of Comparative Fuels College of the Desert, “Module 1, Hydrogen Properties”, Revision 0, December 2001 Hydrogen Combustion Properties:  Hydrogen Combustion Properties Flashpoint of Comparative Fuels Explosions An oxidizer, like oxygen must be present Little chance to explode in air due to its buoyancy Cannot occur in a tank or contained location that only contains hydrogen College of the Desert, “Module 1, Hydrogen Properties”, Revision 0, December 2001 Hydrogen Combustion Properties:  Hydrogen Combustion Properties Wide Range of Flammability Hydrogen can be combusted in a wide range of AFRs (34:1 to 180:1) Stoichiometry – 14.7:1 for gasoline, 34:1 for hydrogen Can run on a lean mixture (better fuel economy and more complete combustion) Lean mixture can reduce power output of the engine Lower combustion temperatures result in lower NOx levels College of the Desert, “Module 1, Hydrogen Properties”, Revision 0, December 2001 Hydrogen Combustion Properties:  Handling Can be handled as safely as any other fuel Different combustion properties than gasoline or diesel Hydrogen Combustion Properties College of the Desert, “Module 1, Hydrogen Properties”, Revision 0, December 2001 Octane Numbers of Comparative Fuels Hydrogen Combustion Properties:  Hydrogen Combustion Properties Low Radiant Heat Significantly less radiant heat than a hydrocarbon fire Due to low levels of heat near the flame, risk of secondary fire is lower Hydrogen Flames Hydrocarbon Flames Module 1, “Hydrogen Basics”:  Module 1, “Hydrogen Basics”

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