Published on February 27, 2014
February 2014 Evolution of HSPA+ Carrier Aggregation 1
HSPA+ carrier aggregation evolution HSPA+ 5MHz CARRIERS 1 Benefits HetNets—even better with multiflow Carrier #4 For typical smartphone usage with bursty data and partial network load Carrier #3 4 1+1 >> 2—can more than double busty capacity Carrier #2 3 All users in the cell improved with higher data rates and lower latencies Carrier #1 2 Carrier aggregation enhances broadband experience Multiflow evolves carrier aggregation to across cells Expanded chipset support for carrier aggregation AGGREGATED DATA PIPE Carrier aggregation across bands, uplink and beyond two carriers 2
Carrier aggregation further enhances user experience HIGH BAND Aggregated, fatter data pipe 2.1 GHz Band I 1900 MHz Band II Carrier 1 Carrier 2 Carrier 3 Aggregation across two bands from R9 Carrier 4 Carrier 5 (Up to 4x currently defined)1 Carrier 6 Carrier 7 Carrier 8 HSPA+ Carrier aggregation LOW/SECOND BAND 850/900/1500/1800 MHz Band V/VIII/XI/III 850/2100 MHz Band V/IV Increased data rates for all users 2x downlink from R8 2x uplink from R9 3x/4x downlink from R10 Non-Contiguous aggregation from R11 Can double smartphone bursty data capacity2 1 Additional spectrum bands and band combinations continuously defined in 3GPP. 2Non-contiguous aggregation within a band. 2 For typical bursty applications and typical partial carrier load, carrier aggregation supports more bursty application users than individual single carriers. Up to 8x downlink and multiflow from R11 Leverages all spectrum assets 3
R8 carrier aggregation: dual-carrier is widely deployed 159 commercial networks in 83countries1 Aggregated Downlink data pipe HSPA+ Carrier #1 5 MHz 10 MHz HSPA+ Carrier #2 5 MHz HSPA+ carrier aggregation device NodeB Increased data rates for all users 1 per GSA Feb 2014 Can double smartphone bursty data capacity2 Leverages all spectrum assets 4
R8 carrier aggregation doubles data rates to all users 42 Mbps R8 Carrier aggregation (Dual-Carrier) Single Carrier (Same number of users per carrier) User data rate experienced during a burst 21 Mbps 7.8 Mbps 3.8 Mbps Peak Rate Median Users Qualcomm simulations. Each scenario is based on the same total number of users (eight users) per carrier, see 3GPP R1-081890 for details. Shows the theoretical peak data rata and the burst data rate for the median users and the 10% worst (cell edge) users. No MIMO with Carrier aggregationin R8. Peak data rates are scaled down by a factor of 2 in the picture. 3 Mbps 1.5 Mbps Cell Edge Users 5
1 + 1 >> 2: carrier aggregation also increases ‘bursty’ capacity Typical bursty smartphone applications Idle time Downlink Burst Data Rate (Mbps) Data bursts 10 HSPA+ Dual-Carrier (10 MHz) 2 Single carriers (10 MHz) 8 6 Doubles Burst Rate1 4 Partially loaded carriers 2 Capacity Gain —Can exceed 2x Fully loaded carriers 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Capacity (Number of Bursty Application Users) 60 70 1 For all users, which reduces over-the-air latency ~50% for all users in the cell Qualcomm simulations, see 3GPP R1-081706 for details. The bursty nature means that a multicarrier can support more users at the same response time for partially loaded carriers. The gain depends on the load and can exceed 100% for fewer users (less loaded carrier) but less for many users (starting to resemble full buffer). 6
R9 carrier aggregation: enhanced performance in 10 MHz Uplink Benefits all users in the cell2 HSPA+ Carrier #1 Increased bursty application capacity—similar to downlink 5 MHz 10 MHz 23 Mbps uplink peak rate HSPA+ Carrier #2 5 MHz Carrier aggregation with MIMO MIMO Stream #1 5 MHz MIMO Stream #2 HSPA+ Carrier #1 10 MHz MIMO Stream #1 5 MHz MIMO Stream #2 Benefits all users in the cell Both MIMO and Carrier aggregation improvement across cell and cell edge1 HSPA+ Carrier #2 Downlink 1 MIMO downlink transmit beamforming increases cell edge data rates. 2Higher rates throughout the cell for users with available power headroom 84Mbps downlink peak rate 7
Uplink carrier aggregation provides similar gain as downlink Typical bursty smartphone applications Burst Data Rate (Mbps) 4 UL Multicarrier (10 MHz) 2 UL Single carriers (10 MHz) 3 Enhanced User Experience1 2 Capacity gain Partially loaded carriers Data bursts 1 0 Idle time Increased data rates for all users (within current power head room) 2 4 6 8 Capacity (Number of Bursty Application Users) 10 12 Can double smartphone bursty app. capacity 1 Reduces over-the-air latency by up to ~50% for all users in the cell (within power head room) Assumptions: 3GPP Framework, PA3 Channel, No-IC, 16QAM, no-CPC, 24dBm UE, 1km ISD, 250 kb fixed burst with 5 sec average inter-burst time and exp. distributed 8
R10 carrier aggregation of up to four carriers Aggregated Downlink data pipe 4x downlink in R101 5 MHz HSPA+ Carrier #1 5 MHz 5 MHz HSPA+ Carrier #2 5 MHz 5 MHz HSPA+ Carrier #3 HSPA+ Carrier #4 HSPA+ carrier aggregation device NodeB Increased data rates for all users 10 MHz to 20 MHz Can double smartphone bursty data capacity2 1 3 to 4 multicarrier is supported in the downlink only and is independent of the uplink, e.g. a single uplink carrier can support 4 multicarrier in the downlink Leverages all spectrum assets 9
User data rates increase with bandwidth—all users improved 24 Mbps R10 Carrier aggregation (4X) R8 Carrier aggregation (Dual-Carrier 2X) Single Carrier 12.7 Mbps (Same number of users per carrier, for fair comparison user data rate experienced during a burst) 11.7 Mbps 6.5 Mbps 6.6 Mbps 3.3 Mbps 4.8 Mbps 2.8 Mbps 1.4 Mbps Best Users (10% percentile) Median Users Cell Edge Users Qualcomm simulations. Each scenario is based on the same total number of users (eight users) per carrier. Shows the burst data rate for the 10% best users , the median users and the 10% worst (cell edge) users. MIMO with Carrier aggregations part of R9 and R10, but MIMO has not been considered in this simulation. 10
Aggregation across bands to leverage all spectrum assets HIGH BAND 3 (5MHz Carriers) 2.1 GHz 1900 MHz Band I Aggregated data pipe Band II Carrier 1 Carrier 2 Aggregation across two bands from R9 Carrier 3 (Up to 4x currently defined)1 850/900/1500/ 1800 MHz Band V/VIII/XI/III Carrier 4 850/2100 MHz Band V/IV LOW/SECOND BAND 1–2 (5MHz Carriers) Leverage low band’s coverage and high band’s capacity Up to 20 MHz HSPA+ Carrier aggregation 3x/4x downlink from R10 Non-Contiguous aggregation from R11 Enables supplemental downlink— aggregate unpaired spectrum 1 Additional spectrum bands and band combinations continuously defined in 3GPP, Non-contiguous aggregation within a band are planned for R11. Leverages all spectrum assets 11
Aggregation across bands enables supplemental downlink Aggregate unpaired spectrum for more downlink capacity—supplemental downlink Unpaired FDD Paired FDD Paired (Supplemental Downlink) (Downlink) (Uplink) F1 L-Band 1.4GHz Harmonized in Europe1 L-Band has 40 MHz of idle unpaired spectrum available 2 3GPP specs expected in Jun 20142 Chipsets planned for commercial devices in 20153 Aggregated Fatter data pipe Downlink Uplink 1 L-Band in Europe: 1452 MHz to 1492 MHz, sometimes referred to as 1.4GHz or 1.5GHz spectrum. 2 Aggregation across bands is supported in HSPA+ R9 for two downlink carriers and LTE R10, but each specific band combination, e.g. combination of band 1 and L-band, has to be defined in 3GPP. 3 subject to timely completion of standard with reasonable technical specifications 12
R11 evolves carrier aggregation to multiflow —data simultaneously from multiple cells F2: 5MHz F2: 5MHz F1: 5MHz F1: 5MHz F1: 5MHz F1: 5MHz Serving user from multiple cells Utilizes neighboring cell capacity Improved user experience in loaded cell Improved Cell Edge Network Load Balancing Note: MultiFlow transmission is a.k.a. SFDC. Receive diversity with interference suppression (type 3i receiver) required to reject other-cell interference. 13
HSPA+ hetnet range expansion leverages carrier aggregation Range Expansion Reduce second carrier Macro Power (F2) Carrier 2 Carrier 1 Macro Dual-carrier Devices Small cell Small cell better utilized Macro offloaded All users improved Enabling features: reduced power on second macro carrier , dual carrier devices (or dual frequency Multiflow), and mitigating uplink and downlink imbalance (3dB Cell-individual offset (CIO) and pico noise-figure pad) 14
Multiflow benefits HetNets-select best links from multiple cells Range Expansion Reduce second carrier Macro Power (F2) Carrier 2 Carrier 1 Macro Small cell Small cell better utilized Dual-Frequency Multiflow Devices Macro offloaded All users improved Enabling features: reduced power on second macro carrier , dual carrier devices (or dual frequency Multiflow), and mitigating uplink and downlink imbalance (3dB Cell-individual offset (CIO) and pico noise-figure pad) 15
Four carrier multiflow demo at MWC 2014 Improved Cell Edge Network Load Balancing 16
Carrier aggregation combinations—standard progress 3GPP R12 to be completed mid 2014, 3GPP R13 definition started late 2013 Dual-band, Dual carrier Dual-band, 4 carrier Non-contiguous, 4 carrier Supplemental downlink Approved bands (up to R11) Approved bands (up to R11) Approved bands (up to R11) Targeted for R12 I + VIII I + VIII 2.1 GHz (Band I) II + IV II+ IV 5 & 10 MHz gap between blocks, depending on configuration I+V I+V 2.1 GHz (AWS - Band IV) I + XI II + V 2.1 GHz (Band I) – Anchor + 1.4 GHz (L-Band) – Downlink 10, 15 & 25 MHz gap between blocks, depending on configuration II + V Band I – 2.1 GHz; Band II – 1900 MHz; Band IV – 2.1GHz (AWS); Band V – 850 MHz; Band VIII – 900 MHz; Band XI – 1500 MHz 17
Expanded chipset support for HSPA+ carrier aggregation 18
Expanded HSPA+ carrier aggregation support Aggregation of 3 downlink carriers uses HSPA+ assets more efficiently 800 LTE CA HSPA+ CA Uplink aggregation (2 carriers) improves user experience and increase network capacity for smartphone traffic MDM 9x25 LTE CA (cat 4) HSPA+ CA Aggregation across bands (2 carriers) takes advantage of expanding HSPA+ footprint in new bands (e.g. 900 MHz) Increased data rates for all users 9x35 LTE CA (cat 6) HSPA+ CA Common platform for LTE and HSPA+ carrier aggregation Can double smartphone bursty data capacity2 Qualcomm Snapdragon and Gobi are products of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. ; Snapdragon 800 includes 8974 Leverages all spectrum assets 19
Summary: Continued HSPA+ carrier aggregation evolution HSPA+ 5MHz CARRIERS 1 Benefits HetNets—even better with multiflow Carrier #4 For typical smartphone usage with bursty data and partial network load Carrier #3 4 1+1 >> 2—can more than double busty capacity Carrier #2 3 All users in the cell improved with higher data rates and lower latencies Carrier #1 2 Carrier aggregation enhances broadband experience Multiflow evolves carrier aggregation to across cells Expanded chipset support for carrier aggregation AGGREGATED DATA PIPE Carrier aggregation across bands, uplink and beyond two carriers 20
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