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Human Biological and Cultural Evolution.

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Information about Human Biological and Cultural Evolution.

Published on July 12, 2008

Author: PaulVMcDowell

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Comparative Human-nonhuman primate anatomy, fossil hominins, capacity for culture, and toolmaking evolution.
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Human Biological and Cultural Evolution Cultural Anthropology

Culture in Evolutionary Perspective To understand culture, we need to: (1) Know our biological capacity for culture (2) How we fit into the animal kingdom (3) How we came to be what we are

To understand culture, we need to:

(1) Know our biological capacity for culture

(2) How we fit into the animal kingdom

(3) How we came to be what we are

Our Capacity For Culture: Our Biological Roots (1) Our language ability (2) Our ability to make and use tools (3) Our bipedalism—ability to stand and walk on two feet If the “science of humankind” is to be taken seriously We need to know our own anatomy

(1) Our language ability

(2) Our ability to make and use tools

(3) Our bipedalism—ability to stand and walk on two feet

If the “science of humankind” is to be taken seriously

We need to know our own anatomy

First Things First: Taxonomy Definition: Hierarchical, systematic classification of all lifeforms from the general (kingdom. Phylum, class, order) to the specific (genus, species, variety) Taxon (pl. taxa): categories at all levels from broad to specific

Definition: Hierarchical, systematic classification of all lifeforms

from the general (kingdom. Phylum, class, order)

to the specific (genus, species, variety)

Taxon (pl. taxa): categories at all levels from broad to specific

Taxonomy: Binomial Nomenclature Every species has at least two names Genus: Homo Species: sapiens Variety: sapiens? (If we accept the splitters’ terms) Stylistic Convention Italicize or underline all names Capitalize the genus Lowercase the species and variety Example: Homo (sapiens) sapiens

Every species has at least two names

Genus: Homo

Species: sapiens

Variety: sapiens? (If we accept the splitters’ terms)

Stylistic Convention

Italicize or underline all names

Capitalize the genus

Lowercase the species and variety

Example: Homo (sapiens) sapiens

Taxonomy: The General Taxa Kingdom: Animalia (ingests food, moves) Phylum: Chordata (has spinal cord) Subphylum: Vertebrata (has segmented protective bone or cartilage Class: Mammalia (warm blooded, female secretes milk, has hair) Order: Primata: (larger brain, stereoscopic [depth] vision, flexible digits, complex sociality Suborder: Anthropoidea (monkey, apes, humans)

Kingdom: Animalia (ingests food, moves)

Phylum: Chordata (has spinal cord)

Subphylum: Vertebrata (has segmented protective bone or cartilage

Class: Mammalia (warm blooded, female secretes milk, has hair)

Order: Primata: (larger brain, stereoscopic [depth] vision, flexible digits, complex sociality

Suborder: Anthropoidea (monkey, apes, humans)

Hominid Taxonomy This is the new taxonomy: Hominids apply to all humans and African apes Hominins apply to Homo sapiens and All extinct ancestors: Australopithecus, Homo habilis, H. erectus, H. heidelbergensis, and H. neanderthalensis

This is the new taxonomy:

Hominids apply to all humans and African apes

Hominins apply to Homo sapiens and

All extinct ancestors: Australopithecus, Homo habilis, H. erectus, H. heidelbergensis, and H. neanderthalensis

Overview: The Human Skeleton You do need to know some of the parts of The human skeleton Use the online graphics (such as this) Or your printed handouts

You do need to know some of the parts of

The human skeleton

Use the online graphics (such as this)

Or your printed handouts

Where It All Begins: The Brain Frontal Lobe and Motor Cortex : Cognition Motor Abilities Parietal Lobe: Touch and Taste Temporal Lobe: Hearing Occipital Lobe: Vision Olfactory Bulb : Smell

Frontal Lobe and Motor Cortex :

Cognition

Motor Abilities

Parietal Lobe: Touch and Taste

Temporal Lobe: Hearing

Occipital Lobe: Vision

Olfactory Bulb : Smell

Parts of the Brain: Motor Cortex Related to Language : Lower Part: Lips Tongue Vocalization Related to Tool Making and Use: Upper part: Fingers and Thumb Hand Arm

Related to Language : Lower Part:

Lips

Tongue

Vocalization

Related to Tool Making and Use: Upper part:

Fingers and Thumb

Hand

Arm

Parts of the Brain: Language Centers Parts of Cerebrum Frontal Lobe Motor Cortex Broca’s Area Temporal Lobe Auditory Cortex Wernicke’s Area Arcuate Fasciculus Parietal Lobe Occipital Lobe Angular Gyrus

Parts of Cerebrum

Frontal Lobe

Motor Cortex

Broca’s Area

Temporal Lobe

Auditory Cortex

Wernicke’s Area

Arcuate Fasciculus

Parietal Lobe

Occipital Lobe

Angular Gyrus

Comic Relief, Anyone? (Courtesy of Geico) So easy a caveman can do it. . . .?

So easy a caveman can do it. . . .?

Human Skull Note the following: High forehead Rounded skull No brow ridge Chin is present Teeth are small The bones are named after the lobes of the brain they cover

Note the following:

High forehead

Rounded skull

No brow ridge

Chin is present

Teeth are small

The bones are named after the lobes of the brain they cover

Skull Morphology: Chimp and Human Note the following Larger brow ridge (supraorbital torus) of chimp than human’s Sloping forehead of chimp compared to human More prognathous jaw of chimp compared to human Larger canine and gap (diastema) of chimp than human

Note the following

Larger brow ridge (supraorbital torus) of chimp than human’s

Sloping forehead of chimp compared to human

More prognathous jaw of chimp compared to human

Larger canine and gap (diastema) of chimp than human

Human and Chimp Skulls Compared: Brain Structure Compare the following Chimp’s brain is much smaller (400cc vs 1400cc) It has reduced frontal lobe It has no Broca’s or Wernicke’s area It does have Brodmann’s area 10, where calls may originate—but no speech It does have planum temporale, where calls are received—but not processed as language

Compare the following

Chimp’s brain is much smaller (400cc vs 1400cc)

It has reduced frontal lobe

It has no Broca’s or Wernicke’s area

It does have Brodmann’s area 10, where calls may originate—but no speech

It does have planum temporale, where calls are received—but not processed as language

What This All Means Our brains are larger than the chimps’ We have a well-developed frontal lobe We have well developed language areas: Broca’s and Wernicke’s area The motor strip is more well developed among humans than among chimps

Our brains are larger than the chimps’

We have a well-developed frontal lobe

We have well developed language areas: Broca’s and Wernicke’s area

The motor strip is more well developed among humans than among chimps

Dentition For each jaw (upper or maxilla or lower or mandible: Incisors (4) for cutting Canines (cuspid) (2) for piercing Premolars (4) for light grinding Molars (6) for grinding

For each jaw (upper or maxilla or lower or mandible:

Incisors (4) for cutting

Canines (cuspid) (2) for piercing

Premolars (4) for light grinding

Molars (6) for grinding

Chimp and Human Jaws Note the following: Dental Arcade: Humans’ are arclike; apes, parallel back teeth Canines and Diastema (gap): Apes have larger canines and gaps in opposite jaw to fit them; humans do not

Note the following:

Dental Arcade: Humans’ are arclike; apes, parallel back teeth

Canines and Diastema (gap): Apes have larger canines and gaps in opposite jaw to fit them; humans do not

Anatomy of Tool Making and Use: The Hand Note The Following: Our digits are straight Our thumb is opposable The thumb is long

Note The Following:

Our digits are straight

Our thumb is opposable

The thumb is long

Ape and Human Hands Hands of orangutan, chimpanzee, gorilla and human Note the following: Our thumbs are longer than the others’ We can make a finer grip than the others can Less visible: apes’ digits are curved, ours are straight

Hands of orangutan, chimpanzee, gorilla and human

Note the following:

Our thumbs are longer than the others’

We can make a finer grip than the others can

Less visible: apes’ digits are curved, ours are straight

Power and Precision Grip Note the Following: Power grip: Fingers and thumbs wrap around the object Precision grip: Forefingers and thumb hold the object Importance: We can do finer work compared to nonhuman primates

Note the Following:

Power grip: Fingers and thumbs wrap around the object

Precision grip: Forefingers and thumb hold the object

Importance: We can do finer work compared to nonhuman primates

Bipedalism We are the only mammals that can stand and walk on two feet Kangaroos hop and maintain balance with their tails Apes are semibipedal, but use their knuckles to get around Notice the human is on his knees, not just his feet

We are the only mammals that can stand and walk on two feet

Kangaroos hop and maintain balance with their tails

Apes are semibipedal, but use their knuckles to get around

Notice the human is on his knees, not just his feet

Chimp and Human Locomotion

Advantages of Bipedalism Efficient locomotion Freeing of hands Foraging and hunting/scavaging Tool making and use Care and provisioning of offspring Tracking migrating herds Predator avoidance

Efficient locomotion

Freeing of hands

Foraging and hunting/scavaging

Tool making and use

Care and provisioning of offspring

Tracking migrating herds

Predator avoidance

Vertebral Column and Pelvis Note the following Human vertebral column is S-Shaped Chimp verebral column is bow-shaped Human pelvis, with ilium, is bowl-shaped Chimp pelvis is long, with flat ilium

Note the following

Human vertebral column is S-Shaped

Chimp verebral column is bow-shaped

Human pelvis, with ilium, is bowl-shaped

Chimp pelvis is long, with flat ilium

Pelvis and Femur Note the following: Longer ilium of chimp Shorter, more curved ilium of human Straight vertical orientation of chimp femur Inward angle of human femur

Note the following:

Longer ilium of chimp

Shorter, more curved ilium of human

Straight vertical orientation of chimp femur

Inward angle of human femur

Foot Structure Note the following: Large toe of chimp foot (right) is opposable to other digits Large toe of human foot (left) is aligned with other digits Ankle bones (tarsals) of human food are larger and more rigid than the chimps’

Note the following:

Large toe of chimp foot (right) is opposable to other digits

Large toe of human foot (left) is aligned with other digits

Ankle bones (tarsals) of human food are larger and more rigid than the chimps’

Foot Arch: Longitudinal and Transverse Note the following: Longitudinal arch reflected from First metatarsal to Calcaneus (heel bone) Transverse arch can be inferred from Lower placement of outside foot.

Note the following:

Longitudinal arch reflected from

First metatarsal to

Calcaneus (heel bone)

Transverse arch can be inferred from

Lower placement of outside foot.

Overview of Human Evolution Principles of evolution: Natural selection and genetics Taxonomy The behavior of our primate cousins Our ancestry from Australopithecus to Homo Tools as evidence of culture evolution Capacity for language—and thereby capacity for culture

Principles of evolution: Natural selection and genetics

Taxonomy

The behavior of our primate cousins

Our ancestry from Australopithecus to Homo

Tools as evidence of culture evolution

Capacity for language—and thereby capacity for culture

Principles of Evolution: Natural Selection Darwin’s Contribution: On the Origins of Species Natural Selection: A twofold process Variation of species Selection of species better adapted to environment than others Example: “Industrial melanism” among moths in England

Darwin’s Contribution: On the Origins of Species

Natural Selection: A twofold process

Variation of species

Selection of species better adapted to environment than others

Example: “Industrial melanism” among moths in England

Principles of Evolution: Genetics I Gregor Mendel: Genetic theory, based on experiments with peas Genes: Hereditary information determining physical characteristics Genotype: the genetic makeup of a particular characteristic (peas, eye color) Phenotype: the physical characteristics created by the genetic makeup

Gregor Mendel: Genetic theory, based on experiments with peas

Genes: Hereditary information determining physical characteristics

Genotype: the genetic makeup of a particular characteristic (peas, eye color)

Phenotype: the physical characteristics created by the genetic makeup

Principles of Evolution: Genetics II Genes are always paired: male contributes half, female contributes half Alleles: Variations of a genetic characteristic When different alleles combine: Allele of one manifests in physical characteristic (Dominant) The other does not (Recessive) Or both may manifest as hybrid (Codominant)

Genes are always paired: male contributes half, female contributes half

Alleles: Variations of a genetic characteristic

When different alleles combine:

Allele of one manifests in physical characteristic (Dominant)

The other does not (Recessive)

Or both may manifest as hybrid (Codominant)

Trends in Human Evolution: Australopithecus to Homo Australopithecus afarensis to A. africanus : Gracile Australopithecines Paranthropus robustus and boisei: Robust Australopithecines—Dead end? A. africanus to Homo habilis : Rise of tool manufacture? H. habilis to H. erectus: Migration throughout Old World; more kinds of tools H. erectus to H. sapiens: Tool specialization and population explosion to New World H. neanderthalensis: Dead end?

Australopithecus afarensis to A. africanus : Gracile Australopithecines

Paranthropus robustus and boisei: Robust Australopithecines—Dead end?

A. africanus to Homo habilis : Rise of tool manufacture?

H. habilis to H. erectus: Migration throughout Old World; more kinds of tools

H. erectus to H. sapiens: Tool specialization and population explosion to New World

H. neanderthalensis: Dead end?

Fossil Hominins: Skull, Arms, Hands Large bulbous cranium Short face compared to ape Vertical carriage of head Shortened forelimb Hands (manipulation, not locomotion) Enlarged thumb Straight fingers, not curved Enhanced finger sensitivity

Large bulbous cranium

Short face compared to ape

Vertical carriage of head

Shortened forelimb

Hands (manipulation, not locomotion)

Enlarged thumb

Straight fingers, not curved

Enhanced finger sensitivity

Fossil Hominins: Bipedalism S-shaped vertebrae (backbone) Short, wide, bowl-shaped pelvis Femoral head (ball of femur at pelvis) angled and strengthened Lengthened hindlimb Angle of knee: femur “slopes” to pelvis Platform (arched) structure of foot Nonopposable big toe; toes not curved

S-shaped vertebrae (backbone)

Short, wide, bowl-shaped pelvis

Femoral head (ball of femur at pelvis) angled and strengthened

Lengthened hindlimb

Angle of knee: femur “slopes” to pelvis

Platform (arched) structure of foot

Nonopposable big toe; toes not curved

Encephalization (a.k.a. Bigger Brains) Defining Cranial Capacity (and cc’s) A. afarensis: 390-500 cc; av. 440 cc A. africanus: 435-530 cc; av. 450 cc A./P robustus: 520 cc, one specimen A.P. boisei: 500-530 cc; av. 515 cc. H. habilis: 500-800 cc; av. 680 cc. H. erectus: 750-1250 cc; av. 1000 cc Neanderthal: 1300-1750 cc. av: 1450 H. (s.) sapiens: 900-2350 cc. av. 1400

Defining Cranial Capacity (and cc’s)

A. afarensis: 390-500 cc; av. 440 cc

A. africanus: 435-530 cc; av. 450 cc

A./P robustus: 520 cc, one specimen

A.P. boisei: 500-530 cc; av. 515 cc.

H. habilis: 500-800 cc; av. 680 cc.

H. erectus: 750-1250 cc; av. 1000 cc

Neanderthal: 1300-1750 cc. av: 1450

H. (s.) sapiens: 900-2350 cc. av. 1400

Lucy ( Australopithecus afarensis ) and Us (Homo sapiens) Note the Following: Shorter (3’6”) Longer arms Curved fingers Shorter lower legs Greater prognathism Sloped forehead Smaller cranial capacity What are the Similarities? Hint: it’s all related to bipedalism

Note the Following:

Shorter (3’6”)

Longer arms

Curved fingers

Shorter lower legs

Greater prognathism

Sloped forehead

Smaller cranial capacity

What are the Similarities?

Hint: it’s all related to bipedalism

When We Became Bipedal (According to Gary Larson) “ Hey! Look! No hands!” (Does he look like Lucy to you. . .?)

“ Hey! Look! No hands!”

(Does he look like Lucy to you. . .?)

Gracile and Robust Australopithecines For A. africanus (top), note: Somewhat rounder skull No Sagittal crest Prognathous jaw For Paranthropus boisei, note: Sagittal crest (ate a lot of veggies) Massive lower jaw (mandible) Flatter face Massive cheek bones (zygomatic arch)

For A. africanus (top), note:

Somewhat rounder skull

No Sagittal crest

Prognathous jaw

For Paranthropus boisei, note:

Sagittal crest (ate a lot of veggies)

Massive lower jaw (mandible)

Flatter face

Massive cheek bones (zygomatic arch)

Homo habilis: The First Known Toolmaker Note the following: Face is much flatter Reduced brow ridge (supraorbital torus) Larger cranial capacity (680 cc.) Toolmaking Technique Hammerstone used to strike A core (lump of stone) to knap A Flake (stone chip) Note: Stone has to be crystalline (so it will fracture predictably)

Note the following:

Face is much flatter

Reduced brow ridge (supraorbital torus)

Larger cranial capacity (680 cc.)

Toolmaking Technique

Hammerstone used to strike

A core (lump of stone) to knap

A Flake (stone chip)

Note: Stone has to be crystalline (so it will fracture predictably)

Homo erectus: Cranial Structure Note the Following: Cranial capacity: 1,000 cc Occipital bun Reduced brow ridge Reduced sloping forehead Reduced prognathism Artist’s conception of H. erectus

Note the Following:

Cranial capacity: 1,000 cc

Occipital bun

Reduced brow ridge

Reduced sloping forehead

Reduced prognathism

Artist’s conception of H. erectus

Homo Erectus (H. ergaster to Some): Postcranial Skeleton Note the following: Fully bipedal Arms about length of Homo sapiens Cranial capacity: 1000 cc (average) Main apelike features: Prognathous lower face Sloping forehead

Note the following:

Fully bipedal

Arms about length of Homo sapiens

Cranial capacity: 1000 cc (average)

Main apelike features:

Prognathous lower face

Sloping forehead

Lower Paleolithic Oldowan Tradition: Four or five strokes Unspecialized: choppers Flakes also made and used Acheulean Tradition: 50-75 strokes Symmetrical design Multiple uses: cutting, piercing, chopping

Oldowan Tradition:

Four or five strokes

Unspecialized: choppers

Flakes also made and used

Acheulean Tradition:

50-75 strokes

Symmetrical design

Multiple uses: cutting, piercing, chopping

Homo heidelbergensis (a.k.a. “Archaic” Homo sapiens Note the following: Brow ridges much reduced Forehead is higher, though sloping Reduced prognathiam Cranial capancity 1200 cc. Artist’s conception shows closer similarities to ourselves

Note the following:

Brow ridges much reduced

Forehead is higher, though sloping

Reduced prognathiam

Cranial capancity 1200 cc.

Artist’s conception shows closer similarities to ourselves

Manufacturing Levallois Cores and Flakes Knappers: Selects the appropriate core, up to a pound of stone Strikes the edge of the core Knaps the surface of the intended flake Knocks off the flake Retouches the flake to desired shape May knap four to five flakes

Knappers:

Selects the appropriate core, up to a pound of stone

Strikes the edge of the core

Knaps the surface of the intended flake

Knocks off the flake

Retouches the flake to desired shape

May knap four to five flakes

Homo neanderthalensis and H. sapiens skull Note the following for “Classic” Neanderthal Greater prognathism; humans lower jaw is straight Absence of chin that human has Presence of brow ridge; human has none, has higher forehead Presence of occipital bun Larger cranial capacity: 1450 cc vs. 1400 cc in humans Also note: Artist’s conception of Neanderthal child

Note the following for “Classic” Neanderthal

Greater prognathism; humans lower jaw is straight

Absence of chin that human has

Presence of brow ridge; human has none, has higher forehead

Presence of occipital bun

Larger cranial capacity: 1450 cc vs. 1400 cc in humans

Also note: Artist’s conception of Neanderthal child

Homo neanderthalensis and H. sapiens : Postcranial Skeletons Note the following for Neanderthals: Heavier brow ridge and sloping forehead Bones generally more robust Larger rib cage Broader pelvis Shorter forearm Shorter tibia Larger ankle joint

Note the following for Neanderthals:

Heavier brow ridge and sloping forehead

Bones generally more robust

Larger rib cage

Broader pelvis

Shorter forearm

Shorter tibia

Larger ankle joint

Neanderthal Tools: Mousterian and Châtelperronian Traditions Mousterian (top) Bordes: 63 types Burins (engravers) Scrapers and knives Even a type of handaxe Part of the Mesolithic Châtelperronian (bottom) First blades—by Neanderthals Definition: flakes twice as wide as they are long Initiated the Upper Paleolithic

Mousterian (top)

Bordes: 63 types

Burins (engravers)

Scrapers and knives

Even a type of handaxe

Part of the Mesolithic

Châtelperronian (bottom)

First blades—by Neanderthals

Definition: flakes twice as wide as they are long

Initiated the Upper Paleolithic

Upper Paleolithic: Modern Human Tool Traditions . Commonalities of Tools: Blades: Ever thinner and smaller Increased tool specialization Other material: bone, ivory, antler Other Developments Artwork (such as this mural at Altamira, Spain) Ornamentation (Venus statuettes)

Commonalities of Tools:

Blades: Ever thinner and smaller

Increased tool specialization

Other material: bone, ivory, antler

Other Developments

Artwork (such as this mural at Altamira, Spain)

Ornamentation (Venus statuettes)

Review and Conclusion We have. . . Looked at the biological bases of culture: for language, toolmaking, and bipedalism Compared our anatomy with chimps, our closest relatives Discussed evolutionary change based on natural selection and mutation Looked at our ancestors and the tools they made

We have. . .

Looked at the biological bases of culture: for language, toolmaking, and bipedalism

Compared our anatomy with chimps, our closest relatives

Discussed evolutionary change based on natural selection and mutation

Looked at our ancestors and the tools they made

The Territory Ahead Nonhuman Primate Behavior: How close in behavior are our cousins? Language: The medium of culture Making a Living: Industrial societies are not the only cultures in the world Sex, Family, and Its Extensions: The world’s first social organizations Economics: How goods and services are provided Social Control: Governance and law Psychology: Freud didn’t start it all The Supernatural: Were there gods before God? Culture Change and Globalization: Is there life outside corporations?

Nonhuman Primate Behavior: How close in behavior are our cousins?

Language: The medium of culture

Making a Living: Industrial societies are not the only cultures in the world

Sex, Family, and Its Extensions: The world’s first social organizations

Economics: How goods and services are provided

Social Control: Governance and law

Psychology: Freud didn’t start it all

The Supernatural: Were there gods before God?

Culture Change and Globalization: Is there life outside corporations?

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