Published on January 24, 2014
Avinash Rajput Criminology 2nd Semester Lok Nayak Jayprakesh Narayana National Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science Ministry of Home Affairs
Introduction Human trafficking is a group of crimes involving the exploitation of men, women and children for financial gains which is violation of fundamental human rights Human trafficking is the 3rd largest international crime Over one million people trafficked annually Millions of men, women and children are victims of human trafficking Human trafficking is a part of the larger problem of slavery
Cont… human trafficking is when people are transported, by force or deception, to become enslaved Traffickers use blackmail, abuse, and threats to force victims to comply with their wishes in the destination country Usually caused by poverty/lack of economic opportunities, especially for women and children, and a demand for certain services in the destination country
Definition Illegal transportation of people for forced labour, sex exploitation, forced marriages… Human trafficking is the recruitment, and transportation of people for the purpose of exploitation Trafficking of human beings is their trade or commercial dealing Human trafficking is a process of people being recruited in their community and country of origin and transported to the destination where they are being exploited for purposes of forced labor, prostitution, domestic servitude, and other forms of exploitation
CAUSES OF TRAFFICKING Unemployment Poverty Absence of a social safety Political instability Status of violence against women & children The low risk, high-profit
What is the Demand of Human Trafficking Demand for prostitution Demand for cheap labor Potential profits are very high
WHO ARE TRAFFICKED? Women and children are the key target People of low income People with low level of education Young girls running away from home People who lack awareness of their legal rights Women and children of varying ages
TRAFFICKED FOR WHAT? A large percentage for Forced labour e.g. in prostitution The entertainment industry Sweatshops Illegal adoption of children Organ transplants Forced marriages Mail-order brides Domestic work construction Drug trafficking Begging Other exploitative forms of work
Involvement of Persons Throughout the entire human trafficking process there are 4 people involved: The recruiter The trafficker The victim The human trafficking industry
The Victims The majority of trafficking victims are between 18 and 24 years of age An estimated 1.2 million children are trafficked each year 95% of victims experienced physical or sexual violence during trafficking (based on data from selected European countries)
Cont… 43% of victims are used for forced commercial sexual exploitation, of whom 98 per cent are women and girls 32% of victims are used for forced economic exploitation, of whom 56 per cent are women and girls Many trafficking victims have at least middle-level education
How Are Victims Trafficked? Force, fraud and coercion are methods used by traffickers to press victims into lives of servitude, & abuse Force: Rape, beatings, confinement Fraud: Includes false and deceptive offers of employment, marriage, better life Coercion: Threats of serious harm to, or physical restraint of, any person; any scheme, plan or pattern intended to cause victims to believe that failure to perform an act would result in restraint against them; or the abuse or threatened abuse of the legal process
Traffickers Use Multiple Means to Control Their Victims Beatings, burnings, rapes, and starvation Isolation Psychological abuses Drug or alcohol dependency Document withholding Debt bondage Threats of deportation Threats against the victim’s family or friends in his/her home country
ABUSES Trafficked women and children may experience the most horrifying abuses: Rape Physical abuse, including beatings with weapons Threats and violence against them and their family Verbal abuse Imprisonment
Cont… Little or no access to health care Minimum food and of poor quality Dirty and cramped living conditions Forced abortions Forced use of drugs and alcohol Trafficked women environment of fear and children are kept in an
Who Provides Victim Services? NGO – Non Governmental Organizations Faith-Based Organizations Social Service Providers Catholic Charities Lutheran Family Services Salvation Army Covenant House Domestic Violence Shelters
General Facts on Trafficking Victims are typically exploited by someone from their own country. Victims rarely self-identify when they are approached or rescued. Physical security is the greatest perceived need of most victims. Traffickers often allow victims to attend church, using this to control the victim.
Philosophy of a Trafficker False promises & dreams Cut off from friends/family- take your ID Beat & rape into submission Sell to strangers Control every aspect of miserable life You will work 18+ hours a day & give every dime to me If you keep $ from me, I will teach you a lesson If you call the police, I will kill you
Recruitment tactics used by traffickers False promises of… A good job A better life Love Marriage An opportunity to provide for their family Educational opportunities
How Does it Sometimes Happen? Poor families sell children Children work to buy freedom Poor, desperate women/men Promised jobs Russian women Bought/sold for around $700 Bonded into a debt they have NO chance of repaying Traffickers seek mainly younger girls
Living and working conditions Physically demanding work Under constant watch or supervision Threats of physical harm or deportation Isolation from the public and other victims High risk for work-related injuries High risk for sexually-transmitted diseases Physical and psychological abuse and/or trauma Long hours and little or no compensation Little or no medical attention Malnourishment
Impact of Human Trafficking on the Society Fuels organized crime Deprives countries of human capital Promotes social breakdown Undermines public heal Subverts government authority Imposes enormous economic cost
Impact of Human Trafficking on Victims Loss of support from family and community Loss of proper education Obstacles in physical development Psychological Traumas
Some reasons why human trafficking is not noticed Victims do not identify themselves due to fear and shame Traffickers keep their victims secluded from the outside world Traffickers force their victims to be happy and tell them what to say Many people do not know about it and do not report it
Identifying Victims of Trafficking Key Questions for Victims of Trafficking: How did you get here? Where do you live, eat and sleep? Do you owe someone money? Is someone keeping your legal/travel documents? Were you threatened if you tried to leave? Has your family been threatened? Were you ever physically abused? Were you ever forced to stay in one place? Who are you afraid of?
Victims of Trafficking and Their Needs Immediate assistance Mental health assistance Income assistance Legal status
Why victims remain silent
Methods of Control
Local Human Trafficking Response Teams
What can you do to help prevent human trafficking? Call your local police department Report suspected trafficking crimes Get help by calling the national 24/7 toll-free Human Trafficking Resource Center at 1-888-373-7888 For sexually exploited minors call the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children’s (NCMEC) hotline at 1800-THE-LOST Contact the Department of Justice’s Human Trafficking Office at 1-888-428-7581
Some Reasons on Child Trafficking in India Economic deprivation (e.g., poverty) Lack of employment opportunities Low social status (more common for girls) Low levels of education and general awareness Socio-cultural norms Political uprisings (child soldiers) Traditional religious and cultural practices
Child Trafficking Indicators Evidence of sexual, physical, mental or emotional abuse Engagement in work unsuitable for children Identification by employer or someone else No access to family members or friends Not in school or significant gaps in schooling Work long hours
Cont… Living in workplace or with employer Have tattoos or other marks indicating ownership by their exploiter –―branding‖ Owing large sum of money Appear unusually fearful for family members
General Challenges to Identification Hidden nature of the crime Lack of understanding and awareness about human trafficking Perception that victims are criminals Trafficking victims rarely self-identify If arrested, trafficking victims may not disclose their situation out of fear/trauma Some are mistakenly identified as adults
Who are the Victims? Homeless and/or runaway youth As many as 2.8 million children live on the streets Youth with history of abuse Youth with low self esteem, depression Youth with one parent in jail Age is the greatest vulnerability factor
Indicators Observations: Characteristics: Branding Memory difficulty Wounds, bruises Lying Drug addiction Depression Hostility Anxiety Language of ―the life‖ Hostility Unfamiliarity with surroundings Suicidal ideation Unable to provide name of school Affect dysregulation* False or no identification Somatization* Prepaid credit card or cell phone Disassociation* Scripted/inconsistent story Aggression* No eye contact Character pathology*
Return, Recovery, and Reintegration Fundamentals
Step 1: Victim identification Objective: To identify migrants who have been exploited as victims of trafficking so that appropriate response measures can be taken—both legal and social Example: Removal of victims of trafficking from confinement or detention to specialized safe houses or shelters. A VICTIM CENTERED APPROACH
Step 2: Shelter and recovery Objective: To provide safe accommodation and comprehensive medical and social support for individuals identified as victims of trafficking Shelters should provide: Food Accommodation Basic medical care, Access to comprehensive medical and psychosocial care or other social services If appropriate, access to STD/STI testing and treatment (not forced testing)
Cont… Referral system for physical or psychological care beyond the shelter’s capabilities Appropriate security measures (during stay and transfer) Information about the case and the victim gathered in a confidential and non-threatening manner
Step 3: Return Objective: To ensure safe and secure voluntary travel of the trafficking victim from the shelter or safe-house to appropriate place of residence Facilitated voluntary return – not forced deportation Documentation / establishing identity Security arrangements and escorts Transport arrangements Transit and reception arrangements Travel documentation / visa arrangements Safe and dignified
Step 4: Reintegration Objective: To facilitate the successful social integration of the victim into her/his family (where appropriate) and society Examples: Family tracing and assessment Psychosocial assistance Social welfare assistance Vocational training Peer-to-peer support Non-formal education Legal assistance
Cont… Reintegration ≠ Return Preventing re-trafficking Reintegration begins prior to return Developing links with service providers in the home country / community
Successful Return, Recovery and Reintegration is based on: Complete Case Reports Plans that are based on individuals themselves—self determination Protection of Victims at destination areas Family Tracing Family Assessment Decision making on return – to family or alternative options
Cont… Processing Travel Documents Turn-over and reception process Reintegration support Monitoring and follow-up on reintegration A human rights centered approach
Challenges with Reintegration Initial factors still present re-victimization Few opportunities for self-sustainable living Few options for support after reintegration Very few agencies provide interventions to both the children and families No activities to increase income-generating capacity of families Systematic challenges with reintegration interventions:
Cont… Lack of follow up support after reintegration No market is available for the skills after training Profit made too small to live on due to lack of market networks Lack of easy access to health services although health issue is critical
Human Trafficking ist eine zweiteilige kanadisch-US-amerikanische Fernsehminiserie über den weltweiten Menschenhandel. Regisseur des dramatischen Films ...
Human trafficking is a form of modern slavery -- a multi-billion dollar criminal industry that denies freedom to 20.9 million people around the world.
Human Trafficking. Trafficking in persons is a serious crime and a grave violation of human rights. Every year, thousands of men, women and children fall ...
Focusing on the criminal justice element of human trafficking and migrant smuggling, the work that UNODC does to combat these crimes is underpinned by the ...
Alle Infos zum Film Human Trafficking - Menschenhandel (2005): Weltweit werden junge Mädchen mit der Aussicht auf ein besseres Leben geködert ...
Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery. This crime occurs when a trafficker uses force, fraud or coercion to control another person for the ...
I recommend this movie to virtually everyone because this is the shocking truth; human trafficking and how it can devastate the victim's life, their family ...
Human trafficking is one of the most heinous crimes that ICE investigates. In its worst manifestation, human trafficking is akin to modern-day slavery ...
With Lynne Adams, Isabelle Blais, Céline Bonnier, David Boutin. Hundreds of thousands of young women have vanished from their everyday lives-forced by ...