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Published on May 2, 2008

Author: Hillary

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Teaching with Technology: A case study in a basic physical education classroom in Taiwan :  Teaching with Technology: A case study in a basic physical education classroom in Taiwan Shan-Hui (Tiffany) Hsu, Ph.D. Institute of Physical Education, Health & Leisure Studies National Cheng Kung University Abstract:  Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the use of technological applications to enhance college students’ knowledge and skills in basic physical education program in a southern university in Taiwan. Four major themes emerged from the study: 1) development of “critical reflection”; 2) knowledge construction; 3) self-evaluation (self-awareness); and 4) self-image creation. Introduction:  Introduction Over the past decades, technology has changed and re-shaped the orientation of social environment and cultural construction. According to Murphie and Potts (2003), “technology plays a crucial role as well in the large-scale and popular forms of culture” (p. 10). Sport serves as a perfect example here and is the most popular cultural activity, such as the Olympic Games and the football World Cup. Both sports are becoming the world’s largest cultural events because of “technology.” Purpose of the Study:  Purpose of the Study In order to have a better understanding of the relationship among technology, culture and educational curriculum, the purpose of this study was to investigate how the use of technological applications enhances college students’ knowledge and skills in basic physical education program in a southern university in Taiwan. Theoretical Frameworks:  Theoretical Frameworks Technological determinism, Cultural materialism The idea of curriculum-making Technological Determinism:  Technological Determinism Murphie and Potts (2003) state that “technology is the agent of social change…. technological determinism is linked to the idea of progress…. [and it] tends to consider technology as an independent factor, with its own properties, its own course of development, and its own consequences” (pp. 11-12). The agent of “technology” is viewed as technological determinism as the point of abstraction which represents a progress of social change and cultural construction. It usually indicates the present or to be projected onto the future. Cultural Materialism:  Cultural Materialism Murphie and Potts (2003) indicate that cultural materialism is “a means of analyzing the relationship between technology and culture…. [Moreover,] the materialism component of the term signifies that cultural change is to be interpreted as part of a historical process, in which economic, political and institutional pressure play an integral part” (pp. 17-18). The relationship between technology and culture is the essential concept of cultural materialism, which represents and constructs the historical process. The Idea of Curriculum-Making :  The Idea of Curriculum-Making Bobbitt (2004) defined curriculum in two ways: “1) it is the entire range of experiences, both undirected and directed, concerned in unfolding the abilities of the individual; and 2) it is the series of consciously directed training experiences that the schools use for completing and perfecting the unfoldment” (p. 11). It is also viewed as “intended learning outcomes.” Schooling in particular is conceived as a production system, in which individual learning outcomes are the primary product (Posner, 1998). The Relationship among The Three Theoretical Frameworks:  The Relationship among The Three Theoretical Frameworks Method:  Method Data was collected from e-learning system (Iteach), digital video recording, and website utility in a seventeen-week table tennis lesson instruction. Self-reflection and documentary analysis were analyzed in the study. Participants: Total 80 (40 males and 40 females) sophomores were participated in the study. Data was analyzed by using content analysis in order to capture the logic of the contingent dominating the educational field. Findings:  Findings 1) Development of “critical reflection”; 2) Knowledge construction; 3) Self-evaluation (self-awareness); and 4) Self-image creation. 1) Development of “Critical Reflection”:  1) Development of “Critical Reflection” The process of analyzing, reconsidering and questioning experiences within a context of designed topics in the online discussion board was able to help students to break down their knowledge/experiences into different parts of analysis and critical perspectives. This process of critical reflection seemed to develop the student's ability to deconstruct what they learned from the lessons and then comprehend the knowledge through the text writing. E-learning I: Discussion Board:  E-learning I: Discussion Board Example: (translation):  Example: (translation) Q: After you watch the video [professional table tennis player’s forehand drill], please describe the techniques applied in the video and try to practices those techniques in the forehand rally with your partner. A: 1. When the rocket contact the ball, the body position cannot be too high and the body weight needs to be forward a little bite. 2. The waist needs to be followed through when the arm swims and the body moves. The body cannot be too stiff. 3. After returning the ball, the body needs to be a ready position and prepared for next incoming ball. 4. Eye-ball contact with the ball. 5. The control of rocket is very important. And, a good technique to play the forehand drop ball and forehand drive ball is to have a well-control the rocket in your hand. 6.Beside the body posture, the rhythm for the footsteps and the ball is also the keyword in forehand rally. 2) Knowledge Construction:  2) Knowledge Construction Curriculum is designed to train students to be experienced in order to learn about the reality. The study found that students learned not to only build up their technological skills through the basic physical education lesson online, but also develop their experiences to function the technological applications in reality. Participants stated that watching the table tennis game clip was very valuable experience to help them learn how to appreciate a game and enable them to gain information online as well as strategies/ techniques. Example: (translation):  Example: (translation) After I watched the whole section of game, I came to realize how the official table tennis looked like and the professional players used their strategies. And, I found that “self-confidence” was the most important key in the game. I like to play table tennis and I’ve played this sport before. Even thought I play table tennis, I haven’t had a chance to watch a real game. I found that watching the real game clip was very exciting. And, there was totally different felt from school lesson…. I don’t watch sport channel often, especially on table tennis. And, of course, the main reason is that “I am not really interested in sports”. However, after I watched the clip and of course I kept to replay the clip many times and listened to the commentator’s report (plus I went online to do some research in regard to the rules of table tennis, and so on...), finally I found the excitement of watching the table tennis game. In this assignment, I really learned a lot of knowledge about table tennis. E-Learning II: Iteach website:  E-Learning II: Iteach website Online Pop-Quiz:  Online Pop-Quiz 3) Self-Evaluation (Self-Awareness):  3) Self-Evaluation (Self-Awareness) Each participant was asked to conduct a video clip in regard to his/her fundamental forehand and backhand drive after midterm period. The study found that the participants seemed to comprehend their knowledge and experiences; and at the same time, they came to be aware of their body-postures in the clips and in reality (real practice). Example: (translation):  Example: (translation) I found that my body position was too high when served the ball. And I didn’t bent my knees. My right hand didn’t follow through and I think that was the reason that my ball was not powerful enough. After I watched my skill clip, I improved a bit and was able to control my serve now. I kept to remind myself that “I need to bend my knees down a little bit and the rocket needs to be vertical to the table.” My footsteps were all wrong, which looked like playing the Chinese dance. My tossing was also not high enough. I was supposed to put my body-weight in my right foot in my ready position, but I didn’t. In my forehand drive, my right hand looked like to have a plaster cast. I think my whole upper body was too stiff. I should be more relaxed. Again, I put my body-weight in a wrong foot. I think the major thing was to improve my footsteps. Skill Assessment: Video Analysis:  Skill Assessment: Video Analysis 4) Self-Image Creation:  4) Self-Image Creation In this finding, the students seemed to connect their motions with the professional players and allocate their “real” images in their minds. Example: (translation):  Example: (translation) Mr. Chiang (a professional player) failed to make serves [in the video clip]. I think he probably couldn’t find the rhyme for the serve. I got shocked by that because the same thing occurred to me when I played with my partner. Sometimes, I tried to press my rocket and made the ball lower and faster, but the ball didn’t get through the net. I think this is also one of my major problems. Conclusion:  Conclusion The case study tried to bring the awareness of the importance and necessity of technology in curriculum design in the field of physical education in Taiwan. Technology and culture play important agencies in shaping our education, society, and history; moreover, education functions as a production system that produces and trains students to understand and be able to access the society. This product system will be also fluctuated by the process of social and culture changes. Thanks for your listening~:  Thanks for your listening~

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