Published on March 6, 2014
Career Development Prepared by:Ankit gangwal , Gopi yadav Aman natani, Abhishek sharma
Linking data to propositions` ”effects” pattern ”no effects” pattern Observation
Ann Roe's career development theory This theory of career development was a needs approach ROE’S theory of carrier choice concludes that difference in early childhood experience get reflected in later choice of occupation. This theory of career development was a needs approach in which genetics, childhood experiences, and the relationship with parents were contributing factors to the choice of a career. She believed that the parenting style would determine whether or not a person would be people-orientated A/c to theory it is these orientations that leads to interest development and occupational choice.
Anne Roe was the first career specialist to develop a two-dimensional system of occupational classification that utilizes FIELDS and LEVELS. These field dimension based on interest, and primary focus of occupation These level dimension based on responsibility, capacity, skill in occupation. The 8 occupational "fields" include: Service, Business, Contact, Organizations, Technology, Outdoor, Science, General Culture, and Arts & Entertainment The 6 "levels" of skill include: Professional & Managerial 1, Professional & Managerial 2, Semi-Professional / Small Business, Skilled, SemiSkilled, and Unskilled
GINZBERG’S THEORY OF CARRIER DEVELOPMENT Theorists, Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, and Herma. Ginzberg et al. were the first group of career theorists to take a holistic approach to career planning. They looked at the whole person and the development of a career decision over the time. Ginzbergs states that in the process of career determining is the series of interlocked that adolescents make over time The second proposition is that process of career choice is largely irreversible. – once launched ,it become very difficult to change direction. According to Ginzberg et al., career decision-making occurs in three phases 1.Fantasy: Takes place until about the age of eleven. Children role play and imagine themselves in various work situations. During this phase, children begin to think about which careers they might like to do in the future. 2. Tentative: Children begin to make tentative or preliminary career choices based upon information gathered through the following sub-phases:
cont Interests (Age 11 or 12): The child makes more concrete decisions about him or her likes, dislikes, and interests. Capacity (Age 13 or 14): The teenager becomes more aware of his or her particular abilities as they relate to potential career. Values (Age 15 or 16): The teenager considers their personal values and priorities in life, as well as his or her occupational lifestyle. Transition (Age 17 or 18): At this point, the individual becomes aware of the . decision for making a vocational choice 3. Realistic: Adolescents start to crystallize and specify occupations of interest. This final phase is made up of the following sub-phases. Exploration: After considering options, the individual begins to narrow his or her career choices. Crystallization: The individual commits to a specific career field. Specification: The individual selects a job or professional training program as required by their career of choice.
Super theory of career development Super theory of career development says that, work / life satisfaction is depended upon the extent of your abilities, interests, personality, and values. Major Points: 1) Career development is a life long process. 2) Career pattern is determined by parent's socioeconomic level, mental ability, personality, and opportunities 3) Work / life satisfaction is depended upon interests, personality, and values.
According to Super, self-concept changes over time, and develops as a result of experience. As such, career development is lifelong.
Carrier planning Career planning is the process by which one selects career goals and the path to these goals. Career development is those personal improvements one undertakes to achieve a personal career plan. Career management is the process of designing and implementing goals, plans and strategies to enable the organization to satisfy employee needs while allowing individuals to achieve their career goals. So, due to this career planning and development is necessary to each and every employee in an organization. The need of career planning and development is felt in each and every organization of today’s global world.
Process of Career Planning & Development The following are the steps in Career Planning and Development: 1. Analysis of individual skills, knowledge, abilities, aptitudes etc. 2. Analysis of career opportunities both within and outside the organization. 3. Analysis of career demands on the incumbent in terms of skills, knowledge, abilities, aptitude etc., and in terms of qualifications, experience and training received etc. 4. Relating specific jobs to different career opportunities. 5. Establishing realistic goals both short-term and long-term. 6. Formulating career strategy covering areas of change and adjustment. 7. Preparing and implementing action plan including acquiring resources for achieving goals.
Advantages of Career Planning and Development For Individuals: 1. The process of career planning helps the individual to have the knowledge of various career opportunities, his priorities etc. 2. This knowledge helps him select the career that is suitable to his life styles, preferences, family environment, scope for self-development etc. 3. It helps the organization identify internal employees who can be promoted. 4. Internal promotions, upgradation and transfers motivate the employees, boost up their morale and also result in increased job satisfaction. 5. Increased job satisfaction enhances employee commitment and creates a sense of belongingness and loyalty to the organization. 6. Employee will await his turn of promotion rather than changing to another organization. This will lower employee turnover. 7. It improves employee’s performance on the job by taping their potential abilities and further employee turnover. 8. It satisfies employee esteem needs.
For Organizations: A long-term focus of career planning and development will increase the effectiveness of human resource management. More specifically, the advantages of career planning and development for an organization include: i. Efficient career planning and development ensures the availability of human resources with required skill, knowledge and talent. ii. The efficient policies and practices improve the organization’s ability to attract and retain highly skilled and talent employees. iii. The proper career planning ensures that the women and people belong to backward communities get opportunities for growth and development. iv. The career plan continuously tries to satisfy the employee expectations and as such minimizes employee frustration. v. By attracting and retaining the people from different cultures, enhances cultural diversity. vi. Protecting employees’ interest results in promoting organizational goodwill.
CRITES’ THEORY OF CAREER MATURITY Crites has formulated a model of career maturity that encompasses both the content and the process of career decision making. He proposed that abilities are organized in a hierarchical Fashion.. The lowest level of hierarchy includes specific factors such as knowledge of the world of work. The intermediate level comprises group factors of dimensions that coverage upon the highest level of the hierarchical model-the general factor ‘G’. This ‘G’ is the degree of career maturity. It can be defined in absolute terms as ‘the place reached on the continuum of career development’ or in relative terms as the individual’s standing in the appropriate age or grade reference group..
Main points 1:- Occupational and career thinking occurs during adolescence. 2:- values have their basis in abilities and attitudes. 3:- vocational interests and work values seem to be closely related with each other.
Categories of sources of satisfaction from work: Intrinsic values are satisfactions derived from the activity itself. Extrinsic values are the returns that a job provides. Concomitant values are those aspects of work that are a part of the task situation,although not necessarily part of the work itself.For example, in many tasks the appeal lies not in what one does, but in the interaction a person enjoys with others while working.
Dimensions identified with respect to satisfaction: Security: Desire to have a high income,economic security,good fringe benefits,etc. Autonomy: Desire to act independently or to exert influence. Affiliation: Desire to maintain social contacts,either active or passive. Respect: Wish to gain recognition,esteem,respect and status. Self-expression: Desire to express oneself in one’s work to accomplish given tasks….
What is diff. b/w career and job •A job is something you do simply to earn money; a career is a series of connected employment opportunities. •A job has minimal impact on your future work life, while a career provides experience and learning to fuel your future. •A job offers few networking opportunities, but a career is loaded with them. •When you work at a job, you should do the minimum without annoying the boss. When you’re in a career, you should go the extra mile, doing tasks beyond your minimum job description.
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