Html introduction

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Information about Html introduction

Published on March 10, 2014

Author: daliaebadry



Html introduction

 HTML is a language for describing web pages.  HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language  HTML is a markup language  A markup language is a set of markup tags  The tags describe document content  HTML documents contain HTML tags and plain text  HTML documents are also called web pages

HTML markup tags are usually called HTML tags  HTML tags are keywords (tag names) surrounded by angle brackets like <html>  HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and </b>  The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag  The end tag is written like the start tag, with a forward slash before the tag name  Start and end tags are also called opening tags and closing tags

 HTML tags" and "HTML elements" are often used to describe the same thing.  But strictly speaking, an HTML element is everything between the start tag and the end tag, including the tags: <tagname>content</tagname> <p>This is a paragraph.</p>

 The purpose of a web browser (such as Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari) is to read HTML documents and display them as web pages.  The browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses the tags to determine how the content of the HTML page is to be presented/displayed to the user:

 Below is a visualization of an HTML page structure:

 Since the early days of the web, there have been many versions of HTML: Version Year HTML 1991 HTML+ 1993 HTML 2.0 1995 HTML 3.2 1997 HTML 4.01 1999 XHTML 1.0 2000 HTML5 2012 XHTML5 2013

 The <!DOCTYPE> declaration helps the browser to display a web page correctly.  There are many different documents on the web, and a browser can only display an HTML page 100% correctly if it knows the HTML type and version used.

 HTML5 <!DOCTYPE html>  HTML 4.01 <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "">  XHTML 1.0 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" " 1-transitional.dtd">

HTML can be edited by using a professional HTML editor like:  Adobe Dreamweaver  Microsoft Expression Web However, for learning HTML we recommend a text editor like Notepad (PC) or TextEdit (Mac). We believe using a simple text editor is a good way to learn HTML.

 Step 1: Start Notepad  To start Notepad go to:  Start All Programs Accessories Notepad 

 Step 2: Edit Your HTML with Notepad  Type your HTML code into your Notepad:  Save as and Run

HTML headings are defined with the <h1> to <h6> tags. <h1>This is a heading</h1> <h2>This is a heading</h2> <h3>This is a heading</h3>

 HTML paragraphs are defined with the <p> tag. <p>This is a paragraph.</p> <p>This is another paragraph.</p>

 HTML links are defined with the <a> tag. <a href="">This is a link</a>

 HTML images are defined with the <img> tag. <img src="w3schools.jpg" width="104" height="142">

 An HTML element is everything from the start tag to the end tag:  * The start tag is often called the opening tag. The end tag is often called the closing tag. Start tag * Element content End tag * <p> This is a paragraph </p> <a href="default.htm"> This is a link </a> <br>

 An HTML element starts with a start tag / opening tag  An HTML element ends with an end tag / closing tag  The element content is everything between the start and the end tag  Some HTML elements have empty content  Empty elements are closed in the start tag  Most HTML elements can have attributes

 HTML elements can have attributes  Attributes provide additional information about an element  Attributes are always specified in the start tag  EX : HTML links are defined with the <a> tag. The link address is specified in the href attribute:  <a href="">This is a link</a>

 Below is a list of some attributes that can be used on any HTML element:

 The <head> element is a container for all the head elements. Elements inside <head> can include scripts, instruct the browser where to find style sheets, provide meta information, and more.  The following tags can be added to the head section: <title>, <style>, <meta>, <link>, <script>, <noscript>, and <base>.

 The <title> tag defines the title of the document.  The <title> element is required in all HTML/XHTML documents. The <title> element:  defines a title in the browser toolbar  provides a title for the page when it is added to favorites  displays a title for the page in search- engine results

 <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <title>Title of the document</title> </head> <body> The content of the document...... </body> </html>

 The <link> tag defines the relationship between a document and an external resource.  The <link> tag is most used to link to style sheets:  <head> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="mystyle.css"> </head>

 The <style> tag is used to define style information for an HTML document.  Inside the <style> element you specify how HTML elements should render in a browser:  <head> <style type="text/css"> body {background-color:yellow;} p {color:blue;} </style> </head>

 CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is used to style HTML elements.  CSS was introduced together with HTML 4, to provide a better way to style HTML elements. CSS can be added to HTML in the following ways:  Inline - using the style attribute in HTML elements  Internal - using the <style> element in the <head> section  External - using an external CSS file

 EX : <p style="color:blue;margin- left:20px;">This is a paragraph.</p>  <body style="background-color:yellow;"> <h2 style="background-color:red;">This is a heading</h2> <p style="background-color:green;">This is a paragraph.</p> </body>

 An internal style sheet can be used if one single document has a unique style. Internal styles are defined in the <head> section of an HTML page, by using the <style> tag, like this:

 <head> <style type="text/css"> body {background-color:yellow;} p {color:blue;} </style> </head>

 An external style sheet is ideal when the style is applied to many pages. With an external style sheet, you can change the look of an entire Web site by changing one file. Each page must link to the style sheet using the <link> tag. The <link> tag goes inside the <head> section:  <head> <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="mystyle.css"> </head>

 Tables are defined with the <table> tag.  A table is divided into rows (with the <tr> tag), and each row is divided into data cells (with the <td> tag). td stands for "table data," and holds the content of a data cell. A <td> tag can contain text, links, images, lists, forms, other tables, etc.

 Let's start with the semantic HTML code required to render a basic table

 <table border="1"> <tr> <td>row 1, cell 1</td> <td>row 1, cell 2</td> </tr> <tr> <td>row 2, cell 1</td> <td>row 2, cell 2</td> </tr> </table>

<caption></caption>: The <caption> element allows you to give the table data a caption. Most browsers will center the caption and render it the same width as the table by default.

 The <th> element delineates the content between the tag as the table head titles for each table section, which can be a column, a row or a group of cells. This is useful not just to help semantically describe what the function of this content is, but it also helps render it more accurately in a variety of browsers and devices.

 HTML Unordered Lists  An unordered list starts with the <ul> tag. Each list item starts with the <li> tag.  The list items are marked with bullets (typically small black circles).  <ul> <li>Coffee</li> <li>Milk</li> </ul>

 An ordered list starts with the <ol> tag. Each list item starts with the <li> tag.  The list items are marked with numbers. <ol> <li>Coffee</li> <li>Milk</li> </ol>

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