Published on March 14, 2014
Hydrogen and it’s applications in biological system, pharmaceuticals and others. Prepared By: Nahid Hasan ID:1310690646 North South University Bangladesh.
Hydrogen Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless gas that burns and can form an explosive mixture with air. It is currently manufactured from methane gas, but is also produced by the electrolysis of water and aqueous salts. The gas is used to make such key materials as ammonia, cyclohexane and methanol, which are intermediates in the production of fertilisers, plastics and pharmaceuticals. Some see hydrogen gas as the clean fuel of the future - generated from water and returning to water when it is oxidized. Hydrogen- powered fuel cells are increasingly being seen as pollution-free sources of energy. History: In the early 1500s the alchemist Paracelsus noted that the bubbles given off when iron filings were added to sulfuric acid were flammable. In 1671 Robert Boyle made the same observation. Neither followed up their discovery of hydrogen, and so Henry Cavendish gets the credit. In 1766 he collected the bubbles and showed that they were different from other gases. He later showed that when hydrogen burns it forms water, thereby ending the belief that water was an element. The gas was given its name hydro- gen, meaning water-former, by Antoine Lavoisier. In 1931, Harold Urey and his colleagues at Columbia University in the US detected a second, rarer, form of hydrogen. This has twice the mass of normal hydrogen, and they named it deuterium.
Natural abundance: Hydrogen is found in the sun and most of the stars, and is easily the most abundant element in the universe. The planet Jupiter is composed mostly of hydrogen, and there is a theory that in the interior of the planet the pressure is so great that metallic hydrogen is formed from solid molecular hydrogen. On Earth, hydrogen is found in the greatest quantities in water, but is present in the atmosphere only in small amounts - less than 1 part per million by volume. Hydrogen is prepared commercially by several methods; manufactured from methane gas, electrolysis of water and aqueous salts.
Some basic information about hydrogen are mentioned in the table below: Origin of the name The name is derived from the Greek 'hydro' and 'genes' meaning water forming. Allotropes H2 Group 1 Period 1 Block s Atomic number 1 State at room temperature Gas Electron configuration 1s1 Melting point -259.1 o C, -434.38 o F, 14.05 K Boiling point -252.879 o C, -423.182 o F, 20.271 K Density (kg m-3 ) 89 (6 K) Relative atomic mass 1.008 Atomic radius, non- bonded (Å) 1.100 Covalent radius (Å) 0.32 Electron affinity (kJ mol-1 ) 72.743 Electronegativity (Pauling scale) 2.200 Ionization energies (kJ mol-1 ) 1st -1312.049
Electronic configuration of Hydrogen: 1s1 Isotopes of hydrogen: Isotopes Name Atomic mass Natural abundance (%) Half life 1 H Protium 1.008 99.988 - 2 H Deuterium 2.014 0.012 - 3 H Tritium 3.016 - 12.31y
Importance of hydrogen bonding: Hydrogen bonding is important in many chemical processes. Hydrogen bonding is responsible for water's unique solvent capabilities. Hydrogen bonds hold complementary strands of DNA together, and they are responsible for determining the three-dimensional structure of folded proteins including enzymes and antibodies. Water: A simple way to explain hydrogen bonds is with water. The water molecule consists of two hydrogens covalently bound to an oxygen. Since oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen, oxygen pulls the shared electrons more closely to itself. This gives the oxygen atom a slightly more negative charge than either of the hydrogen atoms. This imbalance is called a dipole, causing the water molecule to have a positive and negative side, almost like a tiny magnet. Water molecules align so the hydrogen on one molecule will face the oxygen on another molecule. This gives water a greater viscosity and also allows water to dissolve other molecules that have either a slightly positive or negative charge.
Protein Folding: Protein structure is partially determined by hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonds can occur between a hydrogen on an amine and an electronegative element, such as oxygen on another residue. As a protein folds into place, a series of hydrogen bond "zips" the molecule together, holding it in a specific three-dimensional form that gives the protein its particular function. DNA: Hydrogen bonds hold complementary strands of DNA together. Nucleotides pair precisely based on the position of available hydrogen bond donors (available, slightly positive hydrogens) and hydrogen bond acceptors (electronegative oxygens). The nucleotide thymine has one donor and one acceptor site that pairs perfectly with the nucleotide adenine's complementary acceptor and donor site. Cytosine pairs perfectly with guanine through three hydrogen bonds. Antibodies: Antibodies are folded protein structures that precisely target and fit a specific antigen. Once the antibody is produced and attains its three-dimensional shape (aided by hydrogen bonding), the antibody will conform like a key in a lock to its specific antigen. The antibody will lock onto the antigen through a series of interactions including
hydrogen bonds. The human body has the capacity to produce over ten billion different types of antibodies in an immunity reaction. Chelating: While individual hydrogen bonds are not very strong, a series of hydrogen bonds is very secure. When one molecule hydrogen bonds through two or more sites with another molecule, a ring structure known as a chelate is formed. Chelating compounds are useful for removing or mobilizing molecules and atoms such as metals. Biological importance of Water (a hydrogen containing molecule): Water, the most abundant compound on the planet, is a material which is essential for all living organisms. Its uses in all living things cover a huge variety of everyday functions which are immeasurably important to the continuity of the organism. The fact that water makes up between 60 and 95 percent of all living organisms speaks for itself on the incredible biological importance of this compound. One of the major functions of water in living organism is its use as a solvent. Because water is slightly ionised, other polar molecules such as salts, sugars and amino acids will dissolve readily in water. This allows water to be used for the transportation of such substances (notably in the bloodstream of animals and the xylem and phloem vessels
found in plants). Water can be used in this way to transport many substances: nutrients, excretory products (eg urea, ammonia), hormones and digestive juices can all be transported by using water as a solvent. Molecules such as starch and glycogen which are hydrophobic are not soluble and therefore are ideal for storage. In the digestive system many polymers and dimmers need to be broken down into smaller molecules by the process of hydrolysis. Water is used in hydrolysis reactions to separate the larger molecules into smaller ones (eg proteins into amino acids). Water is produced in respiration and this water can be very useful for organisms living in dry habitats. The process of photosynthesis requires water in order to create glucose. The fact that water has an unusually high specific heat capacity makes it a very useful substance for living organisms. Water does not change temperature very easily and therefore minimizes fluctuations in temperature in cells and creates a remarkably constant sea temperature for aquatic organisms. Water has a high latent heat of vaporisation which means that when animals sweat and plants transpire water, takes energy from the organism when it evaporates and as a result cools the organism.
Ice is less dense than water and so in cold conditions, ice will float on bodies of water. This insulates the water below and allows aquatic life to live in subzero conditions. Because water is a polar molecule, molecules of water stick together with hydrogen bonds. This allows long chains of water molecules to stick together – this is useful both for sucking up water through tall trees by transpiration and for creating surface tension which allows many animals to walk on water. Water is essential for support in plants. By the process of osmosis, plant cells take water in which causes an increase in the pressure against the rigid cell wall – the cell enters a state of turgor. This allows herbaceous plants to remain upright. In conclusion, water has uses in all organisms – from plants to animals and can offer a great many things from transport to support. This substance is absolutely essential to the existence of every living organism on this planet.
Hydrogen containing pharmaceutical preparations and their uses: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2): Preparation: Hydrogen peroxide solution U.S.P. contains, in each 100 ml, not less than 2.5 g and not more than 3.5 g of H2O2. Uses: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, hydrogen peroxide can be used as a disinfectant to clean wounds. This can reduce the risk of contracting a bacterial infection. Hydrogen peroxide also stops small vessel wound bleeding, and it can be used in oral hygiene as well. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3): Preparation: Sodium bicarbonate U.S.P. is a highly water soluble antacid with a very rapid onset of action but relatively short duration. It causes a sharp increase in gastric pH up to above pH 7. Uses: According to the GI Care website, hydrogen is also a key ingredient in sodium bicarbonate. Sodium bicarbonate is found in both salt and baking soda. However, it is also used as a method of treating certain conditions due to its power to neutralize acidity. For example, sodium bicarbonate is used to treat medical conditions such as ulcers, hyper-acidity in the digestive track, kidney stones, swelling of the face or any other part of the body, high blood pressure and heart disease
Boric acid (H3BO3): Preparation: It is produced from borax by reacting with hydrochloric or sulfuric acid. Uses: A buffer and a very weak germicide. Its nonirritating properties make its solutions suitable for application to such delicate structures as the cornea of the eye. Aqueous solutions are employed as an eye wash, mouth wash, and for irrigation of the bladder. Hydrochloric acid (HCl): Preparation: By the interaction of NaCl and H2SO4 or by combing chloride with hydrogen. Uses: Officially classified as a pharmaceutical aid that is used as an acidifying agent . Used in achlorohydria. Phosphoric acid (H3PO5): Preparation: Phosphorus is converted to P2O5 by exposing it to a current of warm air, then the P2O5 is treated with water to form the phosphoric acid. Uses: To make dilute acid and as a weak acid in various pharmaceutical preparations. Industrially, it is used in dental cements and in beverages as an acidulant.
Hydrogen sulfide: Uses: According to Physorg.com, hydrogen sulfide is frequently used in emergency medicine. When hydrogen sulfide is administered to patients who are undergoing cardiac surgery, it helps aid in healing and can reduce the effects of some heart problems. During a medical emergency such as myocardial infarction, a patient may be administered hydrogen sulfide directly into the heart during the surgery. Patients who are administered this shot experience an increased oxygen supply to the heart, which helps resuscitate it. Hydrogen sulfide can also help the heart by reversing the ill effects of reperfusion. Reperfusion is an undesirable byproduct of the process by which blood flow is restored into the heart. Reperfusion occurs when, after a period of inactivity during which the heart isn't receiving significant blood flow, a sudden return of blood causes inflammation and excess stress. Deuterium: Uses: Deuterium oxide (D2O) has been used as a research tool in biological and pharmacological investigations. Use of deuterium oxide for drinking purposes has caused retardation or stunted growth in experimental mammals. It is available commercially and finds use as a moderator in nuclear reactors and as a solvent in nuclear magnetic resonance studies.
Tritium: Uses: According to the Better Health website, tritium is one of the isotopes of hydrogen. This substance is used as a marker in the medical industry. A "marker" is a term that refers to test results that act as diagnostic tools. For example, a tumor marker refers to the levels of certain chemicals in the blood that doctor's use to determine how large a tumor is. Tritium, a highly radioactive material, is used extensively in X-rays and other kinds of medical imaging, to identify these tumor markers. As a result, it is one of the core ingredients in nuclear medicine. Other uses of hydrogen: Fertilizer: The most important use of hydrogen is the ammonia (NH3) synthesis. This is used to make fertilizers. Petroleum: Hydrogen gas is used in the processing of petroleum products to break down crude oil into fuel oil, gasoline and such. Rockets: Since hydrogen is highly flammable, especially when mixed with pure oxygen, it is used as a fuel in rockets. Usually, they combine liquid hydrogen with liquid oxygen to make an explosive mixture.
Unfortunately, in 1986, the U.S. Space Shuttle Challenger exploded when a flame accidentally ignited the liquid hydrogen in an external fuel tank. This again showed that the gas can be dangerous and cause a disaster in some situations. Clean fuel for cars: Hydrogen is one of the cleanest fuels because when it burns, the result is simple water. That is why there are efforts to create engines that can power automobiles on hydrogen. This would greatly help to reduce the air pollution and global warming problems. Hydrogen the lightest of all elements but very much useful for all the life forms in the world. The biological importances of hydrogen bond and water have been described above. Various forms and derivatives of hydrogen are used for many purposes in medicine. Some of them have mentioned. There are many more uses that we have discussed. The smallest but an amazing element of periodic table.
References: 1.Book: Remington:The science and practice of Pharmacy, Edition-20th ,Author-Alfonso R Gennaro, Ara H Der Mardersian, Glen R Hanson, Thomas Medwick, Nicholas G popovich, Roger L Schnaare, H Steve White, Publisher-Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2.Book: Inorganic Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Edition-1st , Author-John H. Block, Edward B.Roche, Taito O.Soine, Charles O. Wilson. Publisher-Varghese Publishing House. 3. http://classroom.synonym.com/importance-hydrogen-bonding-2514.html .Date-22/11/13 4. http://www.ehow.com/list_6019214_medicinal-uses-hydrogen.html.Date-22/11/13 5. http://www.rsc.org/periodic- table/element/1/hydrogen?gclid=CNnMipei3roCFeE34godUx8ALQ.Date-22/11/13 6. http://www.school-for-champions.com/chemistry/hydrogen_uses.htm#.UpFudcQy0so.Date- 22/11/13
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