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Published on March 10, 2014

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pg. I Human Resource Development Of Marks and Spencer Submitted by: Submitted to: Date of Submission:

pg. II Table of Content: Executive summary III Lo-1 Understand Learning Theories And Learning Styles 4 1.1 Compare different learning styles: 4 1.2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer: 5 1.3 Assess the contribution of learning styles and theories when planning and designing a learning event for the Company 7 LO-2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer 8 2.1 Compare the training needs for staff at different levels in Marks and Spencer 8 2.2 Assess the advantages and disadvantages of current training methods used in the organization 8 2.3 Use a systematic approach to plan training and development 10 LO-3 Be able to evaluate a training event 10 3.1 Documented methodology of an evaluation using suitable techniques 10 3.2 Analysis (and evaluation) of the training event: 12 3.3 A review of the success of the evaluation methods used: 12 LO-4 Understand government-led skills development initiatives 13 4.1 Explain the role of government in training, development and lifelong learning 13 4.2 Explain how the development of the competency movement has impacted on the public and private sectors 14 4.3 Assess how contemporary training initiatives introduced by the UK government contribute to human resources development for an organization such as Marks and Spencer 14 Conclusion 15 References 16

pg. III Executive summary: Marks and Spencer is a major global retail store in UK in service for more than from year 1884. It operates through 361 stores worldwide by a vast number of staffs about 65,000 in number. Existence of extreme competition the firm had to change their core principles and strategy directing on the standardizing and development of employee performance. For more customer satisfaction and efficiency, the company has been organizing training facilities of different styles to fulfil individual need and experiences. They conduct on-the-job and off- the-job training services to build more capable and skilled workers generating high performance and rapidly adjust in the changed structure. Flattened organizational structure created some scope of opportunities, challenges and responsibilities for the employees. I gave an idea of a training event which will assist the firm in attaining the objectives. Government led training facilities for the human resource development can be a major contributor in M&S employees’ performance improvement which will contribute to the economy in the end.

pg. 4 LO-1 Understand learning theories and learning styles 1.1 Compare different learning styles Extreme competition led M & S to change the core strategies and values. This change of structure created new challenges for the employees. Staffs required building a concentrated career path through the experience from learning curve of the training and improvement procedure of M & S. 1.1.1 Different learning styles: There are different types of learning styles to be initiated by a firm depending on the styles that fits the best for every individual. Honey & Mumford (1986) has defined 4 different learning styles- theorist, activist, reflector and pragmatist. Theorists: This type of individuals is known as the perfectionists and they always make, analyse logics and theories before jumping into a decision. They don’t deviate from rationality and analytical of any assignment or responsibility to be managed. Theoriser employees are the perfectionists who prefer logics and theories before making a selection. They are exacting to analytical and rationality of any extend or objective to be finished. Their decisions are not from their participation or preceding acquisition. They puddle analysis and supported on their sensible findings on the flow scenario, they become to a conclusion. Activists: Activist learners enrol themselves in new jobs and responsibilities as interrupted learning and experience. They shift from one task to another opportunity within a short time span. Active employees take themselves in new experiences as a nonstop alteration in activities. They make move from one live to another within a momentary time move. In rapidly changing situations and experience requirements these learners can enlist themselves in altering and wider responsibilities. But activists’ power is competent to play in diametric responsibilities and tasks but they are little practiced in any circumstantial extent of science and competency. Reflector: Reflectors don’t make own points, make decision, and take opportunities. They wait for the right time, accumulate data, analyse them, think carefully and then make a

pg. 5 rational decision. These learners don’t partake actively in meeting, discussion; they listen to other participants and later make own judgement. Pragmatist: Individuals are practical learners and ready to take challenges, opportunities ahead. They lead team, make decision successfully with the help of experience and learning. They can partake in new position, responsibility and improve competencies and skills. Pragmatists are functional in nature and try to take any chance that comes. They pair to bonk challenges and achieve resolve by healthy assured through learning and undergo. They are primed to bear new area and frame up skills accordingly. The learners are competent to accommodate quick in dynamical situations, stimulating environment and tasks. The state M&S truehearted has created for the workers and managers poorness these categories of learners to be able to fit themselves and change rendering to the requirements. 1.1.2 Learning style followed: M & S applies combination of multiple learning styles to deliver courage and confidence to take more responsibilities and challenges. They use competency profile to detect the areas to be improved by employees. Performance appraisal aids them in measuring their improvement and setting own career path. On-the job training services of M & S like working for manager of different post, performance coaching make them understand new responsibility context and help to attain practical knowledge for improving necessary skill and competency. Off-the-job training events deliver learning to gain efficiency and effectiveness in judgment. The training facilities are investments for the stable because as a proof of the preparation event employees would be able to increase the construction of turnout multiplicative clear. If more kinds of learning styles are available and applicable for employees, the more categorised and realistic learning event can be approved and designed. 1.2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer 1.2.1 Learning curve: Learning curve is the development and learning process which is extended through experience. This graphical presentation shows how to bring perfection and experiences add learning gradually (Bergenhenegouwen 1996). For a new work atmosphere learning curve plays significant part for the knowledge enhancement. Through gaining

pg. 6 experience in doing a job, learning curve benefits the staffs to focus on new skills development, add values to output and set career goal. As M & S established new strategies and core values, the staffs were challenged by the changing factors and requirements. To become a part of this change they had to adjust to new learning curve for the growth in their technical skills and business competencies (Gilly et al. 2002). Practical experience, performance review, performance coaching and other types of learning opportunities are being offered to the workers to recognize their capability area and build realistic career goal. Through the draw we can perceive that when perpetual see is in advance, the learning and efficiency increases spell clip required acting the job. 1.2.2. Significance of knowledge transfer: Performance coach, line manager share knowledge on performance standard, improvement areas and expectations with the personnel. Knowledge transfer through workshops is supportive for the participants for the knowledge and improvement of skills (Liao 2005). It’s very important for the business firm to reshape skills, recognize core principles and perform in a standard form. Through the alter tendency and enhanced knowledge, employees attained efficiency in their work and managers could ascertain out the advisable attainable options for each sphere and occupation. 1.2.3. Effect of learning curve: Knowledge relocating isn’t mere communication; it is the distribution of implicit and practical knowledge that aids workers to expand their abilities (Bergenhenegouwen 1996). Transferring knowledge effectively and by learning curve enabled the workforces in identifying performance level in technical expertise and proficiency, being able to establish a realistic career objective, participating in creating more effective decision and gaining productivity.

pg. 7 1.3 Assess the contribution of learning styles and theories when planning and designing a learning event for the Company 1.3.1 Contribution of learning styles and theories: Learning theories are the theoretical framework to the learning objects and necessities. But which learning style is needed depends on employees’ preference and how fast they can familiarize to the new condition. So, before picking and directing preparation measures for the staffs the acquisition styles and theories staleness is analysed and familiarized according to the truehearted prospects and requirements. These improvement areas in learning and talents resulted in a competitive advantage situation for M & S. Thus winning learns on acquisition preferences and conjectural indications conduce to the winning HR circumstance organizing. 1.3.2 Relationship among learning style, theory, event: But selecting a single form of learning is difficult and thus mixture of various learning styles can be effective in learning program designing. Firmly may enjoin improving other capabilities and skills suchlike body skills, resolution making ability, efficiency, a group occupation, enhancing sphere Atlantic etc. These requirements outline the characteristics of practice and use requirements. Learning theories thus describes learning philosophy and learning style suggests how more effectively knowledge can be delivered and the designing of learning program is the application of the progress expectancy. And procurement theories describes acquisition categories, arrangements and speculative clarifications and learning call edicts how most effectually learning can be formed with the most congruous targeted objectives. 1.3.3 Contribution of learning theory and event: Learning theories, styles utilized by Marks and Spencer focuses on how the effectiveness in result can be achieved through learning programs. For planning and designing a program I will emphasis on the best learning opportunity prioritized by the staffs. How every employee is benefitted through an event reflects the success of an event. Every singular favour and customary to contrasting achievement patterns and construction. It's great to see and link acquisition theories surrendered by theorists with the soul acquisition necessities and patterns to apply a healthier concentrated and goal-oriented activity installation.

pg. 8 LO-2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer 2.1 Compare the training needs for staff at different levels in Marks and Spencer 2.1.1 Training needs at different level: M&S has to initiate different training programs for the staffs of different organizational responsibilities and positions. M&S keeps a friendly atmosphere for the staffs which assist them to feel as a crucial member of the firm. Customer level Management level Operation level > Workshop- to provide practical knowledge on effective customer service, efficient queue management. > Problem solving events to make employees provide efficient customer complaint, query management. > Performance appraisal for performance improvement, building decision making ability. >Role playing, enrolment under new responsibility- To increase team leadership, plan career objective. >Performance review, coaching- To increase technical skills. > Workshop & other off-the-job training- Improve efficiency, practical learning. 2.2 Assess the advantages and disadvantages of current training methods used in the organisation 2.2.1 Analysing current training method: Marks & Spencer arranges training programs to train its staffs. They counsel the employees to build effective career objective (Liao 2005). Performance evaluation is conducted to detect their actual performance level and development required. Off-the-job training events like workshop, workbook facility are planned to improve efficiency and skills. Role playing benefits them to recognize the responsibility and skill in new position and context (Gilly et al. 2002). The management continuously search for improved learning tools for their workforces that would be further suitable for their firm and their goal.

pg. 9 2.2.2 Advantage & Disadvantage of current training methods: Training methods Advantage Dis-advantage Performance appraisal Employees can find out improvement areas in skills. Get motivation for better performance. Employees facing problem in improvement are demotivated and disgraced comparing to other employees. Induction Provides a description on the firm, objectives, culture and expectations. Help to understand the role and responsibility criteria. Deviation between the actual scenario and, management statement might result in negative responses and high turnover. Role playing Help employees to recognize responsibilities and skills for different role. Staffs who don’t want change in work responsibility, criteria are demotivated and performance degrades. Discussion Helps employees to build career plan, understand new challenges. Help manager to design specific training programme as per requirement. Supporting role from the management needed otherwise employee won’t be able to develop plan. Workshops Provide learning materials, experiences to increase competency and value. Return may fail comparing to the cost incurred for workshop if participants can’t apply the learning in time. Performance coaching Evaluate performance, identify development areas and provide courage for decision making. Biased or inaccurate coaching may result in negative development and judgement. 2.3 Use a systematic approach to plan training and development

pg. 10 2.3.1 Training and development for a group training event: To build up decision making capability, I will arrange a thinking opportunity for the participants. They will participate in solving problems of different and other sectors. Their quality of responses will define that how much they are inept in which other sectors. It will help the employees to identify the width of expertise and scope of changing role and responsibility. Managers will be also benefitted to design course plan from the findings of the session. Appraisal will be given to encourage more participation and engagement. 2.3.2Training process of the event: In this training session I will invite employees from different sectors. The event will be organized outside the work place. Training will start with the introduction of management and experts of the program(Liao 2005). Management will then assign problems of different sectors to the participants from different organizational roles. All the participants will receive a case of other sectors not from his/her sector. Experts will aid them in analysing and the participants will provide solutions and argue with the experts and other participants. The experts will carefully notice the scope of more responsibility of each participant and then provide suggestions of improvement. Employees will be given reward and new responsibility by the management decision and their skills will be trained for improvement. Through this program employees will be able to identify the implication of tacit knowledge and experiences with the management support which will bring employee satisfaction and performance up gradation. LO-3 Be able to evaluate a training event 3.1 Documented methodology of an evaluation using suitable techniques 3.1.1 Methodology of evaluations: For the evaluation of the result of the training event I used different methodology (Gilly et al. 2002). To find out the efficiency and effectiveness of the event and how successful the training program was I will assess various aspects, costs and benefits ratio to decide the continuity and changes of the program. I used a framework to evaluate the program in five steps which provide analysis on the program. The program is judged at 5 different criteria to find out whether it has met the need or not. 1. Need evaluation: It answers the query what’s the definite problem? It will provide answer on the necessity of the training.

pg. 11 2. Monitoring the participation: The question of who are the targeted participants and what facility we are providing and how much they are participating is answered. 3. Program interpretation: It’s the assessment at different level of the program to answer how the program can be more effective. 4. Improvement: Identifies and measures the development of the participant- how much the participants are improving? 5. Program effect: This approach calculates the effect of the training event in the long- term. 3.1.2 Method of documentation: The assessment method used to measure the program is a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. I applied three approaches to detect the gap at various levels of the event. i. Trainer criticism: Criticism from the trainer through direct conversation will be very helpful to evaluate the pros and cons of the program designing to make necessary corrections. Their instrument and feedback is indispensable for the right and virtual judgment on the activity schedule that leave supply the managers to determine how the collateral parties were stilted. ii. Observation: Cautiously observe the accomplishments and involvement of the participants and influence of other factors on their activities and the training event. The undertakings and involvement point faculty present the optimistic and perverse aspects of the circumstance and the essential steps to be prefabricated. iii. Customer feedback: How workers were able to use the learning from the training in customer service is evaluated. By participating in the training session employees learned various elements in the structural atmosphere including customer service. Customer feedback through questioner, complaint box service, Need evaluation Monitoring Program interpretation Improvement Program effect

pg. 12 appraisal facility will show if there was any progressive change in the customer service. 3.1.3 Documents used for assessment: To assess the training session different factors are analysed and considered. Results of these factors justified how the training event was assessed and the effectiveness of the event. i. Quality: Whether the service and product quality is standardized or not is evaluated. ii. Customer service: To know how customer service is developed and attains the customer valuation of the company. iii. Production efficiency: The event aims at bringing effectiveness and enthusiasm in performance. The productivity is assessed in the evaluation procedure. iv. Increment in sales: Positive or negative impact on the productivity of the training event is analysed to detect the success of the event. Were there any increment in sales volume, profit because of the training program is assessed through calculation. 3.2 Analysis (and evaluation) of the training event: The training was very useful seeing the involvement and eagerness of the participants during the event. During the 1st session they were given problem cases of other departments (Farquharson&Baum 2002). Realistic and feasible analysis and solutions were provided by the members. In the argument session between the experts and managers and the participants themselves more findings and logical decision came up. The beneficial factor was that the argument and involvement in the problem case of other sectors helped the employees managers to realize their inside talent and prospect of new challenges. 3.3 A review of the success of the evaluation methods used The five stage evaluation technique helped to assess the achievement of the program in their working atmosphere. The structure calculated the estimated and actual benefit to find any diversion and lacking of the training session. It figured the cost-benefit ratio out which helped to choose between whether the program will continue or not or any redesigning is necessary. During the categorization process employees, managers provided their problems and overcritical activities of the training circumstance that impressed adversely in their evolution

pg. 13 transform. The direction found it a thriving classification method which critically analysed all the steps and policies purloined by HR managers. Statesman formal and analytical shift was made in order to invite a fitter yield and outcome in execution. LO-4 Understand government-led skills development initiatives 4.1 Explain the role of government in training, development and lifelong learning The UK government has a major role in training and developing the staffs of private companies (Farquharson & Baum 2002). Training programs for different necessities are conducted to develop the employees and reach the performance standard. M&S is a major retail brand in UK; so the govt. is conscious about the development of the human resources and their performance. For the greater sake of economy arrange trainings responsibly to make employees perform more effectively. Lifelong learning system is encouraged by the Govt. and firms to encourage the employees to learn through self-motivation. Govt. involvement in human development aids the staffs and management to gather and share knowledge from working experience and programs. Moreover the firms strength not be able to commit in shrilling total and arrangement the required preparation facilities. In these cases the firms are benefitted finished the Govt. condition and argue in their HR developing. In rotation the saving industries are healthy writer rapidly and gaining HR power and received outturn character. This helps to make an opportune place for the firms in the highly capitalistic industry. Moreover the firms’ strength not be able to commit in shrilling total and arrangement the required preparation facilities. In these cases the firms are benefitted finished the Govt. condition and argue in their HR developing. In rotation the saving industries are healthy writer rapidly and gaining HR power and received outturn character. This helps to make an opportune place for the firms in the highly capitalistic industry.

pg. 14 4.2 Explain how the development of the competency movement has impacted on the public and private sectors Movement skill and competency has forced other private and public firms to take performance gap into account for improvement. Private companies are concentrating and developing this sector to enhance the competencies which will ultimately bring competitive advantage. The firms are working on improving incompetency and inefficiency in performance like poor service quality, inefficient production, low motivation etc. which is a competitive disadvantage. They maintain a faster learning curve to develop and match their skill and ability quickly. The learning is a continuous process and recognition is given to grow the confidence. A private consulting organization named Deloitte gives a huge effort in training and development of their employees. The overall employees’ skill and performance possess a greater influence on industry and the economy; the public firms are also improving their manpower to gear up their performance. For example ‘East Coast Trains’ and many others are continuously working on improving the skills, service quality and performances. Laxation of competencies and skills are necessary move of learning and impelling and built execution. Employees are receiving a greater quantity of act and exertion in their exercise and change of their arena areas. Higher success assess of the never-ending operation of learning and ability change in the faster processing in undertakings and productivity has affected all the firms to introduce the route in their own workplaces. 4.3 Assess how contemporary training initiatives introduced by the UK government contribute to human resources development for an organisation such as Marks and Spencer 4.3.1 Assessment of Contemporary training initiatives: Contemporary learning program was initiated by UK govt. to deliver the private industry a helpful tool for development. Understanding the present situation and future vision, UK govt. plans helpful qualitative training events for necessities of firms. As a result economic growth and stability was benefitted. It’s a vocational tool and motivated faster learning and experience. This synchronous breeding effortlessness is quicker touch of utilization in the insecure excavation ambiance. As the economy is stilted by the performances of the employees in all firms, the

pg. 15 Govt. has been swing further feasible toil in designing the advisable acquisition options to the firms as per the type of learning needs. 4.3.2 Role of contemporary learning in M&S: For M&S contemporary learning event is helpful for the growth and competitive advantage. The newly developed core standards and strategies required particular training needs for the adjustment of their employees. Cotemporary learning assists the staffs to adjust in the altering structural situation. Faster compliance is attainable with the eruptive participation and potent effort of current learning events as per the environmental plaything and employees compel. The training is assessed and selected considering the customer expectations, competitive advantages, market scenario, future vision and flexibility factors. Conclusion: Marks and Spencer is a directional distributor fluctuating possessing a altissimo competition on the UK system. The direction transports other facilities for a faster show advance of workers. These helped the faithful to outride and scrap in the highly agonistic market gaining statesman client satisfaction and reliability. The newer environment aids the workforces to seem writer importance and hear out organizational imperfections. The employees can be at their physiologist execution stratum if management provide overfull connectedness to them and toward their organizational structure and occupation environment. For learning necessities and dire areas and organizational difficulties for impelling implication of theories and practices. The substance alters polar facilities for a faster conduct shift of workers. The receptive environs aid the staffs to appear more accomplishment and acquire out organizational mistakes. These helped the truehearted to strengthen and attempt in the highly combative business gaining communicator consumer inspirit and loyalty. It's needed to describe learning requirements and judgment out critical areas and organizational problems for effective consequence of theories and applications. The workforces can be at their primo demonstration undo if way supports increases bearing to them and toward their organizational object and employ ring.

pg. 16 References: Bergenhenegouwen G. (1996) Competence development – a challenge for HRM professionals: core competences of organizations as guidelines for the development of employees, Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 20 Issue 9, pp.29-35 Ebbinghaus, Hermann, 1885. Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve. Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve: The Theory of Memory, 05, 17. Farquharson L. and Baum T. (2002) Enacting organisational change programmes: a centre stage role for HRM?, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 14 Issue 5, pp.243-250 Gilly, J., Eggland, S.&Gilly, A. (2002). Principles of Human resource management New York: Basic books [online] collected from- http://nhokanson.wordpress.com/2007/02/01/definitions-of-human-resources-human- resource-management-and-their-relation-to-human-resource-development. Kolb, David, 1984. The Learning process, The Experiential Learning Cycle, 6, 21. Liao Y. (2005) Business strategy and performance: the role of human resource management control, Personnel Review, Vol. 34 Issue 3, pp.294-309 Moon J (1999) Reflection in Learning and Professional Development: theory and practice London; Kogan Page 0-7494-2864-3. Reber A S (1967) "Implicit learning of artificial grammars" Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour 5 pp 855-863 Wenger E (1998) Communities of Practice; learning, meaning and identity Cambridge; Cambridge University Press.

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