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Published on March 10, 2014

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Assignment on Human Resource Management of Marks and Spencer Submitted By: Date:

Page | 1 Table of Content: Executive summary 3 Lo-1 Understand Learning Theories And Learning Styles 4 1.1 Compare different learning styles: 4 1.2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer: 5 1.3 Assess the contribution of learning styles and theories when planning and designing a learning event for the Company 7 LO-2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer 8 2.1 Compare the training needs for staff at different levels in Marks and Spencer 8 2.2 Assess the advantages and disadvantages of current training methods used in the organization 9 2.3 Use a systematic approach to plan training and development 10 LO-3 Be able to evaluate a training event 12 3.1 Documented methodology of an evaluation using suitable techniques 12 3.2 Analysis (and evaluation) of the training event: 13 3.3 A review of the success of the evaluation methods used: 13 LO-4 Understand government-led skills development initiatives 14 4.1 Explain the role of government in training, development and lifelong learning 14 4.2 Explain how the development of the competency movement has impacted on the public and private sectors 14 4.3 Assess how contemporary training initiatives introduced by the UK government contribute to human resources development for an organization such as Marks and Spencer 15 Conclusion 16 References 17

Page | 2 Executive Summary: In today’s world the concept of Human Resource Management has emerged as one of the most vital factor in the competitive business world in the race against time towards substantial growth and success. In the present market companies no longer follow the production and selling concept because innovative ideas have established a firm grip on the market. The package of innovative ideas comes from those individuals who work towards achieving success through hardship and loyalty. These individuals are those who work behind the scene to deliver the commodities to the market so as to be consumed to fulfill the organizational goal. The following case on Marks & Spencer gives us the idea how the development and training of the employees towards substantial growth. For better results and skilled personnel, the companies have to work with human resource development theories to pinpoint the process which they should choose to satisfy their appropriate need. The appropriate process need to put into effect and employees are trained and guided in accordance to it to monitor the result from time to time for individual performance and evaluation. In the end, the organization needs to coordinate with the government in various events which will lead to development of skills of the employees through proper training and experience.

Page | 3 LO-1 Understand learning theories and learning styles: The organizations are firmly anchored on achieving their organizational objectives which in today’s challenging market can only be achieved through proper motivation and enrichment of the skill set of the employees, in order to do so the organization need to analyze a wide range of theories and learning practices to choose the most competent and suited to their purpose. To ensure effectiveness, the organizations need to planand arrange the scenario and arrange and supervise the employees in accordance with it to gain the desired output. If the scenario is well planned and arranged the outcome can go beyond the expectation with the efforts being fruitful. 1.1 Compare different learning styles Derived from the theory of Honey and Mumford (1986), an organization can choose from 4 different type of learning process or theories to train their employees. The processes are listed and briefly discussed:  Activist: The outcome of this process is that the employees search for multiple new opportunities to prove themselves worthwhile through this they gain newer experience every time they experience new events. This change in the working environment helps them to concentrate their efforts and adapt easily to changes. In apace changing situations and feature requirements these learners can endeavor themselves in altering and wider responsibilities. But activists' mightiness is competent to treat in different responsibilities and tasks but they are petty superstar in any fact region of acquirement and ability.  Reflector: According to this process, the core working materials are the information and data provided. The employees analyze these data and information and incorporate it into a logical explanation for proper implementation and paving the path of learning for the opportunists. Reflector learners are inactive in processing and judging a guess because they decrement a lot of exertion in analyzing the collection, theory and opinion. As they create own points after a long and thoroughgoing reasoning, the chances of divagation and problems in their decisions are low. They are competent in thought making but not effective.  Theorist: The main concept of this process to learn through analyzing theoretical strategies and facts and thoroughly maintaining the rationality in their work. Their

Page | 4 decisions are not from their knowledge or advance acquisition. They sort psychotherapy and based on their noetic findings on the actual scenario, they win to an event.  Pragmatist: The gradual development of expertise and adaptation to various working environments through creating opportunities of interest. The development of expertise leads to efficient and effective work interest. The learners are fit to alter apace in dynamic situations, baffling environment and tasks. The posture M&S firm has created for the employees and managers necessity these kinds of learners to be good to fit themselves and difference according to the requirements. In the following case, the organization Marks & Spencer follows the Pragmatist theory or process. They basically vouch for “on the job” training in which the employees are settled into real life working environment to adapt and learn from the experiences that take place in the environment. They also have an “off the job” training procedure which guides the employees in their path to real time enrichment and sharpening of their skill set. The upbringing programs are investments for the cogent because as a termination of the expression consideration employees would be fit to ontogenesis the storey of production increasing get. 1.2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer Learning curve is the positive relationship between experiences and learning, through increasing experience we can see that we can also increase the learning(Nath 2010). The increase experience is along the horizontal axis along with the learning along the vertical axis. When an employee is thrown into different work environment, experience is gained and when experience is gained the curve moves upward and in the same way through experience there is a rise in learning which brings about the positive relation between them(Nath 2010). This relation is portrayed through the learning curve depicted in the figure below. The learning pitch ordinarily shows the specific and literal line and time of learning undergo and efficiency destruct.

Page | 5 Polished the draw we can see that when endless participate is in displace, the acquisition and efficiency increases patch abstraction required performing the job. Thusly get brings downward the theorization exploding the skillfulness spot and larger creation. Role of learning curve: M&S focuses on enhancing the technical skill set of the employees and build their business competency. Through the learning curve the gradual development of the employees from time to time can be monitored effectively. With time and different working factors the employees gains experience and excel in their learning and technical skill, this is when they are encouraged to boost their competency and be an asset to the organization so as to flourish. The learning curve helps the management to see the flaws and to patch the dark spots. Role of transferring curve: The prime source of motivation and experience for the newly recruited employees are their trainers and the senior managers who supervise them. The continuous and consistent flow of information along the chain of command helps the new recruits helps them to gain knowledge and experience giving them a chance to polish their skills and be in perfect synchronization with the working environment(Liao 2005). The core objective of M&S is that the employees discuss between themselves so as to adapt and imbibe from their counterpart. Through the venture ability and enhanced knowledge, employees attained efficiency in their activity and managers could touch out someone realizable options for apiece arena and reasoning.

Page | 6 1.3 Assess the contribution of learning styles and theories when planning and designing a learning event for the Company To design the learning events for the recruits the knowledge of theories of different learning styles is very important(Liao 2005). Now from the case we will discuss how M&S implement these theories and put them to use in the training of their new recruit:  Basing on expertise and past experience designing 3 different training programs.  To ensure maximum efficiency the employees are divided into 3 categories.  Scale of evaluation basing on development of skills and competencies.  Giving the employees a chance to learn from their mistakes and improve individual performance. So, before selecting and conducting grooming events for the employees the acquisition styles and theories must be analyzed and orientated according to the crunchy expectations and desires. Thus victorious musing on acquisition preferences and theoretic evidences boost to the made HR circumstance organizing. Connection among learning style, theory, event: Making a mind on the selection of a acquisition styles is stimulating duty because of the separate differences. To fulfil the activity and learning penury a compounding of threefold learning styles present be more suitable. After the activity the undefeated and expectable outcome leave depend on the program and exertion of the breeding courses and the needed standardisation prefabricated. Fasten may enjoin improving different capabilities and skills same leaders skills, trait making cognition, efficiency, squad outcome, enhancing responsibility country etc. These needs confine the characteristics of training and practice necessities. And acquisition theories defines learning types, structures and logical explanations and learning agency dictates how most effectively acquisition can be knowing with the most pertinent target. Contribution of learning theories and styles on training event: Apropos designing of the circumstance present promote a big allocation to the success of the elite acquisition process. For the circumstance like a booming one, the participation of staffs,

Page | 7 their activeness, openness, intercourse and usage in activities are substantial elements. To fulfil the necessities I gift free the needs and mean and apportion status to select more suitable communication and theory for faster acquisition. Every mortal favours and familiarized with various acquisition patterns and ways. It's measurable to realise and interact learning theories granted by theorists with the idiosyncratic acquisition needs and patterns to finish a wagered oblique and objective-oriented preparation whole. LO-2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer 2.1 Compare the training needs for staff at different levels in Marks and Spencer The employees can be distinguished into three different levels and training is imparted on the factors required for each level and they are compared basing on their advantages. For the managerial stages of employees the fluctuating necessity to start diverse categories of activity facilities and services than the employees at operating or consumer run rank. For this understanding, HR executives should understand the requirements and expectations at those unlike levels. The levels are:  Management Level  Operation Level  Customer Service Level The comparison between different training needs are given below Management Level Operation Level Customer Service Level The criteria management team should have are enlisted below: The criteria that defines the operation level is stated below: In this level the following takes place  Recruits are exposed

Page | 8  Ability to analyze facts  Respond to situational changes  Ability to take decisions  Need for off the job knowledge and on the job stimulations  Time management and control  Efficient in task delivery  Guidance through motivation by superiors for improved performance directly to the customers  Need for excellent communication skills  Capacity to handle information to be relayed to customer  Need to be emotionally composed Currently M&S has been arranging training facilities for the hominid imagination exercise of its employees using divers system. Managers as substantially as the trainers been counselling other staffs to bring their advance itinerary (Gilly et al. 2002). The roles of several positions of the employees turn loose to agonize as considerably as their responsibilities and job context. The employees can also study some their performance gaps, sectors of advance with the improvement of action estimate. At the one measure distinct workshops, workbooks etc. grant for their allegro and their non-subjective. But for the right utilization and effectively of the training events, the HR managers requisite to secure the apropos activities of services. 2.2 Assess the advantages and disadvantages of current training methods used in the organization The advantages and disadvantages of the prevailing training method of M&S are discussed in the table below. Advantages Disadvantages  The process designed for fresh recruits at M&S so as to relay the organization culture and learn from it is induction  The employees work in different organizational role to earn success through  In the induction process if the introductory is demoralizing then the recruits will lose the interest towards work.  In role playing if the employees are regularly shunned for new duties then they

Page | 9 realization of their duties is role playing.  The process of accessing individual employee performance and productivity through input and notes helps to understand the lacking areas and improve on it is performance coaching.  Workshops are arranged in order to give the employees instruction through a new face and to take something new from it. might just give up if the work does not favorably suit them  In performance coaching if the evaluation is biased and not observed through keenness then the employees might just lose faith.  Workshops are not cost effective but can be a disaster if the objective and message of it is not clear. 2.3 Use a systematic approach to plan training and development This is a group of well-coordinated and systemic approach of the plan.  Realistic organizational problem scenarios are given to the group of employees who are divided into groups. The topics related to the scenario are given below:  Customer service  Efficiency in production  Motivation  Employee relation  Appropriate management  After the scenarios are provided to the teams then a question and answer session is held so that the teams can clear their doubts about the scenario(Liao 2005).  The teams then present their scenario finding and then an elaborate presentation is held on the facts presented.  With the facts being presented the teams need to come up with the best possible solution.  After the solutions are submitted the management will snide remarks at the proposal and then again send it for re-correction.  After the re-corrected proposal is submitted then again an elaborate discussion is held on the corrected proposals and the best possible solution is debated and selected.

Page | 10 The entire process is monitored by the organizing committee under the supervision of the top management and the middle management(Huang 2001). During the scenario solution each and every step of all the teams are monitored and marked from individual performance to team performance and the efficiency with which the solution has been put into motion. In the end the evaluation both individual and team performance are placed at the table for valuation by all present. Providing problem Q&A Finding &Discussion Solution Correction & Input Resubmissio n & Best Solution Rating

Page | 11 LO-3 Be able to evaluate a training event 3.1 Documented methodology of an evaluation using suitable techniques For the assessment of the effectiveness of a training event Jacobs F. (1988) came up with the concept of “Five Tiered Approach”. Mark & Spencer use this approach to evaluate the performance of the training and development of the employees. Top management device pauperization to screw how prosperous the reflexing assemblage was and for this they instrument regulate different elements and factors, costs and benefits to find on whether it utilize maintain or not. The theory evaluates a schedule in phoebe levels and compares the real outcome with the expected outcome of the aim. The intention that the thought aimed at 5 different stages has met the status or not was assessed. This approach is a 5 step process which is briefly discussed below: 1. Need Assessment: In this step the core drawback of an employee is pin-pointed and then what necessary measures are needed to bring the employee to speed is discussed. 2. Monitoring & Accountability:In this step the contents that are required for the assessment are determined and put on the table for the target people. 3. Program Clarification: Here the objectives of the program are clearly stated and then suggestions are taken to improve quality and control(Huang 2001). 4. Progress: In this part the progress of the participants of the training program are evaluated through their performance as to how they complete their task at hand. 5. Program impact: This part is basically a research as to how the program is to put effect on the performance of an individual in the long run against time.

Page | 12 Evaluation Document: For grading any work some form of documents are required to give indication as how and why the scenario must work out. The documents required for the evaluation is stated below: Customer service: Improvement of the customer in the individual area. Quality Improvement: The quality of the commodity and improvement in customer services. Productivity: Increase of demand among the consumers for a certain commodity. The happenings and operation track yield plain the cocksure and negative aspects of the condition and the required steps to be made. Change in sales: By studying the sales projection of the past and taking into account the present sales projection the change can be determined. The judgment and feedback of line managers are biogenic for the accurate and realistic perspicacity on the reflection package that instrument cater the managers to check how the adjacent parties were involved. 3.2 Analysis (and evaluation) of the training event The training program that was designed for the training of the new recruits was a success. The new recruits were put to test when they were faced with real life scenarios and the problems surrounding them(Gilly et al. 2002). With a great deal of zeal and enthusiasm they took up their work and analyzed the facts and information and actively dealt with the senior managers to work out the most viable solution to the scenario presented to a team. While presenting their idea they were driven to the edge with a view to cripple them and logically sound they made their ground firm. 3.3 A review of the success of the evaluation methods used The outcome of the evaluation was success as said to be by the “Five Tiered Approach”. The method successfully analyzed all the data provided and easily came to a fruitful conclusion of the expected facts of the training program (Gilly et al. 2002). This process has also proved to be a

Page | 13 cost-effective process to train the employees. During the sorting activity employees, managers provided their problems and nipping activities of the expression circumstance that wilful adversely in their utilization loco mote. The itinerary pioneer it a prosperous sorting method which critically analyzed all the steps and policies expropriated by HR managers. Politico orderly and analytical modification was prefabricated in prescript to somebody a beat signaling and section in spread. LO-4 Understand government-led skills development initiatives 4.1 Explain the role of government in training, development and lifelong learning The government of United Kingdom is led by the monarchy crown and the power is channeled through the local government. They are the supreme powerhouse of the country and should use their resources to scrounge out the skilled workforce and arrange for proper learning and training(Budhwar 2000). The private organizations are the only facilities that provide these facilities and are excelling relatively in their field of work for the value they give towards individual performance and effort. They use these individuals in both the long and short run with skill and caution to reach their organization objective(Budhwar 2000). The government should play an active role in the development of such facilities so as to facilitate the future workforce and train them to be successful. The projection figures of statistics shows that in the economy the supply of skilled labor bounded with talents against the demand for them is present with the government. The government can play a vital role in meeting and supplying the desired man- power and workforce to the economy of the country. Moreover the firms' cognition not be fit to put in gymnasium become and accolade the requisite acculturation facilities. In these cases the firms are benefitted finished the Govt. occurrence and determination in their HR processing. In erupt the frugalness industries are palmy many quick and gaining HR effectively and standard production destroy. This helps to create an seasonable status for the firms in the highly contending manufacture.

Page | 14 4.2 Explain how the development of the competency movement has impacted on the public and private sectors The impact that the competency movement had on the economy in both the private and public sector is that everyone has come to understand the multiple positive factors of having skilled personnel. They have understood that poor workforce can lead to disaster in the organizational objectives and lead to the ruin of the organization. You can learn all you like as there is no ends to the word learn which is being established in the market to develop individuals through training and resource development. M&S by applying this strategy has been able to withhold their skilled employees by offering them development in their own sectors and making them special. Event of competencies and skills are canonic reach of learning and utile and formed enforcement. Higher success valuate of the never-ending alter of acquisition and knowledge lie in the faster utilization in activities and productivity has influenced all the firms to inform the represent in their own workplaces. Employees are receiving a greater total of pauperism and toil in their job and diversification of their trustworthiness areas. 4.3 Assess how contemporary training initiatives introduced by the UK government contribute to human resources development for an organization such as Marks and Spencer Mark & Spencer is an organization which is mostly dependent on the work done by the HR skill employed by them. The better their HR skill the more sales they will make to enlarge their profit and expand their business. In order to do so they have to work on their old employees who know the market well are self-motivated and ambitious in the job they do and train and develop them to become leaders and not the minnows of the market and shine out like a bright star. In order to boost the economy the government should practice the culture of skill development and note the area in which to improvise for the greater case of Marks & Spencer who believe their HR skill to be the most powerful instrument of their success. This coetaneous compound artifact is quicker result of processing in the chanceful exploited position. As the economy is mannered by the performances of the employees in all firms, the Govt. has been work many researchable eliminate in clever the foremost learning options to the firms as per the typewrite of acquisition

Page | 15 needs. Faster adaptability is available with the bustling involution and efficacious feat of human acquisition events as per the office nonviolence's representation and employees look. Function of contemporary learning in M&S: The activity methods introduced by Authorities are rattling utile for the move of hominid resources and their action capableness to prolong matched vantage. The staffs of M&S could regularise their execution, power to act up with the modified close and construction with the validation of the compeer preparation system. The learning has also influenced the expectation of consumer, capitalist posture and remaining organizational elements. Faster adaptability is procurable with the bustling involution and effective achievement of someone acquisition events as per the function fixed's grouping and employees expect. Conclusion This is the modern era of competitive business where to make a stand you need to topple someone to gain their seat in the over populated market. The success of a firm does not depend on how they recruit their manpower but solely on the analyzing ability of the persons working the market. To make a strong foothold you need to find a weak spot to lay the foundation stone. These abilities are never present in anyone but if trained and nurtured with care and belongingness they grow to be an asset changing the course in the long run. M&S is a leading retailer in the UK business market and have a strong foundation stone. Their main power is their workforce which have grown and given the organization objectives a higher place than never before. These helped the constant to enactment and engagement in the highly competing mart gaining scholar customer ambience and loyalty. The realistic contact aids the workforces to understand some standing and see out organizational flaws. For dissimilar learning requirements, appraising areas and organizational problems for potent implication of theories and practices. The employees can be at their agitated evince tier if direction act swamped ensure to them and toward their organizational artifact and location environs.

Page | 16 References Budhwar P. (2000) Evaluating levels of strategic integration and devolvement of human resource management in the UK, Personnel Review, Vol. 29 Issue 2, pp.141-157 Gilly, J., Eggland, S.&Gilly, A. (2002). "On Qualitative Differences in Learning — 1: Outcome and Process" Brit. J. Educ. Psych. 46, 4-11 Huang T. (2001) The effects of linkage between business and human resource management strategies, Personnel Review, Vol. 30 Issue 2, pp.132-151 Jacobs, F. (1988). The five-tiered approach to evaluation: Context and implementation evaluating family programs (pp. 37-68). KOLB D A, RUBIN I M and OSLAND J (1991) Organizational Behavior; an experiential approach (5th edition) Englewood Cliffs, N J: Prentice-Hall Liao Y. (2005) Business strategy and performance: the role of human resource management control, Personnel Review, Vol. 34 Issue 3, pp.294-309 MAGENNIS S and FARRELL A (2005) "Teaching and Learning Activities: expanding the repertoire to support student learning" in G O'Neill, S Moore and B McMullin Emerging Issues in the Practice of University Learning and Teaching, Dublin; All Ireland Society for Higher Education/Higher Education Authority MARTON F, HOUNSELL D and ENTWISTLE N (eds.) (1997) The Experience of learning (2nd edition) Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press

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