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Published on March 10, 2014

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1 Human Resource Development Of Marks and Spencer Submitted by: Submitted to: Date of Submission:

2 Table of Content: Executive summary iii Lo-1 Understand Learning Theories And Learning Styles 4 1.1 Compare different learning styles: 4 1.2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer: 6 1.3 Assess the contribution of learning styles and theories when planning and designing a learning event for the Company 7 LO-2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer 8 2.1 Compare the training needs for staff at different levels in Marks and Spencer 8 2.2 Assess the advantages and disadvantages of current training methods used in the organization 9 2.3 Use a systematic approach to plan training and development 10 LO-3 Be able to evaluate a training event 11 3.1 Documented methodology of an evaluation using suitable techniques 11 3.2 Analysis (and evaluation) of the training event: 13 3.3 A review of the success of the evaluation methods used: 13 LO-4 Understand government-led skills development initiatives 13 4.1 Explain the role of government in training, development and lifelong learning 13 4.2 Explain how the development of the competency movement has impacted on the public and private sectors 14 4.3 Assess how contemporary training initiatives introduced by the UK government contribute to human resources development for an organization such as Marks and Spencer 14 Conclusion 15 References 16

3 Executive Summary Human Resource Management (HRM) is the process of attracting, developing and maintaining a talented and energetic workforce to support organisational mission, objectives and strategies. It is a distinctive approach to employment management which seeks to achieve competitive advantage through the strategic deployment of a highly committed and capable workforce, using an integrated array of cultural, structural and personnel techniques. Human Resources Management trains and motivates the employees by communicating ethical policies and socially responsible behaviour to them. In doing so, it plays a significant role in clarifying the organization's problems and providing solutions, while making employees working more efficiently. Modern organizations can survive in the dynamic, competitive environment of today only if they capitalize on the full potential of each employee. Facts and figures are the quantitative elements of successful management, yet the qualitative aspects are those that actually make or break an organization. Successful companies are those that consider their human capital as their most important asset. iii

4 LO-1 UNDERSTAND LEARNING THEORIES AND LEARNING STYLES 1.1COMPARE DIFFERENT LEARNING STYLES People have preferences about how they like to learn which is called their learning style. Because of the intense rivalry in the retail industry in UK, M & S had to take different initiatives so that employees’ competencies and expertise can be improved. New challenges help the employees to be more competitive and strategic while doing their tasks in M & S. This challenging environment helps them to move towards a better career path. Different Learning Styles There are many learning styles different companies implement in their on the job and off the job tasks. Among different learning styles Peter Honey and Alan Mumford have sited four main learning style preferences. They are- Activist Activists like to be involved in new experiences and are enthusiastic about new ideas. They enjoy doing things and tend to act first and consider the implications afterwards. They are unlikely to prepare for the learning experience or review their learning afterwards (Armstrong, 1999). Activist learns best when they are thrown in deep end with a difficult task, chairing meetings and leading discussions. As soon as the excitement from one activity has died down, they are busy looking for the next. They tend to thrive on the challenge of new experiences but are bored by implementation and long-term consolidation. They are gregarious people constantly involving them-selves with others but, in so doing, they seek to center all activity on themselves. Reflector Reflectors like to collect data, review and think carefully before coming to any conclusions. They learn best when they observe individual and group at work and producing analyses and reports doing tasks without tight deadlines. They learn less when they act as leader or role playing in front of others. Pragmatists are keen on trying out new ideas, theories and techniques to see if they work in practice. They positively search out new ideas and take the first opportunity to experiment with applications. They are the sort of people who return from courses brimming with new ideas that they want to try out. They like to get on with things, and act

5 quickly and confidently on ideas that attract them. They tend to be impatient with ruminating and open-ended discussion. They are essentially practical, down-to-earth people who like solving problems (often through trial and error). They view problems and difficulties as a "challenge". Their philosophy is: "As long as it works, that's fine." - Although they may also be keen to experiment to find better ways to do things. Theorist Theorists think problems through step-by-step and tend to be perfectionists who like to fit things into a rational scheme. They learn best when put in complex situations where they have to use their skills and knowledge and they are in structured situations with clear purpose. Theorists learn less when they have to participate in situations which emphasize emotion and they have to do things without knowing the principles or concepts involved. Theorists adapt and integrate observations into complex but logically sound theories. They think through problems in a logical, step-by-step fashion. They assimilate disparate facts into coherent, holistic theories. They tend to be perfectionists who do not rest easy until things are tidy and fit into a rational scheme. They like to analyze and synthesize. They are keen on asking questions and challenging assumptions. Their philosophy is: "If it's logical then it's good." They attempt to fit everything together into a single jigsaw that encompasses "life, the universe and everything". They tend to be detached, analytical and dedicated to rational objectivity rather than anything subjective or ambiguous. They may rigidly reject anything that does not fit in with their own particular mind- set. Pragmatist Pragmatists are eager to try things out and like concepts that can be applied to their job. They learn best when they are shown techniques with obvious advantages such as saving time and they are shown a model they can copy (Rea. D, 1972). Pragmatist learns less when there is no obvious or immediate benefit that they can recognise and there is no practice or guidelines on how to do it. They listen to others before making their own points. They tend to adopt a low profile and have a slightly distant, tolerant unruffled air about them. When they act it is part of a wide picture which includes the past as well as the present and others' observations as well as their own. Reflectors like to stand back to ponder experiences and observe them from many different perspectives. They collect data, both first-hand and from others, and prefer to think about it

6 thoroughly before coming to any conclusion. They tend to postpone reaching definite conclusions for as long as possible. Their philosophy is to be cautious. They are thoughtful people who like to consider all possible angles and implications before making a move. They enjoy observing other people and prefer to take a back seat in meetings and discussions Learning Styles Followed M & S follows the pragmatist learning styles among the four preferences of Peter Honey and Alan Mumford. This style helps M & S employees to make them more capable in taking responsibilities and challenge. Their on the job and off the job training approaches provide adequate learning to improve efficiency and take the correct decision. 1.2 EXPLAIN THE ROLE OF THE LEARNING CURVE AND THE IMPORTANCE OF TRANSFERRING LEARNING TO THE WORKPLACE IN MARKS AND SPENCER Learning curve is that the experiential method and stages of learning. This can be a graphical presentation accustomed show the educational history and stages. As a replacement operating atmosphere is developed, the educational curve changes per the new learning necessities. Through the method of sensible expertise, learners will target strengths, talent enhancements and setting career goals (John W., 2009). The modified core structural values have place the staff in new challenges and wishes to stay pace with the changes the staff required to travel through new learning curve to develop their technical skills and sensible data. Performance appraisal, sensible expertise, work and different coaching events organized by M&S helped the staff to widen their capability space and establish own career path. Significance of Knowledge Transfer Line managers, presentation advisers converse to the workers to share and move data regarding the presentation, areas of enhancement and firm’s demand. Move of data through off-the-job trainings like workshops, workbooks is unbelievably helpful to the employees for the training

7 and development of abilities. It’s awfully absolutely vital for the organization to create skills, see the core standards and present consequently. Effect of Learning Curve The term learning curve is used in two main ways: where the same task is repeated in a series of trials, or where a body of knowledge is learned over time. This form, in which unit cost is plotted against total production, is sometimes called an experience curve. The familiar expression "a steep learning curve" is intended to mean that the activity is difficult to learn, although a learning curve with a steep start actually represents rapid progress. The economic learning of productivity and efficiency generally follows the same kinds of experience curves and have interesting secondary effects. Efficiency and productivity improvement can be considered as whole organization or industry or economy learning processes, as well as for individuals. The effect of reducing local effort and resource use by learning improved methods paradoxically often has the opposite latent effect on the next larger scale system, by facilitating its expansion. Transferring of ability is not just the communication; it’s the administration of tacit and applied ability that will advise the advisers to body their skills. Effective alteration of ability and use of acquirements ambit helped the advisers to analyse the achievement akin in abstruse accomplishment and business competency, getting able to set astute career path, participate in accommodation authoritative added finer and accompany ability in performance. (Guest,D.E, 1999). This advanced breadth of improvements in agent acquirements and accomplishment resulted in accepting an aggressive advantage for M & S. 1.3 ASSESS THE CONTRIBUTION OF LEARNING STYLES AND THEORIES WHEN PLANNING AND DESIGNING A LEARNING EVENT FOR THE COMPANY Contribution of learning styles and theories: Learning theories supply conceptual structure to the discovering objectives and requirements. But which discovering method will be utilized that depends on which way the employees favor the most and how very quick the firm desire the employees adapt the new condition

8 Relationship among learning style, theory and event: Although selecting an individual style is usually tough as well as that’s exactly why mixture of many understanding types is usually more effective within developing understanding functions. Therefore, understanding ideas defines the understanding form as well as understanding learning style dictates the way the majority of successfully understanding is usually made as well as understanding occasion will be the enactment with the development expectation. Contribution of learning theory and event: Learning style and theories utilized by M & S is concentrated on the most productive outcome can be got through learning events. How each and every employee answers to a happening reflects how thriving a happening is. To design and conceive such a happening I will furthermore focus on the best discovering option prioritized by the employees LO-2 EXPLAIN THE ROLE OF THE LEARNING CURVE AND THE IMPORTANCE OF TRANSFERRING LEARNING TO THE WORKPLACE IN MARKS AND SPENCER 2.1 COMPARE THE TRAINING NEEDS FOR STAFF AT DIFFERENT LEVELS IN MARKS AND SPENCER Effective training or development depends on knowing what is required - for the individual, the department and the organisation as a whole. With limited budgets and the need for cost-effective solutions, all organizations’ need to ensure that the resources invested in training are targeted at areas where training and development is needed and a positive return on the investment is guaranteed. Marks and Spencer needs distinctive preparing styles at diverse level of its operation. It has made a family-accommodating working environment for the staffs. Management level Customer service level Operation level Training courses and other off- Offer expert answer to Performance review and

9 the-job training designs to formulate knowledge and acquire examination Practical learning for building skill, team work and decision making capability. figure with efficiency and assist client to seek out what they require. Train staffs a way to manage the queue a lot of effectively and it'll minimize the waiting time span examination of line supervisors is carried out line managers to work all the more productively and minimize take that will add quality to the item. 2.2 ASSESS THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CURRENT TRAINING METHODS USED IN THE ORGANISATION: Training can be described as the acquisition of skills, concepts or attitudes that result in improved performance within the job environment. Training analysis looks at each aspect of an operational domain so that the initial skills, concepts and attitudes of the human elements of a system can be effectively identified and appropriate training can be specified. Marks & Spencer gives unique education features to coach its staff members. They provide help to help the particular staff members develop effective job path. Performance review is actually provided to name their functionality level and enhancement locations. Part actively playing helps those to recognize the responsibility and capacity within fresh part and circumstance. Their own off-the- job education features similar to class, workbooks are created to build abilities and effectiveness. Advantage & Disadvantage of current training methods: Training methods Advantage Dis-advantage Role playing aids the worker to seek out what it takes to achieve success in a very management or completely different role Employees would possibly feel and reluctant and nervous a couple of completely different role which will lead to

10 performance degradation. Discussion Discussion with the managers, workers to build their own ability and career development set up A positive and supporting role from the manager aspect is very important otherwise worker won’t be ready to develop a thought. Induction Program offers the new staff an outline of the firm, role and company culture at M&S. It helps staff to obviously perceive his/her role and objective of the firm The statements created by the firm might take issue from the particular state of affairs which will produce a negative impression later Workshops Are arranged to produce the workers with learning materials to observe and obtain an inspiration concerning their ability and performance needs It consumes additional price and success depends on the participants however well they'll receive the message. 2.3 USE A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO PLAN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT FOR A GROUP TRAINING EVENT: I will execute difficulty explaining teaching program which will be really result in taking part in conclusion making. In this event employees will be granted a very sensible problem and they will be inquired to make appropriate analysis and likely solutions. A final evaluation will be done by the whole team where the management and other workers will also assess the chosen answers. It’s a continuous method and workers will be welcomed to arrive up with any new organizational difficulty scenario considering customer service enhancement, output efficiency, worker relative, motivation, effective administration. This teaching happening will energize the employees to take part in conclusion making and boost the proficiency to provide more realistic investigation and solution.

11 Training process of the event: In my training program when I invite a group of staff I will at 1st introduce each and every one with the management team. Then they will be elaborately introduced with the actual problem scenario to be solved. Then there will be a Q&A session for the staffs and make sure that they have clearly understood the scenario. Individuals will be given proper instructions and next day they will be told to come up with the related factors, findings and a discussion session among themselves will be held. Then they will be told to form a group of 3 members analyzing and the solution within a specified time period. This finding will be disseminated among the managers and they will let them know which area they need to improve. Again time will be provided to re- shape the findings and the final submission will be judged and examined by the whole team. Through discussion and Q&A session managers will decide which solution was most appropriate and will be undertaken. LO-3 BE ABLE TO EVALUATE A TRAINING EVENT 3.1 DOCUMENTED METHODOLOGY OF AN EVALUATION USING SUITABLE TECHNIQUES: To judge the end result with the instruction managers use different system to evaluate the end result, efficiency and also effectiveness with the function. Top management will want to understand how productive it system seemed to be and also with this they will evaluate different components and also factors, fees and also positive aspects to settle on whether it's going to continue or definitely not. I used ‘Five tiered approach’ defined by Jacobs. F. (1988). The framework evaluates a program in five levels and compares the actual outcome with the expected outcome of the program. The purpose that the program aimed at 5 different stages has met the need or not is assessed in five tiered approach. 1. Need assessment: Here the purpose of the program is mentioned. The proper need is identified and program is designed to meet that need. 2. Monitoring and accountability: It encounters the participant of this program the service that will be delivered is mentioned?

12 3. Program clarification: It states the evaluation at different need level to answer how more effective the event could be made. 4. Progress: Here the overall progress of the participants is measured. 5. Program impact: The long term impact on the outcomes of the program is evaluated. Process of documentation of the training program The evaluation process used to assess the program is mostly qualitative. I used three methods to identify the gap at different levels of the training event. i. Trainer/Trainee feedback: Feedback from both the trainer and trainees are taken regarding the program conducted. ii. Observation: The participants’ different activities and performance along with their participation is closely measured. iii. Customer comments: The overall success of the program depends on how the participants contribute the knowledge they have acquired from this program in their real workplace. Their progress on dealing with customers is judged by the customers’ comment regarding the particular service. Documents used for evaluation For the assessment of the training some core factors needed to be considered. Based on these factors the training program was evaluated how much effective it was. Program Impact Progress Program Clarification Monitoring and Accoutability Need Assesment

13 i. Quality improvement: How well the quality of the product is evaluated ii. Customer service: Progress of the participants in providing customer service is assessed iii. Production efficiency: The program mainly focuses on enhancing the productivity of the employees. The overall progress regarding this aspect is highly measured. 3.2 ANALYSIS (AND EVALUATION) OF THE TRAINING EVENT The training session was triple-crown considering the active participation and enthusiasm of the employees. Within the first event they got a client service drawback situation. There have been an honest variety of realistic and applicable solutions given by the teams. Within the discussion session management team and also the participants had long discussion session that resulted during an additional possible and logical conclusion. The particular profit was that in resolution te matter and discussion staff identified what was necessary to be improved in their client service. 3.3 A REVIEW OF THE SUCCESS OF THE EVALUATION METHODS USED The Five tiered evaluation method was very useful to evaluate the success of the event in real life work environment. The framework assessed the normal profit and genuine profit to deal with the redirection and practicality of the training occasion. Along these lines it was not difficult to decipher it the expense profit proportion to settle on if it will proceed or not or change requirement to be made. LO-4 UNDERSTAND GOVERNMENT-LED SKILLS DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES 4.1 EXPLAIN THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN TRAINING, DEVELOPMENT AND LIFELONG LEARNING The UK government control a noteworthy part in the training and improvement of the employees of private firms. Govt. organize training systems through master coach to determine the

14 employees can advance and range no less than a base standard of execution. Imprints and Spencer is a monster retailer firm in UK; so UK govt. might as well worry about the interior improvement of the association's execution. (Dessler.C, 2006). To do so they need to assume ownership take the execution to a standard level. Long lasting taking in is the self-propelled taking in by the employees. Govt. association in training can help the employees to chase information from the nature's domain. 4.2 EXPLAIN HOW THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPETENCY MOVEMENT HAS IMPACTED ON THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS Expertise movement features produced various other corporations to issue about the efficiency gap with their corporations. Personal corporations are generally investing a lot more on this sector to improve his or her experience to gain reasonably competitive advantage. The actual corporations don’t desire experience inside worker efficiency drop inside reasonably competitive drawback which suggests inadequate support top quality, dysfunctional output, minimal motivation and many others (Hoque, K. and M. Noon, 2001). Deloitte an exclusive consulting as well as auditing corporation makes enormous expenditure inside coaching his or her staff members. They provide a new more challenging studying contour in order to develop his or her experience speedily. The training can be never-ending as well as qualification can be presented growing his or her assurance amount. While growth inside private firm’s efficiency has an influence on your financial system, people physiques have likewise improved upon independently to lift up his or her efficiency. Public companies inside UK similar to ‘East Shore Trains’ are generally creating on-going energy to enhance your efficiency as well as support top quality in a regular amount (Legge, K., 1989). 4.3 Assess how contemporary training initiatives introduced by the UK government contribute to human resources development for an organisation such as Marks and Spencer: Contemporary training activity was taken by the UK govt. to give the little and medium firms industry an advantageous training and improvement system to get security and development economy. The training is professional and pointed at brisk taking in on distinctive zones of a

15 business. Having a seeing on the present situation and future prospect UK govt. outlines distinctive qualitative training projects for diverse firms. 4.3.2 ROLE OF CONTEMPORARY LEARNING IN M&S: For Marks and Spencer this training activity is extremely vital for further advancement and picking up aggressive playing point. M&s has advanced and changed their core qualities and to make it great they require particular training offices for their employees. This cotemporary training will support the employees to rapidly adjustment. The training is assessed concentrating the desire of clients, intense position, economic situation, and future prospect and flexibility components. Conclusion: Marks and Spencer is a guiding retailer truehearted possessing a lofty impact on the UK saving. The direction creates other facilities for a faster performance accommodation of workers. These helped the fasten to fulfil and push in the highly competitive activity gaining statesman client satisfaction and loyalty. The affable surround aids the workforces to search much importance and happen out organizational flaws. For diametrical learning requirements and scholarly areas and organizational problems for potent implication of theories and practices. The employees can be at their incomparable performance steady if direction support grumbling substantiation to them and toward their organizational system and win environment.

16 Armstrong, M (1999).Human resource management: the foundation of human resource management. Vol, 7. p3.15.P13 Dessler. C (2006), Strategic Role of Human Resource Management, Human Resource Management, 10th Edition, pp- 04-05, New Jersey: Pearson Education. Guest, D.E. (1999). Human Resource Management: The Workers’ Verdict, Human Resource Management Journal, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 5-25 Guest,D.E(1987). Human resource management and industrial relations: Journal of management studies .Vol 24.issue5 Hoque, K. and M. Noon (2001). Counting Angels: a Comparison of Personnel and HR specialists, Human Resource Management Journal, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 5-22 John W. (2009) A Chameleon Function? Human Resource Management in the ‘90s, Human resource Management Journal, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 5-18 Legge, K. (1989). Human Resource Management: A Critical Analysis, in J. Storey (ed.) Ew Perspectives in Human Resource Management, Routledge, London Rea,D (1972).A Contemporary Definition of personnel management, Some of its critical assumptions and their relevance to the university organization. November. Kratwohl D R, Bloom B S and Masia B B (1964) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, the classification of educational goals– Handbook II: Affective Domain New York: McKay. Marton F and Säljö (1976) "On Qualitative Differences in Learning — 2: Outcome as a function of the learner's conception of the task" Brit. J. Educ. Psych.46, 115-27 References

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