Human Impact and Adaptation in PERU

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Information about Human Impact and Adaptation in PERU
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Published on April 3, 2008

Author: Carla

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Human Impact and Adaptation in PERU:  Human Impact and Adaptation in PERU Ricardo Gonzalez Human Impact and Adaptation in PERU :  Human Impact and Adaptation in PERU The Natural Setting Affecting Human Adaptation The First Peruvians (12,000 BP – 4,500 BP) Human Adaptation through Pre-Contact Times (4,500 BP to the Incas -1532 AD)   Spanish Conquest & Colony (1532-1821) The Republic (1821 - Today)   Case Studies: -Amazon Destruction -Lima Today and the Future PERU: 0º - 18.5 º S 69 º - 83 º W:  PERU: 0º - 18.5 º S 69 º - 83 º W The Natural Setting Affecting Human Adaptation :  The Natural Setting Affecting Human Adaptation Geology: Plate tectonics (Andes, Peru-Chile Trench)   Climate: A combination of latitude (Equator), Andes and coastal current Peruvian Current (Humboldt) and the Upwelling Effect El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and La Niña Ecological Regions: Coast, Sierra & Amazon   Geology: Plate Tectonics (Andes, Peru-Chile Trench) :  Geology: Plate Tectonics (Andes, Peru-Chile Trench) Geomorphology: Plate tectonics (Andes, Peru-Chile Trench) :  Geomorphology: Plate tectonics (Andes, Peru-Chile Trench) Subduction of the Nazca Plate into the South American Plate creating the Andes The World 200 Million Years Ago (Pangea & Panthalassa) The Peru-Chile Trench:  The Peru-Chile Trench Deepest Point +24,000 feet in Atacama, Chile Examples of Present Tectonic Activity:  Active Volcanism: Sabancaya Volcano Frequent devastating earthquakes The Andes ‘grow’ 1’ every 2.5 years Examples of Present Tectonic Activity Historical Geology:  Historical Geology Coastal Cordillera (+650 M.Y) Eastern Cordillera (400 M.Y) Western Cordillera (65 M.Y) Central Cordillera (40 to 25 M.Y) Amazon & Coastal Plains (1.65 M.Y – Present) Today’s Growth 1’ = 2.5 years. Historical Geology (II):  Historical Geology (II) Coastal Cordillera (+650 M.Y) Eastern Cordillera (400 M.Y) Western Cordillera (65 M.Y) Central Cordillera (40 to 25 M.Y) Amazon & Coastal Plains (1.65 M.Y – Present) Today’s Growth 1’ = 2.5 years. Peruvian Climate: Tropical & Subtropical:  Peruvian Climate: Tropical & Subtropical A combination of latitude (Equator), Andes and coastal current Seasonality :  Seasonality Located in the Southern Hemisphere, Peru’s Summer runs from December through March & Winter from June through September Climates of Peru:  Climates of Peru Coastal Very Dry Temp.: 12.5 º - 29 ºC Rain: 0 – 100 mm Summer: Dry Season (Dec. – Apr.) Winter: “Wet” Season (Drizzles) Andes Variable Temp.: -3 º - 21 ºC Rain: 10 – 800 mm Summer: Rainy Season (Nov. – Apr.) Winter: Dry Season (Jun. – Sept.) Amazon Variable Temp.: 15 º - 41 ºC Rain: 300 – 15000 mm Summer: Rainy Season (Nov. – Apr.) Winter: “Dry” Season (Jun. – Sept.) Wind Patterns:  Wind Patterns Predominant easterly winds. Climate is heavily influenced by the presence of a high (H) pressure area at 30 ºS. The Peruvian Current:  The Peruvian Current The Peruvian Current was formerly known as Humboldt Current El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and La Niña :  El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and La Niña Normal Conditions/ La Niña El Niño Southern Oscillation La Niña is characterized by colder conditions in the region Effects of El Niño :  Effects of El Niño Normal Year Cancas (North Coast) January 1991 Moderate El Niño Cancas, January 1992 Effects of El Niño: Floods:  Effects of El Niño: Floods Avalanche & Flood in Cusco March 1998 Sechura Desert, March 1998 Effects of El Niño: Loss of Infrastructure:  Effects of El Niño: Loss of Infrastructure Pan American Highway El Niño 1997-98 Colan, North Coast El Niño 1997-98 Ecological Regions: Coast, Sierra & Amazon:  Ecological Regions: Coast, Sierra & Amazon Peru’s 8 Ecological Regions:  Peru’s 8 Ecological Regions Chala 0 – 600 m Yunga 600 – 2100 m Quechua 2100- 3400 m Suni 3400 – 4200 m Puna 4200 – 5000 m Cordillera 5000 – 6867 m Rupa-Rupa/Rainforest 600 – 3200 m Omagua/Amazon Plain 62 – 600 m Peru’s 8 Ecological Regions:  Peru’s 8 Ecological Regions The Coast/Chala (0 – 600 m):  The Coast/Chala (0 – 600 m) Yunga (600 – 2100 m):  Yunga (600 – 2100 m) Quechua (2100 – 3400 m):  Quechua (2100 – 3400 m) Suni (3400 – 4200 m):  Suni (3400 – 4200 m) Puna (4200 – 5000 m):  Puna (4200 – 5000 m) Cordillera (5000 – 6768 m):  Cordillera (5000 – 6768 m) Rupa-Rupa (600 –3200 m):  Rupa-Rupa (600 –3200 m) Omagua -Amazon Plain (62 – 600 m):  Omagua -Amazon Plain (62 – 600 m) The First Peruvians :  The First Peruvians a) Important Myths &Legends b) Theories of Human Presence c) The First Peruvians d) The Pleistocene Overkill e) Primitive Habitat Myths/Legends of Human Occupation:  Myths/Legends of Human Occupation I. Inca Myths of Creation II. Coastal Myths (Naylamp & Tacaynamo); III. The Voyage of Tupac Inca Yupanqui to Oceania. I. Inca Myth of Creation :  I. Inca Myth of Creation A couple, Manco Capac (1st Inca) & Mama Ocllo, sent by their father, the Sun (Wiracocha), to “teach” the “primitive” people. They came out of the waters of Lake Titicaca to found the Inca empire –based in Cusco. Manco Capac taught the men how to cultivate the land (potatoes & corn), & the art of war. Mama Ocllo showed the women to weave, & the use of some plants for food & medicinal purposes. II. Coastal Myths: Naylamp & Tacaynamo:  II. Coastal Myths: Naylamp & Tacaynamo Two heroes from ancient times who came on rafts from the north. They brought new agricultural technologies & large armies. They established a “new order” in the “world” (kingdoms of Moche -3 to 7C- & Chimu –12 to 15C) III. The Voyage of Tupac Inca Yupanqui to Oceania :  III. The Voyage of Tupac Inca Yupanqui to Oceania A prince, son of Inca Pachacutec –later to become Inca-, went on a trip to the West that lasted 2 years. When he came back he brought new plants, products & some “dark skin” people from the East. It may proof that there was a long- distance connection with Oceania. Theories of Human Presence in America (C. 1970s):  Theories of Human Presence in America (C. 1970s) Asian Indigenous Australian Immigration Melanesian/Pacific The First Peruvians:  The First Peruvians Pacaicasa (22,000 BP) Cave located in the South-Central Andes. No human remains (skeleton ) found, only tools. Later found that radio-carbon date was mistaken. Paijan (11,200 BP) Oldest Peruvian found at present. Located on an oasis of the north coast. Gatherer –including sea products- & hunter. Lauricocha (10,500 BP) Oldest human remains found in the high Andes. Hunter & gatherer. Man of Paijan The Pleistocene Overkill:  The Pleistocene Overkill Pleistocene extinction reached South America between 13,000 & 8,000 BP The Pleistocene Overkill:  The Pleistocene Overkill Model of Pattern of Colonization of America (11,500 –10,500 BP) The Pleistocene Overkill:  The Pleistocene Overkill 80% of the South American Mega fauna extinct by early hunters (47 of 59 species) Primitive Habitat :  Primitive Habitat Hunting Scene at Toquepala Cave (8,000 BC) Human Adaptation After the Pleistocene Overkill:  Human Adaptation After the Pleistocene Overkill After the “overkill”, the hunters & gatherers shifted to less efficiently hunted animals & more intensive use of plant foods. Hunted animals mainly camelids (llama, alpaca, guanaco) & deer. Plants used as food (mainly tubers & rhizomes) & clothing (fibers). Foundation of the Andean agricultural & pastoral system. Successful adaptation without destroying the natural world. Guitarrero Cave (9,430 BP) Human Adaptation After the Pleistocene Overkill:  Human Adaptation After the Pleistocene Overkill Spearheads from Guitarrero (9,430 BP) Wild camelids (llamas & alpacas) grazing in the high Andes (4,000 m.) Hunter’s Weaponry:  Hunter’s Weaponry Human Adaptation in the Coastal Area After the Pleistocene Overkill:  Human Adaptation in the Coastal Area After the Pleistocene Overkill Importance of the ocean resources for the subsistence of large populations. Moseley’s theory (1975) Andean culture developed & prospered in it’s origins thanks to the extraordinary richness of ocean resources & not due to agriculture. Gatherers & hunters/fishermen started subsisting on mollusks, algae, & fishing from shore & in coastal lagoons. Agriculture was developed 5,000 years after arrival to the coast (approx. 5,000 BP) Otuma’s scallop banks (4,000 BP) Human Adaptation in the Coastal Area After the Pleistocene Overkill:  Early fishhooks made of bones Remains of a coastal hut Tools found in the hut Human Adaptation in the Coastal Area After the Pleistocene Overkill Coastal Adaptation in Early Times:  Sea lions was easy prey and a favorite food for coastal people Canastones, a site of early occupation in the central Peruvian coast. The area thrives with coastal resources: scallops, mussels, fish, sea lions. Coastal Adaptation in Early Times Human Adaptation through Pre-Contact Times :  Human Adaptation through Pre-Contact Times a) Gathering & Hunting Forests & Lomas wildlife. b) Fishing Coastal, Ocean & Lagoons/Wetlands. c) Agriculture Major land transformation: coastal oasis, Andean terracing (andenes) & lagoon agriculture. Chronology of Pre-Contact Peru :  Chronology of Pre-Contact Peru Pikimichay Cave (17,650 BP) Pre-Ceramic (until 1,800 BC) Horizon = Empires -Chavin (900 - 200 BC) -Wari (800 – 1,100 AD) -Inca (1,400 – 1532 AD) Intermediate = Regional Kingdoms -Paracas (200 BC – 200 AD) -Moche (100 – 650 AD) -Nasca (100 – 650 AD) -Tiahuanaco (600 – 1,000 AD) -Chimu (1,000 – 1,400 AD) The Inca Empire 1532:  The Inca Empire 1532 Conquests of the last Incas The Inca Road System Caral (5,000 BP): The First City of the New World?:  Caral (5,000 BP): The First City of the New World? Constructing cities on non-agricultural lands is one of the most important characteristics of Pre-Contact America Growth of Administrative Hierarchies:  Growth of Administrative Hierarchies Moche (100 – 650 AD) base representing the world & the underworld a) Gathering & Hunting Forests & Lomas Wildlife. :  a) Gathering & Hunting Forests & Lomas Wildlife. In the periphery of the valleys there were extensive forests with important hunting resources. These areas were maintained & maybe excluded for “royal” hunts. Extensive fauna: deer, bear, American lion, turkey, dove, lizards, etc. Wood was used for construction & cooking but at low rates. Algarrobo (kiawe) seeds used to feed domestic animals & for human food & medicinal purposes. Chaku: gathering of vicunas for trimming Moche deer hunting Lizard –a food delicacy- eating kiawe seeds b) Fishing Coastal, Ocean & Lagoons/Wetlands.:  b) Fishing Coastal, Ocean & Lagoons/Wetlands. Seafood was gathered only from the near coast in early times. At the beginning use of hooks only (mussel, cactus spine, bones); later use of cotton to make fishing nets (1,000 BC). Development of fishing vessels allowed fishermen to go beyond the near coast & even long distance travel. b) Fishing Coastal, Ocean & Lagoons/Wetlands.:  b) Fishing Coastal, Ocean & Lagoons/Wetlands. Hunting in near islands for sea birds & sea lions; & to collect guano (bird dropping -fertilizer). b) Fishing Coastal, Ocean & Lagoons/Wetlands:  b) Fishing Coastal, Ocean & Lagoons/Wetlands Use of coastal lagoons & wetlands to raise mullets & cultivate Totora (Scirpus sp.) reed for boat building. Slide57:  Chancay 1,300 AD Caral 2002 AD c) Agriculture: Mayor Land Transformation in Pre-Contact Times :  c) Agriculture: Mayor Land Transformation in Pre-Contact Times The Hummingbird figure (180 ft long) was drew –among many others- by the Nasca’s (100 – 650 AD) to predict the agricultural seasons. Coastal Agriculture I:  Coastal Agriculture I The earliest agriculture was developed next to the river deltas on the coastal plains, were water was abundant & easily accessible. Coastal Agriculture II:  Coastal Agriculture II In areas with shallow underground water, holes were excavated to clear the sand from the surface & reach more fertile land. Coastal Agriculture III:  Coastal Agriculture III In coastal areas were moisture concentrated during the winter (Lomas), temporal agriculture in terraces was established. Andean Agriculture I:  Andean Agriculture I Terraces constructed in irregular terrain for better control of soil erosion. Slide63:  Terraces in the Colca Valley –Peruvian Southern Andes. Slide64:  Inca stone terraces at Macchu Picchu. They were being used when it was discovered in the 1910’s Andean Agriculture II: Raised Fields:  Andean Agriculture II: Raised Fields Andean Agriculture II: Raised Fields:  Andean Agriculture II: Raised Fields Raised Fields:  Experimental Raised Field at Lakaya (1988) Raised fields during the Dry Season in Puno Raised Fields Moray: An Inca Agricultural Experimental Station:  Moray: An Inca Agricultural Experimental Station Moray, 300 ft deep and at 3,800 m, was used to adapt food crops to different altitudes. Andean Ranching:  Andean Ranching Camelids (llamas & alpacas) ranching continues to be a vary important activity. Their environmental impact is very small.

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