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Published on April 27, 2014

Author: rabiaqayyum520



HRM JOB SATISFACTION 2 Submitted By Submitted To: Assignment Program Semester University Rabia Qayyum, ALveena Qayyim, Nimra Shahid, Noureen Nasir, Siddra Sajjad, Qurat-ul- Ain Aziz, Ayesha Munir JOB SATISFACTION Miss Mohsana B.B.A (HONS) 6th University of Education

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 3 Contents Job Satisfaction Overview……………………………………………………………………….04 Definition………………………………………………………………………………………...04 Types of job satisfaction…………………………………………………………………………05 History…………………………………………………………………………………………...08 Causes of Job Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction………………………………………………………09  Job characteristics model………………………………………...……………………...09  Social information processing (organizational characteristics)……………………........10  Dispositional approach……………………………………………………………….....11  Life Satisfaction……………………………...………………………………………….13  Other Factors……………………………………...……………………………………..13  Opponent Process Theory…………………………………………...…………………..13 Models……………………………………………………………………………………………14  Affect theory……………………………………………………………………………..15  Equity theory…………………………………………………………………………….16  Discrepancy theory………………………………………………………………………16  Two-factor theory (motivator -hygiene theory)…………………………….……………17  Influencing factors……………………………………………………………………….18 Measures of Job Satisfaction…………………………………………………………………….21 Relationships and practical implications………………………………………………………...24 The Importance of Job Satisfaction……………………………………………………………...25  Employee performance…………………………………………………………………..26  Employee absenteeism…………………………………………………………………..27  Employee turnover………………………………………………………………………28  Correlation vs. causation………………………………………………………………...29 The Importance of Job Satisfaction to Employee Retention…………………………………….29 Application of Job Satisfaction in the Workplace……………………………………………….30 Research on Job Satisfaction…………………………………………………………………….33 The Consequences of Job Dissatisfaction………………………………………………………..35 Research on the Consequences of Job Dissatisfaction…………………………………………..36  Action Alternatives………………………………………………………………………38  Psychological Alternatives………………………………………………………………38  Consequences of Choices………………………………………………………………..39  Experimental Research on Job Satisfaction……………………………………………...39

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 4 Job Satisfaction Overview: Job satisfaction is the most widely investigated job attitude, as well as one of the most extensively researched subjects in Industrial/Organizational Psychology (Judge & Church, 2000). “Job satisfaction is how content an individual is with his or her job, in other words whether or not they like the job or individual aspects or facets of jobs, such as nature of work or supervision.” Scholars have noted that job satisfaction measures vary in the extent to which they measure feelings about the job affective job satisfaction or cognitions about the job cognitive job satisfaction. Many work motivation theories have represented the implied role of job satisfaction. In addition, many work satisfaction theories have tried to explain job satisfaction and its influence, such as: Maslow‟s (1943) Hierarchy of Needs, Hertzberg‟s (1968) Two-Factor (Motivator-Hygiene) Theory, Adam‟s (1965) Equity Theory, Porter and Lawler‟s (1968) modified version of Vroom‟s (1964) VIE Model, Locke‟s (1969) Discrepancy Theory, Hackman and Oldham‟s (1976) Job Characteristics Model, Locke‟s (1976) Range of Affect Theory, Bandura‟s (1977) Social Learning Theory, and Landy‟s (1978) Opponent Process Theory. As a result of this expansive research, job satisfaction has been linked to productivity, motivation, absenteeism/tardiness, accidents, mental/physical health, and general life satisfaction (Landy, 1978). A common idea within the research has been that, to some extent, the emotional state of an individual is affected by interactions with their work environment. People identify themselves by their profession, such as a doctor, lawyer, or teacher. A person‟s individual well being at work, therefore, is a very significant aspect of research (Judge & Klinger, 2007). Definition: “Job satisfaction is the level of contentment a person feels regarding their job.” “Job satisfaction is an attitude that is simply how content an individual is with his or her job; whether he or she likes the job or not. It is assessed at both the global level (whether or not the individual is satisfied with the job overall), or at the facet level (whether or not the individual is satisfied with different aspects of the job).”

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 5 Spector lists 14 common facets: Appreciation, Communication, Coworkers, Fringe benefits, Job conditions, Nature of the work, Organization, Personal growth, Policies and procedures, Promotion opportunities, Recognition, Security, and Supervision). Job satisfaction scales vary in the extent to which they assess the affective feelings about the job or the cognitive assessment of the job. Affective job satisfaction is a subjective construct representing an emotional feeling individuals have about their job. Hence, affective job satisfaction for individuals reflects the degree of pleasure or happiness their job in general induces. Cognitive job satisfaction is a more objective and logical evaluation of various facets of a job. Cognitive job satisfaction can be unidimensional if it comprises evaluation of just one facet of a job, such as pay or maternity leave, or multidimensional if two or more facets of a job are simultaneously evaluated. Cognitive job satisfaction does not assess the degree of pleasure or happiness that arises from specific job facets, but rather gauges the extent to which those job facets are judged by the job holder to be satisfactory in comparison with objectives they themselves set or with other jobs. Types of job satisfaction: There are two types of job satisfaction based on the level of employees' feelings regarding their jobs.  Intrinsic/Global job satisfaction  Extrinsic/job facet satisfaction Intrinsic/Global job satisfaction: The first, and most studied, is global or intrinsic job satisfaction, which refers to employees' overall feelings about their jobs (e.g., "Overall, I love my job.") (Mueller & Kim, 2008). Extrinsic/job facet satisfaction: The second is Extrinsic job or job facet satisfaction, which refers to feelings about specific job aspects, such as salary, benefits, and the quality of relationships with one's co-workers (e.g., "Overall, I love my job, but my schedule is difficult to manage.")

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 6 Job satisfaction is influenced by job expectations -- what people look for or require from a job such as job security, pay, prestige, or independence. And, that some people have higher expectations for work than others. What can you do to maximize your job satisfaction? Based on research and the experience of professional career specialists, here are eight recommendations: 1. Know yourself: Know what is important to you and what is not. What kinds of work tasks or activities are attractive to you? Be clear about what you expect from or require of a job. Write your ideas down. Then, you will know what to look for when choosing among jobs or careers. Are there others, not mentioned, like autonomy or prestige, that are important to you? 2. Learn about jobs that are most likely to meet your expectations: A helpful step is to take The Career Key® test. It will help you identify occupations that fit your personality and to get accurate information about each of them. The activities inLearn about the Jobs that Interest Me are highly recommended. 3. Consider consulting a professional career counselor. 4. Do not allow your job dissatisfactions to go unresolved for long: Job satisfactions and dissatisfactions are barometers of your adjustment to work. They may lead to something worse -- job loss, accidents, even mental illness. Depression, anxiety, worry, tension, and interpersonal problems can result from, or be made worse by job dissatisfaction. In fact, job satisfaction was found to be the best predictor of how long you live . . . better than a doctor's rating of physical functioning, use of tobacco, or genetic inheritance. So, it is important to work out a solution if your job is making you unhappy.

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 7 5. Have realistic expectations for work: Overall job satisfaction is a trade-off (like many things in life). You should not expect 100% satisfaction or 0% dissatisfaction. There are usually dissatisfactions even in the best jobs. And, in today's work world you cannot expect your company to look out for you; you have to take the initiative yourself. 6. Look separately: Look separately at the kind of work you are doing versus the conditions of work(pay, supervisor, coworkers, company, physical working conditions). If you are becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the kind of work you are doing, you should consider a career change. If you are dissatisfied with the conditions of work, you might be able to set matters right by negotiating with your supervisor or your coworkers, or by changing companies. 7. Look down the road at your possible career progress: Present dissatisfactions might be worth bearing if you see your career progressing. 8. Examine your values: Examine your values -- what is most important to you. You have to answer this question honestly: How important is your job, your career to you? Only when this question is answered can you put your job satisfaction or dissatisfaction in proper perspective.

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 8 History: The assessment of job satisfaction through employee anonymous surveys became commonplace in the 1930s. Although prior to that time there was the beginning of interest in employee attitudes, there were only a handful of studies published. Latham and Budworth note that Uhrbrock in 1934 was one of the first psychologists to use the newly developed attitude measurement techniques to assess factory worker attitudes. They also note that in 1935 Hoppock conducted a study that focused explicitly on job satisfaction that is affected by both the nature of the job and relationships with coworkers and supervisors.

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 9 Causes of Job Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction: Since people tend to be evaluative, they look at their work experiences in terms of liking or disliking and develop feelings of satisfaction or dissatisfaction regarding their job, as well as the organization in which they work (Jex, 2002). There are many probable influences that effect how favorably an individual appraises his or her job: specifically, an individual‟s attitude toward his or her job. Through years of extensive research, I/O psychologists have identified numerous variables that seem to contribute to either job satisfaction or organizational commitment (Glisson & Durick, 1988). To explain the development of job satisfaction, researchers have taken three common approaches:  Job characteristics  Social information processing (organizational characteristics)  Dispositional (worker characteristics)  Job characteristics model: In relation to the job characteristics approach, research has revealed that the nature of an individual‟s job or the characteristics of the organization that the individual works for predominantly determines job satisfaction (Jex, 2002). Hackman & Oldham proposed the job characteristics model, which is widely used as a framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job satisfaction. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact three critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness,

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 10 experienced responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of the actual results), in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction, absenteeism, work motivation, and performance). The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect an employee's attitudes and behaviors. Not everyone is equally affected by the MPS of a job. People who are high in growth need strength (the desire for autonomy, challenge and development of new sills on the job) are particularly affected by job characteristics. A meta-analysisof studies that assess the framework of the model provides some support for the validity of the JCM. A common premise in research of the effects of job circumstances on job satisfaction is that individuals determine job satisfaction by comparing what they are currently receiving from the job and what they would like to or believe that they should receive (Jex, 2002). For example, if an employee is receiving an annual salary of $45,000 and believes that he or she should be receiving a salary of $43,000, then he or she will experience satisfaction; however, if the employee believes that he or she should be receiving $53,000, then he or she will feel dissatisfaction. This comparison would apply to each job facet including: skill level, seniority, promotional opportunities, supervision, etc. (Jex, 2002).  Social information processing (organizational characteristics): Based mainly on Festinger‟s (1954) Social Comparison Theory, Jex (2002) explains that during social information processing, employees look to coworkers to make sense of and develop attitudes about their work environment. In other words, if employees see that their co-workers are positive and satisfied then they will most likely be satisfied; however, if their co-workers are negative and dissatisfied then the employee will most likely become dissatisfied as well. Accordingly, organizations are counseled that new hires can become “tainted” during the socialization process if they are placed around employees who are dissatisfied (Jex, 2002). Although laboratory studies have found that social-information has a prevailing impact on job satisfaction and characteristic perceptions, organizational tests have been less supportive (Jex & Spector, 1989). Mirolli, Henderson and Hills (1998) conducted a study. In this study, the subjects performed a task with two experimenters who were pretending to be other subjects (the study referred to them as confederates). In one condition, positive comments were made by the confederates about the job and how much they enjoyed it. In the second condition, the confederates made negative comments about the job and how much they disliked it. In the control condition, no positive or negative comments were made regarding the job. The actual subjects exposed to the confederates who made positive comments rate the job tasks as more enjoyable than the subjects exposed to the negative comments by the confederates. This further supports social information processing theory (Aamondt,2009). Generally, “the research on social information processing theory supports the idea that social environment does have an effect on employees‟ attitudes and behaviors” (Aamondt, 2009, p.374).

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 11  Dispositional approach: The dispositional approach suggests that individuals vary in their tendency to be satisfied with their jobs, in other words, job satisfaction is to some extent an individual trait. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins raised apart have similar levels of job satisfaction. A significant model that narrowed the scope of the dispositional approach was the Core Self-evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge, Edwin A. Locke, and Cathy C. Durham in 1997. Judge et al. argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one‟s disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his/her self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one‟s own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control(believing one has control over herhis own life, as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction.Internal disposition is the basis of the latest method to explaining job satisfaction and hints that some people are inclined to be satisfied or dissatisfied with their work no matter the nature of the job or the organizational environment (Jex, 2002). More simply, some people are genetically positive in disposition (the glass half full), whereas others are innately negative in disposition (the glass half empty).


HRM JOB SATISFACTION 13  Life Satisfaction: Life satisfaction is often considered separately from job satisfaction with regard to productivity in the workplace, but as the majority of this research is correlational, it is beneficial to explore potential relationships between these two factors themselves rather than strictly with regard to performance. Research suggests there is in fact a significant relationship between job satisfaction and life satisfaction, with a correlation of .44 (based on a meta analysis of 34 studies with a combined sample size of 19,811). (Tait et al., 1989) With this relationship being correlational, causation cannot be determined, though it is suggested that the nature of the relationship is reciprocal or bi-directional. (Judge et al., 1993) In other words, life satisfaction may positively influence job satisfaction, and job satisfaction will also positively influence life satisfaction. Conversely, some research suggests that life satisfaction often precedes and is a good predictor of job satisfaction--some directionality (Judge et al., 1993). Whichever the case may be, it cannot be ignored that there is a significant relationship between job satisfaction and life satisfaction based on correlation research (Jones, 2006).  Other Factors: It is difficult to establish all the antecedents leading towards job satisfaction. However, an additional construct that suggests a positive correlation to job satisfaction not yet discussed is engagement. In a meta-analysis, the correlation between job satisfaction and engagement is 0.22. Sterling(2008) notes that 20 percent of engaged individuals do 80 percent of the work. Therefore, it is vital to continue to cultivate job satisfaction among these highly productive individuals.  Opponent Process Theory: Opponent process theory was proposed by Landy (1978) as a theory of job satisfaction, based on the ideas of Solomon and Corbit (1973). This theory “implies that each worker has a typical or characteristic level of job satisfaction that could be called the person‟s steady state or equilibrium level” (Brief, 1998, p. 30). When changes occur in a job position or work situation this causes disequilibrium, however, over time the employee‟s satisfaction level will return to the equilibrium state (Brief, 1998). An example of this would be a pay raise. The raise would cause satisfaction to increase, but eventually the worker‟s satisfaction will return to the steady state. This theory has not yet been tested extensively through research. Research does show that job satisfaction levels remain fairly stable over time and that changes in the satisfaction levels are often only temporary (Brief, 1998).

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 14 Models:  Affect theory: Edwin A. Locke‟s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren‟t met. When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who doesn‟t value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet.

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 15  Equity theory: Equity Theory shows how a person views fairness in regard to social relationships such as with an employer. A person identifies the amount of input (things gained) from a relationship compared to the output (things given) to produce an input/output ratio. They then compare this ratio to the ratio of other people in deciding whether or not they have an equitable relationship. Equity Theory suggests that if an individual thinks there is an inequality between two social groups or individuals, the person is likely to be distressed because the ratio between the input and the output are not equal. For example, consider two employees who work the same job and receive the same pay and benefits. If one individual gets a pay raise for doing the same work than the other, then the less benefited individual will become distressed in his workplace. If, on the other hand, one individual gets a pay raise and new responsibilities, then the feeling of equity will be maintained. Other psychologists have extended the equity theory, suggesting three behavioral response patterns to situations of perceived equity or inequity (Huseman, Hatfield, & Mile, 1987; O'Neil & Mone 1998). These three types are benevolent, equity sensitive, and entitled. The level by each type affects motivation, job satisfaction, and job performance:  Benevolent-Satisfied when they are under-rewarded compared with co-workers.  Equity sensitive-Believe everyone should be fairly rewarded.  Entitled-People believe that everything they receive is their just due.  Discrepancy theory: The concept of discrepancy theory explains the ultimate source of anxiety and dejection. An individual, who has not fulfilled his responsibility feels the sense of anxiety and regret for not performing well, they will also feel dejection due to not being able to achieve their hopes and aspirations. According to this theory, all individuals will learn what their obligations and responsibilities for a particular function, over a time period, and if they fail to fulfill those obligations then they are punished. Over time, these duties and obligations consolidate to form an abstracted set of principles, designated as a self-guide. Agitation and anxiety are the main responses when an individual fails to achieve the obligation or responsibility. This theory also explains that if achievement of the obligations is obtained then the reward can be praise, approval, or love. These achievements and aspirations also form an abstracted set of principles, referred to as the ideal self guide. When the individual fails to obtain these rewards, they begin to have feelings of dejection, disappointment, or even depression.

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 16  Two-factor theory (motivator-hygiene theory): Frederick Herzberg‟s two-factor theory (also known as motivator-hygiene theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace. This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. An employee‟s motivation to work is continually related to job satisfaction of a subordinate. Motivation can be seen as an inner force that drives individuals to attain personal and organizational goals (Hoskinson, Porter, & Wrench, p. 133). Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction, For example achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities. These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out. Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions.

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 17  Influencing factors:  Environmental factors: Communication overload and underload: One of the most important aspects of an individual‟s work in a modern organization concerns the management of communication demands that he or she encounters on the job. Demands can be characterized as a communication load, which refers to “the rate and complexity of communication inputs an individual must process in a particular time frame.” Individuals in an organization can experience communication over-load and communication under- load which can affect their level of job satisfaction. Communication overload can occur when “an individual receives too many messages in a short period of time which can result in unprocessed information or when an individual faces more complex messages that are more difficult to process.” Due to this process, “given an individual‟s style of work and motivation to complete a task, when more inputs exist than outputs, the individual perceives a condition of overload which can be positively or negatively related to job satisfaction. In comparison, communication under load can occur when messages or inputs are sent below the individual‟s ability to process them.” According to the ideas of communication over-load and under-load, if an individual does not receive enough input on the job or is unsuccessful in processing these inputs, the individual is more likely to become dissatisfied, aggravated, and unhappy with their work which leads to a low level of job satisfaction. Superior-subordinate communication: Superior-subordinate communication is an important influence on job satisfaction in the workplace. The way in which subordinates perceive a supervisor's behavior can positively or negatively influence job satisfaction. Communication behavior such as facial expression, eye contact, vocal expression, and body movement is crucial to the superior-subordinate relationship. Nonverbal messages play a central role in interpersonal interactions with respect to impression formation, deception, attraction, social influence, and emotional. Nonverbal immediacy from the supervisor helps to increase interpersonal involvement with their subordinates impacting job satisfaction. The manner in which supervisors communicate with their subordinates non-verbally may be more important than the verbal content. Individuals who dislike and think negatively about their supervisor are less willing to communicate or have motivation to work whereas individuals who like and think positively of their supervisor are more likely to communicate and are satisfied with their job and work environment. A supervisor who uses nonverbal immediacy, friendliness, and open communication lines is more likely to receive positive feedback and high job satisfaction from a subordinate. Conversely, a supervisor who is antisocial, unfriendly, and

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 18 unwilling to communicate will naturally receive negative feedback and create low job satisfaction in their subordinates in the workplace.  Strategic employee recognition: A Watson Wyatt Worldwide study identified a positive outcome between a collegical and flexible work environment and an increase in shareholder value. Suggesting that employee satisfaction is directly related to financial gain. Over 40 percent of the companies listed in the top 100 of Fortune magazine‟s, “America‟s Best Companies to Work For” also appear on the Fortune 500. It is possible that successful workers enjoy working at successful companies, however, the Watson Wyatt Worldwide Human Capital Index study claims that effective human resources practices, such as employee recognition programs, lead to positive financial outcomes more often than positive financial outcomes lead to good practices. Employee recognition is not only about gifts and points. It's about changing the corporate culture in order to meet goals and initiatives and most importantly to connect employees to the company's core values and beliefs. Strategic employee recognition is seen as the most important program not only to improve employee retention and motivation but also to positively influence the financial situation. The difference between the traditional approach (gifts and points) and strategic recognition is the ability to serve as a serious business influencer that can advance a company‟s strategic objectives in a measurable way. "The vast majority of companies want to be innovative, coming up with new products, business models and better ways of doing things. However, innovation is not so easy to achieve. A CEO cannot just order it, and so it will be. You have to carefully manage an organization so that, over time, innovations will emerge."  Individual factors: Emotion: Mood and emotions at work are related to job satisfaction. Moods tend to be longer lasting but often weaker states of uncertain origin, while emotions are often more intense, short-lived and have a clear object or cause. Some research suggests moods are related to overall job satisfaction. Positive and negative emotions were also found to be significantly related to overall job satisfaction. Frequency of experiencing net positive emotion will be a better predictor of overall job satisfaction than will intensity of positive emotion when it is experienced. Emotion work (or emotion management) refers to various types of efforts to manage emotional states and displays. Emotion management includes all of the conscious and unconscious efforts to increase, maintain, or decrease one or more components of an emotion. Although early studies of the consequences of emotional work emphasized its harmful effects on workers, studies of

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 19 workers in a variety of occupations suggest that the consequences of emotional work are not uniformly negative. It was found that suppression of unpleasant emotions decreases job satisfaction and the amplification of pleasant emotions increases job satisfaction. The understanding of how emotion regulation relates to job satisfaction concerns two models: 1. Emotional dissonance: Emotional dissonance is a state of discrepancy between public displays of emotions and internal experiences of emotions, that often follows the process of emotion regulation. Emotional dissonance is associated with high emotional exhaustion, low organizational commitment, and low job satisfaction. 2. Social interaction model: Taking the social interaction perspective, workers‟ emotion regulation might beget responses from others during interpersonal encounters that subsequently impact their own job satisfaction. For example: The accumulation of favorable responses to displays of pleasant emotions might positively affect job satisfaction. Genetics: It has been well documented that genetics influence a variety of individual differences.[46] Some research suggests genetics also play a role in the intrinsic, direct experiences of job satisfaction like challenge or achievement (as opposed to extrinsic, environmental factors like working conditions). One experiment used sets of monozygotic twins, reared apart, to test for the existence of genetic influence on job satisfaction. While the results indicate the majority of the variance in job satisfaction was due to environmental factors (70%), genetic influence is still a minor factor. Genetic heritability was also suggested for several of the job characteristics measured in the experiment, such as complexity level, motor skill requirements, and physical demands. Personality: Some research suggests an association between personality and job satisfaction. Specifically, this research describes the role of negative affectivity and positive affectivity. Negative affectivity is related strongly to the personality trait of neuroticism. Individuals high in negative affectivity are more prone to experience less job satisfaction. Positive affectivity is related strongly to the personality trait of extraversion. Those high in positive affectivity are more prone to be satisfied in most dimensions of their life, including their job. Differences in affectivity likely impact how individuals will perceive objective job circumstances like pay and working conditions, thus affecting their satisfaction in that job.

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 20 There are two personality factors related to job satisfaction, alienation and locus of control. Employees who have an internal locus of control and feel less alienated are more likely to experience job satisfaction, job involvement and organizational commitment. A meta-analysis of 187 studies of job satisfaction concluded that high satisfaction was was positively associated with internal locus of control. The study also showed characteristics like high Machiavellianism, narcissism, trait anger, type A personality dimensions of achievement striving and impatience/irritability, are also related to job satisfaction.  Psychological well-being: Psychological well-being (PWB) is defined as “the overall effectiveness of an individual‟s psychological functioning” as related to primary facets of one‟s life: work, family, community, etc. There are three defining characteristics of PWB. First, it is a phenomenological event, meaning that people are happy when they subjectively believe themselves to be so. Second, well- being involves some emotional conditions. Particularly, psychologically well people are more prone to experience positive emotions and less prone to experience negative emotions. Third, well-being refers to one's life as a whole. It is a global evaluation. PWB is primarily measured using the eight-item Index of Psychological Well-Being developed by Berkman (IPWB). IPWB asks respondents to reply to a series a questions on how often they felt “pleased about accomplishing something,” “bored,” “depressed or unhappy,” etc. PWB in the workplace plays an important role in determining job satisfaction and has attracted much research attention in recent years. These studies have focused on the effects of PWB on job satisfaction as well as job performance.

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 21 Measures of Job Satisfaction: The majority of job satisfaction measures are self-reports and based on multi-item scales. Several measures have been developed over the years, although they vary in terms of how carefully and distinctively they are conceptualized with respect to affective or cognitive job satisfaction. They also vary in terms of the extent and rigor of their psychometric validation. The Brief Index of Affective Job Satisfaction (BIAJS) is a 4-item, overtly affective as opposed to cognitive, measure of overall affective job satisfaction. The BIAJS differs from other job satisfaction measures in being comprehensively validated not just for internal consistency reliability, temporal stability, convergent and criterion-related validities, but also for cross- population invariance by nationality, job level, and job type. The Job Descriptive Index (JDI), is a specifically cognitive job satisfaction measure. It measures one‟s satisfaction in five facets: pay, promotions and promotion opportunities, coworkers, supervision, and the work itself. The scale is simple, participants answer either yes, no, or can‟t decide (indicated by „?‟) in response to whether given statements accurately describe one‟s job. Other job satisfaction questionnaires include: the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS), and the Faces Scale. The MSQ measures job satisfaction in 20 facets and has a long form with 100 questions (five items from each facet) and a short form with 20 questions (one item from each facet). The JSS is a 36 item questionnaire that measures nine facets of job satisfaction. Finally, the Faces Scale of job satisfaction, one of the first scales used widely, measured overall job satisfaction with just one item which participants respond to by choosing a face.

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 22 The following are measures of job satisfaction as outlined by Fields (2002):  Overall Job Satisfaction: Cammann, Fichman, Jenkins, and Klesh (1983) developed this measure as part of the Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire (OAQ). In this measure three items are used to describe an employee‟s subjective response to working in the specific job and organization.  Job Descriptive Index (JDI): This was originally developed by Smith, Kendall, and Hulin (1969). There are 72 items on this index which assess five facets of job satisfaction which includes: the work, pay, promotions, supervision, and coworkers. Through the combination of ratings of satisfaction with the faces, a composite measure of job satisfaction is determined. Roznowski (1989) updated the JDI to include work atmosphere, job content and work technology. A shorter, 30-item version, was developed by Gregson (1990) based on 6 items which included work, pay, promotions, supervision and co-workers.  Global Job Satisfaction: Warr, Cook, and Wall (1979) developed this measure which includes 15 items to determine overall job satisfaction. Two subscales are used for extrinsic and intrinsic aspects of the job. The extrinsic section has eight items and the intrinsic has seven items.  Job Satisfaction Relative to Expectations: Bacharach, Bamberger, and Conley (1991) developed this measure. It assesses the degree “of agreement between the perceived quality of broad aspects of a job and employee expectations” (Fields, 2002, p. 6). It is most effective to determine how job stresses, role conflicts, or role ambiguities can hinder an employee from meeting job expectations.  Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire: The long form of this survey is made up of 100 questions based on 20 sub scales which measure satisfaction with “ability, utilization, achievement, activity, advancement, authority, company policies and practices, compensation, co-workers, creativity, independence, moral values, recognition, responsibility, security, social service, social status, supervision-human relations, supervision-technical variety, and working conditions”. There is a short version of the MSQ which consists of 20 items. This can also be separated into two subscales for intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction.  Job in General Scale: This measure was developed by Ironson, Smith, Brannick, Gibson, and Paul (1989). It consists of 18 items which describe global job satisfaction and can be used in conjunction with the JDI, which assesses satisfaction with five job facets. This was developed to “assess global satisfaction independent from satisfaction with facets”.

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 23  Job Satisfaction Survey: This was developed by Spector (1985) and contains 36 items based on nine job facets. The job facets include pay, promotion, supervision, benefits, contingent rewards, operating procedures, co-workers, nature of work and communication. When it was initially developed, it was specific to job satisfaction in human service, nonprofit and public organizations.  Job Satisfaction Index: Schriescheim and Tsue, (1980) developed this measure. It consists of six items that form and index which determines overall job satisfaction. The items are the work, supervision, co- workers, pay, promotion opportunities, and the job in general.  Job Diagnostic Survey: Hackman and Oldham (1974) developed this survey which measures both overall and specific facets of job satisfaction. There are three dimensions of overall job satisfaction which includes general satisfaction, internal work motivation, and growth satisfaction, which are combined into a single measure. The facets which are measured on the survey include security, compensation, co-workers, and supervision.  Career Satisfaction: Greenhaus, Parasuraman, and Wormley (1990) developed this measure. This is a measure of career success, as opposed to job satisfaction. It assesses general satisfaction with career outcome, but also satisfaction with career progress.

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 24 Relationships and practical implications: Job satisfaction can be indicative of work behaviors such as organizational citizenship, and withdrawal behaviors such as absenteeism, and turnover. Further, job satisfaction can partially mediate the relationship of personality variables and deviant work behaviors. One common research finding is that job satisfaction is correlated with life satisfaction. This correlation is reciprocal, meaning people who are satisfied with life tend to be satisfied with their job and people who are satisfied with their job tend to be satisfied with life. However, some research has found that job satisfaction is not significantly related to life satisfaction when other variables such as non-work satisfaction and core self-evaluations are taken into account. An important finding for organizations to note is that job satisfaction has a rather tenuous correlation to productivity on the job. This is a vital piece of information to researchers and businesses, as the idea that satisfaction and job performance are directly related to one another is often cited in the media and in some non-academic management literature. A recent meta-analysis found surprisingly low correlations between job satisfaction and performance. Further, the meta-analysis found that the relationship between satisfaction and performance can be moderated by job complexity, such that for high-complexity jobs the correlation between satisfaction and performance is higher than for jobs of low to moderate complexity. Additionally, one longitudinal study indicated that among work attitudes, job satisfaction is a strong predictor of absenteeism, suggesting that increasing job satisfaction and organizational commitment are potentially good strategies for reducing absenteeism and turnover intentions. Recent research has also shown that intention to quit alone can have negative effects on performance, organizational deviance, and organizational citizenship behaviors. In short, the relationship of satisfaction to productivity is not as straightforward as often assumed and can be influenced by a number of different work-related constructs, and the notion that "a happy worker is a productive worker" should not be the foundation of organizational decision-making. For example: employee personality may even be more important than job satisfaction in regards to performance.

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 25 The Importance of Job Satisfaction: As mentioned in the overview, job satisfaction has been linked to many variables, including performance, absenteeism, and turnover, which will be discussed further in this section. Job satisfaction is significant because a person's attitude and beliefs may affect his or her behavior. Attitudes and beliefs may cause a person to work harder, or, the opposite may occur, and he or she may work less. Job satisfaction also affects a person's general well being for the reason that people spend a good part of the day at work. Consequently, if a person is dissatisfied with their work, this could lead to dissatisfaction in other areas of their life.  Employee performance: The link between job satisfaction and job performance has a long and controversial history. Researchers were first made aware of the link between satisfaction and performance through the 1924-1933 Hawthorne studies (Naidu, 1996). Since the Hawthorne studies, numerous researchers have critically examined the idea that "a happy worker is a productive worker". Research results of Iaffaldano and Muchinsky (1985) have found a weak connection, approximately .17, between job satisfaction and job performance. On the other hand, research conducted by Organ (1988) discovered that a stronger connection between performance and satisfaction was not found because of the narrow definition of job performance. Organ (1988) believes that when the definition of job performance includes behaviors such as organizational citizenship (the extent to which one's voluntary support contributes to the success of an organization) the relationship between satisfaction and performance will improve. Judge, Thoreson, Bono, and Patton (2001) discovered that after correcting the sampling and measurement errors of 301 studies, the correlation between job satisfaction and job performance increased to .30. It is important to note that the connection between job satisfaction and job performance is higher for difficult jobs than for less difficult jobs (Saari & Judge, 2004). A link does exist between job satisfaction and job performance; however, it is not as strong as one would initially believe. The weak link may be attributed to factors such as job structure or economic conditions.

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 26 For example: some jobs are designed so that a minimum level of performance is required which does not allow for high satisfaction. Additionally, in times of high unemployment, dissatisfied employees will perform well, choosing unsatisfying work over unemployment. "In 2006, researcher Michelle Jones analyzed three studies pulling together 74 separate investigations of job satisfaction and job performance in 12,000 workers. She wrote: 'The conclusions drawn by these researchers, and many others, indicate the presence of a positive, but very weak, relationship between job satisfaction and job performance.' Jones argues we have been measuring the wrong kind of satisfaction. Instead of job satisfaction, we should be looking at the link between overall satisfaction with life and output at work" (Bright, 2008). In this study, Jones implies that the more satisfied someone is with their life in general, the more productive we will be in our jobs.  Employee absenteeism: Numerous studies have been done to show the correlation of job satisfaction and absenteeism. For example: Goldberg and Waldman looked at absenteeism in two dimensions as total time lost (number of missed days) and the frequency of time lost. Self-reported data and records-based data were collected and compared. Following absenteeism measures were evaluated according to absenteeism predictors:  Self-report time lost  Self-reported frequency  Records-based time lost Only three categories of predictors had a significant relationship ratio and were taken in account further:  Health  Wages  Position level This research results revealed that absenteeism cannot be predicted by job satisfaction, although other studies have found significant relationships.

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 27 One of the more widely researched topics in Industrial Psychology is the relationship between job satisfaction and employee absenteeism (Cheloha & Farr, 1980). It seems natural to assume that if individuals dislike their jobs then they will often call in sick, or simply look for a new opportunity. Yet again, the link between these factors and job satisfaction is weak. The correlation between job satisfaction and absenteeism is 0.25 (Johns, 1997). It is likely that a satisfied worker may miss work due to illness or personal matters, while an unsatisfied worker may not miss work because he or she does not have any sick time and cannot afford the loss of income. When people are satisfied with their job they may be more likely to attend work even if they have a cold; however, if they are not satisfied with their job, they will be more likely to call in sick even when they are well enough to work.  Employee turnover: According to a meta-analysis of 42 studies, the correlation between job satisfaction and turnover is 0.24 (Carsten & Spector, 1987). One obvious factor-effecting turnover would be an economic downturn, in which unsatisfied workers may not have other employment opportunities. On the other hand, a satisfied worker may be forced to resign his or her position for personal reasons such as illness or relocation. This holds true for our men and women Armed Force who might fit well in a job but are often made to relocate regardless. In this case, it would be next to impossible to measure any correlation of job satisfaction. Furthermore, a person is more likely to be actively searching for another job if they have low satisfaction; whereas, a person who is satisfied with their job is less likely to be job seeking.

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 28 Correlation vs. causation: While one may wish to understand which variables increase or decrease job satisfaction, it is important to remember that correlation is not equivalent to causation (Steinberg, 2008). Research has shown that there is a correlation between job satisfaction and performance, turnover, and absenteeism. A correlation indicates that there is a relationship between these variables; however, it does not explain "which variable, if either, caused the relationship" (Steinberg, 2008, p. 419). It is entirely possible that an outside variable is responsible for the correlation (Steinberg, 2008). For example, job satisfaction and job performance are positively correlated (when job satisfaction increases, job performance increases). However, for one person, satisfaction may increase because performance increases, whereas, for another, performance may increase because satisfaction increases. It is impossible to tell whether job satisfaction causes increased job performance or that job performance causes increased job satisfaction based on correlation alone. The following is a list of alternative explanations of a correlation (Pearson, 2010):  Reverse causation- The causal direction is opposite what has been hypothesized; e.g., job performance causes an increase in job satisfaction rather than the other way around.  Reciprocal causation- The two variables cause each other; e.g. high job satisfaction causes high job performance which then increases job satisfaction.  Common-causal variables- Variables not part of the research hypothesis cause both the predictor and the outcome variable; e.g. individual disposition may cause both satisfaction and job performance.

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 29  Spurious relationship- The common-causal variable produces and “explains away” the relationship between the predictor and outcome variables; e.g., individual differences in disposition as described above.  Extraneous variables- Variables other than the predictor causes the outcome variable, but do not cause the predictor variable; e.g., pressure from a supervisor causes high performance.  Mediating variables- Variables caused by the predictor variable in turn cause the outcome variable; e.g. experience could cause high performance which then could cause satisfaction (performance would be the mediating variable). The Importance of Job Satisfaction to Employee Retention: The following cartoon caption depicts the importance of job satisfaction to employee retention. Employee retention is one of the most difficult operational areas for human resources managers to determine exactly why employees leave the organization, and what they can do to retain them. This is of primary importance because organizations invest significant resources in training, developing, tangible and intangible compensation and taking the time to build organizational citizenship and buy-in to goals and objectives (Kazi & Zadeh, 2011). In difficult economies and high competition, both organizations and employees want the best resources. Job dissatisfaction leads to job turnover. This dissatisfaction can be from intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Job turnover can result from various conditions such as job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is multi-faceted, meaning one can be satisfied in one area but does not necessarily mean satisfaction in all areas; likewise, dissatisfaction in one area does not mean complete job dissatisfaction (Kazi & Zadeh, 2011). Additionally, job turnover can be related to work-life conflict. The work life and personal life is an individual‟s experience to maintain harmony (balance) between work and personal relationships. According to Kazi & Zadeh (2011) propose that an imbalance or dissatisfaction in work leads to dissatisfaction in personal life. This can lead to job turnover. This is precisely what Swift (2007) reported in his article about having a more fulfilled and productive workforce.

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 30 Application of Job Satisfaction in the Workplace: The application of job satisfaction in the workplace is a tough concept to grasp due to its individualistic and circumstantial nature. What one employee desires from their work, another may not. For instance, one employee may put their salary in high regard, while another may find autonomy most important. Unfortunately, one aspect alone will most likely not effect an employee's job satisfaction. According to Syptak, Marsland, and Ulmer (1999), there are numerous aspects of a job that an organization can manage to increase satisfaction in the workplace, such as:  Company Policies: Policies that are clear, fair and applied equally to all employees will decrease dissatisfaction. Therefore, fairness and clarity are important and can go a long way in improving employee attitude. For example, if a company has a policy for lunch breaks that are the same length and time for everyone, employees will see this as the norm and it will help cut down on wasted time and low productivity.  Salary/Benefits: Making sure employee salaries and benefits are comparable to other organization salaries and benefits will help raise satisfaction. If a company wishes to produce a competitive product they must also offer competitive wages. In addition, this can help reduce turnover, as employees will often be more satisfied when paid competitive wages as opposed to being underpaid.  Interpersonal/Social Relations: Allowing employees to develop a social aspect to their job may increase satisfaction as well as develop a sense of teamwork. Co-worker relationships may also benefit the organization as a whole; given that, teamwork is a very important aspect of organization productivity and success. Moreover, when people are allowed to develop work relationships they care more about pulling their own weight and not letting co-workers down.  Working Conditions: Keeping up to date facilities and equipment and making sure employees have adequate personal workspace can decrease dissatisfaction. A cramped employee is a frustrated employee plus faulty equipment provides frustration in trying to get work done.  Achievement: Making sure employees are in the proper positions to utilize their talents may enhance satisfaction. When employees are in the proper role and feel a sense of achievement and challenge, their talents will be in line with the goals best suited for them.

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 31  Recognition: Taking the time to acknowledge a job well done can increase the likelihood of employee satisfaction. Positive and constructive feedback boosts an employee's morale and keeps them working in the right direction.  Autonomy: Giving employees the freedom of ownership of their work may help raise satisfaction. Job satisfaction may result when an individual knows they are responsible for the outcome of their work.  Advancement: Allowing employees, who show high performance and loyalty, room to advance will help ensure satisfaction. A new title and sense of responsibility can often increase job satisfaction in an employee.  Job Security: Especially in times of economic uncertainty, job security is a very high factor in determining an employee's job satisfaction. Giving an employee the assurance that their job is secure will most likely increase job satisfaction.  Work-life Balance Practices: In times where the average household is changing it is becoming more important for an employer to recognize the delicate balancing act that its employees perform between their personal life and work life. Policies that respond to common personal and family needs can be essential to maintaining job satisfaction.

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 32 When it comes to applying job satisfaction in the workplace, it is important to look at all aspects of job satisfaction. Every employee is different and will likely have different views which makes job satisfaction extremely hard to research; however, Everett (1995) suggests that responsible employees ask themselves the following questions:  When have I come closest to expressing my full potential in a work situation?  What did it look like?  What aspects of the workplace were most supportive?  What aspects of the work itself were most satisfying?  What did I learn from that experience that could be applied to the present situation? In order for the employee to answer these questions, job satisfaction must be fully deployed within the organization. Listed in the above section are numerous aspects that organizations can utilize to help increase satisfaction. In addition to these aspects, organizations must also look at the needs of the employee. For example, an employee, who is a great asset to the company as he or she is highly educated and motivated, may have personal issues such as a child who requires daycare. As a remedy, organizations could allow flexible work arrangements such as telecommuting, which would create a win-win situation both for the employee and the organization. Additionally, an organization should provide more opportunities for employees to help increase job satisfaction. Consequently, this would peak an interest in the employee, allowing him/her to take more pride in his or her work. Although research might be difficult for job satisfaction theories, especially within the correlation field, there is just enough useful information to help employees and organizations become successful and enjoy their jobs, provided the right type of leadership is at the helm.

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 33 Research on Job Satisfaction: Job satisfaction is the most frequently studied variable in organizational behavior (Spector, 1997). Research on job satisfaction is performed through various methods, including interviews, observation, and questionnaires. The questionnaire is the most frequently used research method because it is unrestrained in nature. Researchers can use an existing assessment tool, or scale, as a means of assessment. Using an existing scale provides the researcher with a valid, reliable, and consistent construct when assessing job satisfaction. Job satisfaction can be assessed using a general scale, facet satisfaction scale or global satisfaction scale. The Jobs Descriptive Index (JDI) is the most popular job satisfaction assessment tool with researchers (Spector, 1997). The JDI is broken down into five faucets of satisfaction: work, pay, promotion, supervision, and coworkers.

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 34 According to another study by Syptak, Marsland, and Ulmer (1999) satisfied employees tend to be more productive, creative and committed to their employers. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that there is a direct correlation between staff satisfaction and patient satisfaction. In the case of the physician's office, the study found that not only were the employees and patients more satisfied, the physicians found an increased level of job satisfaction as well. The study conducted in the physician's office was based on Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory. Hygiene factors are related to the work environment and include: company policies, supervision, salary, interpersonal relations and working conditions. Motivators factors are related to the job and make employees want to succeed and include: achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility and advancement. According to Herzberg, once the hygiene issues are addressed, the motivators promote job satisfaction and encourage production. In applying Herzberg's theory to the real life physicians practice, the study first addressed the hygiene factors "because these are important to creating an environment which employee satisfaction and motivation are even possible” (Syptak, Marsland, & Ulmer, 1999). The study discussed in detail each aspect of the hygiene factors and how the physicians could apply these factors to create an environment that promoted job satisfaction. The study then moved on to the motivators and again discussed in detail the aspects of each factor. Finally, "by creating an environment that promotes job satisfaction, you are developing employees who are motivated, productive and fulfilled” (Syptak, Marsland, & Ulmer, 1999). The image below provides a visual between the differences in motivators and de-motivators in job satisfaction.

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 35 The Consequences of Job Dissatisfaction: According to the exit-voice- loyalty-neglect framework (Farrell, 1983), employees‟ response to dissatisfaction with the workplace can take four forms, each of which differs from the others on two dimensions: active vs. passive and constructive vs. destructive. The four responses are:  Exit: exit refers to behavior aimed at leaving the company, such as looking for a new job. Exit is destructive and active response.  Voice: voice refers to employ initiative to improve conditions at the organizations, for example, offering ideas on who to improve the business. Voice is an active and constructive response.  Loyalty: loyalty refers an employee‟s attitude of trust toward the organization. It can manifest itself as a passive but optimistic hope for improvements to come about. Loyalty is a passive but constructive.  Neglect: Neglect occurs when an employee shows absenteeism, shows up late to work, and expends less effort at work. By performing inadequately at work, the employee is allowing conditions to deteriorate. Neglect is passive and destructive.

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 36 Research on the Consequences of Job Dissatisfaction: The Consequences of Job Dissatisfaction: Researchers Henne & Locke (1985) designed a model that illustrates what they hypothesis happens to individuals who are dissatisfied with their jobs. When job dissatisfaction strikes it is merely an emotional state; in response to the emotional state people will devise an alternative plan that is dependent upon the individual, his estimation of the situation and his own capabilities or aspirations. The alternative plan (see diagram above) will be behavioral or psychological (Henne & Locke, 1985).

HRM JOB SATISFACTION 37 Action Alternatives:  Performance: It‟s almost intuitive to conclude that people who are dissatisfied don‟t perform as well as people who are satisfied with their job. However this isn‟t always the case; discontent can trigger a change for people to come up with creative solutions to problems (Zhou & George, 2001). If a person is dissatisfied they may perform better to rectify the situation. So performance level may be high of low depending on the individual.  Protest: Another form of action an unhappy worker may use is the protest. One form of protest is unionization. People tend to join unions for a number of

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