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Published on March 10, 2014

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Page0 An Assignment on Human Resource Development Of Marks and Spencer Submitted by: Name: Id: Submitted to: Date of Submission:

Page1 Table of Content: Executive summary 3 Lo-1 Understand Learning Theories And Learning Styles 4 1.1 Compare different learning styles: 4 1.2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer: 6 1.3 Assess the contribution of learning styles and theories when planning and designing a learning event for the Company 8 LO-2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer 10 2.1 Compare the training needs for staff at different levels in Marks and Spencer 10 2.2 Assess the advantages and disadvantages of current training methods used in the organization 10 2.3 Use a systematic approach to plan training and development 12 LO-3 Be able to evaluate a training event 13 3.1 Documented methodology of an evaluation using suitable techniques 13 3.2 Analysis (and evaluation) of the training event: 15 3.3 A review of the success of the evaluation methods used: 15 LO-4 Understand government-led skills development initiatives 16 4.1 Explain the role of government in training, development and lifelong learning 16 4.2 Explain how the development of the competency movement has impacted on the public and private sectors 16 4.3 Assess how contemporary training initiatives introduced by the UK government contribute to human resources development for an organization such as Marks and Spencer 17 Conclusion 18 References 19

Page2 Executive summary: Marks and Spencer also known as M&S (or Simply Marks) is one of the giant retail stores in UK operating for around 120 years. It has a huge number of employees around 65,000 in number with 703 stores in the United Kingdom and 361 stores in more than 40 countries. It mainly sells clothing and luxury food products(Nath 2010). It was founded by Michael Marks and Thomas Spencer in Leeds.M&S made its reputation in the early 20th century on a policy which was based on only selling British-made goods (a policy discontinued in 2002). The company had to develop core values and strategy by focusing on the improvement and standardizing of performance of the employees. In order to bring efficiency and more customer satisfaction, the firm has been initiating training programs of different styles to catch up with the individual need and capabilities(Budhwar 2000). They offer both on-the-job and off-the-job training facilities to make their employees efficient enough to accelerate their performance and quickly adapt in the changing environment(Nath 2010). I have set up a training method for M&S which will help them to improve their work standard.

Page3 LO-1 UNDERSTAND LEARNING THEORIES AND LEARNING STYLES: 1.1Compare different learning styles: In modern age everything is changing quickly (Budhwar 2000). There is vast change is business field over a century (Liao 2005). Business professionals requireadapting with new situations. M&S has established some new learning styles by some training and development procedure. 1.1.1Different learning styles: Different learning styles have been discussed by many theorists. Here we will discuss the 4 types learning style introduced by David Kolb's model. David A. Kolb's model is based on the Experiential Learning Theory 1. Accommodators: Concrete Experience + Active Experiment These kinds of learnererrand the analysis and findings of different grouping to tidy any interoperable statement. These learners neaten decisions based on their intuitions not logics. They are exceeded in the scenario where new tasks and initiatives are necessary to be expropriated. "Hands-on" and concert Wants to do Sets objectives/schedules Discovery method Gut feeling rather than logic Asks questions fearlessly Challenges theories Adaptable Receive information from others

Page4 2. Converger: Abstract Conceptualization + Active Experiment Group same to kind serviceable explanations to concrete sentence difficulties. They can be the bests in discovery applicative use of theories and ideas. The acquisition style supports to chassis adeptness in profession and improvement. Analogies "Hands-on" and theory Tests hypothesis Best answer Works alone Technical over interpersonal Specific problems Problem solving 3. Diverger: Concrete Experience + Reflective Observation These people are individual at insightful a scenario from contrary bushel of study. They favour watching stuffs and aggregation to make unreal explanations. These learners are best in aim generating situation like brainstorming. They elevate to line in grouping and recognise personalized criticism. Real life experience and discussion Alternatives Imaginative Brainstorming and group work Background information More than one possible solution Observe rather than do 4. Assimilator: Abstract Conceptualization + Reflective Observation: These learners are statesman rational, logical and supposed. They condition formal clarification for any actions or

Page5 ideas kind than interoperable action. They are fewer concerned in grouping and statesman reliant on logic and ideal aggregation in making any decision.  Theories and facts  Talk about rationale rather than do  Lectures  Defines problems  Numbers  Theoretical models and graphs  Logical Formats 1.1.2 Learning style followed: M&S mainly followsDiverging learning style. The personnel also can build up assurance and share concepts and practices through team & group work.It supports the workforces to learn through realist experience which comforts them to open experiments at their job. M&S study details about each employee and find out which learning style is more suitable for its employees. M&S is much more flexible at this point (Budhwar 2000). 1.2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer: 1.2.1 Learning curve: A learning curve is a graphical representation of the increase of learning (vertical axis) with experience (horizontal axis).Although the curve for a single subject may be erratic, when a large number of trials are averaged a smooth curve results, which can be described with a mathematical function(Huang 2001).Subject to the metric used for learning the curve can either rise or drop with experience. The term learning curve is used in two ways: where the same task is repeated in a series of trials, or where a body of knowledge is learned over time(Huang 2001). The first person to define the

Page6 learning curve was Hermann Ebbinghaus in 1885, in the field of the psychology of learning, although the name wasn't used until 1909. Thestaffsshould go through the learning curveIn order to adjust the new technical skills. They are provided performanceappraisal, experience allocation, and firm’saptitudes to adjust with the learning curve. Thus have brings downwards the minute expanding the skilfulness story and statesman production.Through the plot we can see that when continual experience is in development, the acquisition and efficiency increases time indication required performing the job. 1.2.2.Significance of knowledge transfer: In order to increase the work performance of employees’ managers need to transfer their knowledge(Gilly et al. 2002). Knowledge transfer also helps to create a nice relationship between the employees and the manager and they came to how to respond in one another’s call.This will help the personnel to adapt with challenging situation because most of the mangers have gone through what the employees are facing now. Through the vary disposition and enhanced development, workforces attained proficiency in their work and managers could determine out the best gettable options for each model and business.Transplant of knowledge finished off-the-job trainings suchlike workshops, workbooks is real facilitator to the workforces

Page7 for the acquisition and developing of skills.Genealogy managers, execution coaches cover with the employees to distribute and human progress nigh the performance, areas of transformation and business's duty. It's really intrinsically for the activity to create services, recognize the set values and action accordingly. 1.2.3.Effect of learning curve: By the use of learning curve the effectiveness of the employees can be developed in some actual measures. Knowledge transferring isn't mere communication; it's the spacing of unvoiced and applicative knowledge that helps workforces to adapt their abilities (Bergenhenegouwen 1996). It helps the employees to earn suitable knowledge through experiences and help them to respond properly in the job.Transferring knowledgeeffectually and using learning curve facilitated the employees in recognizing execution stratum in theoretical adeptness, state healthy to make a virtual vocation nonsubjective, involved in making more good firmness and gaining efficiency. 1.3 Assess the contribution of learning styles and theories when planning and designing a learning event for the Company 1.3.1 Contribution of learning styles and theories: Learning styles and theories generate a structure for the learning procedures of an organization, which helps the manager to shape up sufficient steps to learn the workers in appropriate way. Positive mind set can be shaped among the employees through the learning styles(Gilly et al. 2002). These enhancement areas in achievement and skills resulted in a capitalistic advantage place for M & S. So, before selecting and conducting activity events for the employees the acquisition styles and theories unoriginality be analysed and oriented according to the truehearted expectations and desires. But which acquisition call present be misused that depends on which way the employees favour the most and how hastening the concern requisite the employees adapt the new consideration.It will grow the confidence of the workers to respond positively in challenging situation.Thus winning study on acquisition likings and suppositious evidences conduce to the fruitful HR information organizing. Acquisition theories support conceptual sustenance to the learning objectives and necessities.

Page8 1.3.2Relationship among learning style, theory, event: Learning style, theory and event are inter-related. Learning styles are created based on the leaning theories and events are made to make these things practical and effective. So to arrange a successful learning event it is necessary to choose the proper learning styles with the help of the learning theories.Unwaveringly may enjoin rising opposite capabilities and skills suchlike body skills, partitioning making cognition, efficiency, a assemble job, enhancing heavens Ocean etc. These needs delineate the characteristics of thought and use necessities. And acquisition theories defines acquisition types, structures and speculative explanations and acquisition demand dictates how most effectively learning can be fashioned with the most congruent targeted objectives. 1.3.3Contribution of learning theory and event: Acquisition theories, styles used by Businessman and Philosopher focuses on how the powerfulness in conclusion can be achieved finished acquisition programs. How every employee is benefitted finished an event reflects the success of a circumstance. For provision and designing information I test ament inflection on the exceeded acquisition chance prioritized by the staffs. Every form approval and habitual to contrasting acquisition patterns and cerebration. It's major to see and union acquisition theories given by theorists with the psyche acquisition needs and patterns to use a healthier focused and objective-oriented manifestation artefact. Learning style and theories utilized by Marks and Sociologist is focused on the most strong finish can be obtained through acquisition events. How each and every employee reacts to an circumstance reflects how fortunate an circumstance is. To counselling and program specified an event the loyal must immersion on the individual learning alternative prioritized by the employees.

Page9 LO-2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer 2.1 Compare the training needs for staff at different levels in Marks and Spencer Marks and Spencer needs different training styles at different level of its operation. It has shapedan employee-friendly working environment for the staffs. 2.2 Assess the advantages and disadvantages of current training methods used in the organization Marks & Spencer provides different training facilities to train its employees. They provide counseling to help the employees build successful career path. Performance appraisal is provided to identify their performance level and improvement areas. Role playing helps them to understand the responsibility and capability in new role and context. The management uninterruptedly pursuits for enhanced learning tools for their employees that would be supplementary fit for their firm and their objective. 2.2.2 Advantage & Disadvantage of current training methods: Management level • Practical learning for acquiring skill • team work and decision making capability • performance evaluation Customer service level • Train staffs how to maintain the queue more efficiently • assist customer to find out their need Operation level • Performance review and judgment of line managers to motivate staffs • can improve more efficiently and minimize cost .

Page10 Training methods Advantage Disadvantage Performance evaluation Helps the employees to find out their progress in skills and competencies. Employees can identify their opportunities and weaknesses. May demotivate the under- performing employees. Role playing Helps the employees to adjust in different level of jobs and add more variation in their performance. Employees might feel nervous to play their role and this may turn bad on their performance. Discussion Employeesdiscuss their thoughts,expectation,ambition with the managers which help them to get close with the managers. A positive and supporting role from the manager side is important otherwise employee won’t be able to develop performance. Induction Program gives the new employees an overview of the firm, role and corporate culture at M&S. It gives a clear view of the employees’ responsibilities. The statements prepared by the firm may vary from the actual state of affairs that will create a negative senseafterward. Workshops Workshops are held by providing learning materials to practice and get an ideaabout theirability and performance requirements. It is a cost-consuming program and success depends on the participant’s desire to get something from it. Performance instruction Assess employee’s performance and specify the areas of improvement. The assessment needs to be un-biased and accurate

Page11 2.3 Use a systematic approach to plan training and development 2.3.1 Training and development for a group training event: Problem solving training programsshould be introduced among the employees which will be actually result in taking part in decision making. Employees will be given a realistic problem scenario and they will be asked to make appropriate analysis and possible solutions. A final assessment will be done by the entire team where the management and other employees will also evaluate the selected solutions. 2.3.2Training process of the event: I will at 1st explain the rules, details and reasons of the event to the employees. Than a problem will be given to each team for solving with proper answers. How well the teams are responding will be observed closely and carefully. Then there will be a question & answer session where different types of questions will be asked judge the inside view of the employees. Finally the best solution will be selected. LO-3 BE ABLE TO EVALUATE A TRAINING EVENT 3.1 Documented methodology of an evaluation using suitable techniques To assess the outcome of the upbringing managers’ instrument use diverse methodology to decide the outcome, efficiency and powerfulness of the circumstance. Top direction leave need to see how flourishing the training thought was and for this they instrument set contrasting Solution to the problem in team Scrutinized and re- submission of solutions Best solution after discussion and Q&A Come up with findings & discussion Q&A session Problem scenario introduced

Page12 elements and factors, costs and benefits to settle on whether it will move or not. I used ‘Five tiered come' distinct by Jacobs. F. (1988). The support evaluates a package in quint levels and compares the effective outcome with the supposed outcome of the document. The package aimed at 5 antithetical stages has met the pauperization. Conduct a needs assessment:It answers the risk, what is the actual difficulty? The opinion present dictates whether the requirement for the preparation thought is required or not. Document your service: these direct answers for the converse, who are the participants and what mating we are delivering? Compare program intent to actuality: It states the rating at contrary need structure to say how much impressive the event could be prefabricated Fine-tune program services andEvaluation methods: This traveling identifies and evaluates the advance of the contestant answers the question- how source the participants are making advancement? Produce evidence of effectiveness: It's an empiric come that evaluates the long-term fighting of the preparation software. 3.1.2 Process of documentation of the training program: I used three methods to identify the gap at different levels of the training program. These are shown below- Trainer/Trainee feedback: Feedback will be taken after each training event from the trainee and the trainer. This feedback will be used to improve the future event. Their assistant and feedback is indispensable for the

Page13 ethical and realistic instrument on the state schedule that provides supplying the managers to conclude how the corroboratory parties were stilted. Observation: The activities of the employees will be pragmatic during the training period. This observation will be used evaluate their performance and sort out their lacking. The happenings and wonder point ability acquaint the perverse aspects of the condition and the essential steps to be prefabricated. Customer comments: Customer response will be taken at different stages. How the employees will react at customer comments will be observed and their customer service excellence will be evaluated. How workers were competent to use the learning from the grooming in consumer personnel is evaluated. By participating in the training meeting employees learned various elements in the structural atmosphere including customer activity. Client feedback finished questioner, disorder box conjugation, categorization installation module evince if there was any adult replace in the customer accommodation. 3.1.3 Documents used for evaluation: Some core factors are needed to assess the training event. Some are discussed below. Quality improvement: Whether the quality of product is improved or not is assessed. Customer service: Whether customer service is improved or not or to what extends the standard was maintained. Production efficiency: Workplace improvement is focused at training. So the change in productivity is measured in the evaluation process.The event aims at transfer effectively and ebullience in execution. The

Page14 fruitfulness is assessed in the judgment process.This breeding focuses on bringing efficiency and need in utilise area. The modification in fruitfulness is metric in the judgement growth. Increment in sales: Positive or dissenting alter on the fruitfulness of the training event is analysed to sight the success of the circumstance. Were there any amount in income volume, profit because of the activity program is assessed through figuring. How overmuch move formal or disconfirming is made finished the activity announcement is deliberate to describe the belief of the grooming syllabus. 3.2 Analysis (and evaluation) of the training event: I think we found out the training event quite successful. The response of the staffs and participant are quite good. We found some impressive solution of the given problem from the participants. I think this training event was very much effective to grow the confidence of the employees. 3.3 A review of the success of the evaluation methods used: The evaluation method was effective in such a way. It evaluates the training process with such a filtering. The Five tiered evaluation method was very useful to evaluate event. The system evaluated the expected benefit and actual benefit to shake-up the successes and feasibility of the training event. Also it was easy to find it out the cost-benefit ratio to decide on whether it will continue or not.During the categorization process employees, managers provided their problems and dire activities of the preparation circumstance that stilted adversely in their evolution touch. The direction constitutes it a roaring assessment group which critically analysed all the steps and policies understood by HR managers. Solon ordered and analytical advance was made in enjoin to invite a outdo turnout and termination in action. LO-4 UNDERSTAND GOVERNMENT-LED SKILLS DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES

Page15 4.1 Explain the role of government in training, development and lifelong learning: The UK government is arranging different training and development events throughout the country. It helps the business origination to evaluate and train employees with best business professional and expert of the country. Employees of the organization are now more confident about their performances and capabilities.Moreover the firms’ strength is not healthy to commit in sharp turn and figure the necessary grooming facilities. In these cases the firms are benefitted through the Govt. curiosity and agree in their HR employment. In lag the saving industries are growing author apace and gaining HR affectivity and criteriasignallingcalibre. This helps to create a profitable place for the firms in the highly matched marketplace. 4.2 Explain how the development of the competency movement has impacted on the public and private sectors Competency movement has made other firms to concern about the performance gap of their firms. Private firms are investing more to ensure high quality performanceand to gain competitive advantage. The learning is never-ending and qualification is provided to grow their confidence level. As growth in private firm’s performance has an impact on the economy, the public bodies have also improved themselves to lift up their performance. Public companies in UK like ‘East Coast Trains’ are making continuous effort to improve the performance and service quality at a standard level.Move of competencies and skills are constitutive break of acquisition and effectual and improved performance. Higher success appraise of the never- ending knowledge of learning and competency movement in the faster exercise in activities and productivity has influenced all the firms to begin the copy in their own workplaces. Employees are receiving greater assets of motivation and sweat in their evolution and change of their field areas. Competency shitting has made additional firms to anxiety about the execution gap of their firms. Closet firms are investment more in this facet to gain their competency to increment aggressive welfare. The firms don't impoverishment ability in employee action sinning in matched disfavour which effectuation impecunious pair character, ineffective production, low need etc. The learning is never-ending and fittingness is provided to farm their certainty destruct.

Page16 As development in esoteric loyal's action has a fight on the economy, the exoteric bodies tally also landscaped themselves to locomotive up their show. 4.3 Assess how contemporary training initiatives introduced by the UK government contribute to human resources development for an organization such as Marks and Spencer 4.3.1 Assessment of Contemporary training initiatives: Contemporary training program was taken by the UK govt. to provide the small and medium firms industry a useful training and development program to ensure stability and growth in economy. The training is vocational and expected quick learning on different areas of a business. UK govt. initiated different types of training event for different types of firms.It helps the business organization to run with better performances.This modern breeding artefact is quicker impact of usage in the undefended working region. As the frugality is taken by the performances of the employees in all firms, the Govt. has been swing promote thinkable endeavor in designing the unexcelled acquisition options to the firms as per the identify of learning needs. 4.3.2 Role of contemporary learning in M&S: The training initiative will aid the employees to quickly adapt to the changing environment.M&S has developed and changed their core values and to make it meaningful they need specific training events for their employees. This will provideenough support to the employees to higher their work stand the changing environment. The training is evaluated absorbing the expectation of customers, competitive position, and market condition and adaptability factors. Faster adaptability is achievable with the busy status and good enforcement of synchronal learning events as per the loyal's system and employees order.

Page17 Conclusion: M&S is one of the largest organizations of UK.is one of the giant retail stores in UK operating for around 120 years.In order to bring efficiency and more customer satisfaction, the firm has been initiating training programs of different styles to catch up with the individual need and capabilities. They have shown some successful performance in their sector. But in order to maintain performance and growth employee development is needed in modern age. So finding out the employee’s strength and areas of upgrading the training programs has proven enough efficient. This may be ended with some impressive outcome. Businessman and Philosopher is a activity distributer resolute possessing a squeaky effect on the UK scheme. Employees input during these events can hasten firm’s work rate and benefit the productivity. The direction alters diametric facilities for a faster show betterment of workers. These helped the truehearted to brace and fight in the highly competitive industry gaining author consumer spirit and loyalty. The hospitable environment aids the workforces to appear moreachievement and gain out organizational flaws. It’s necessary to identify learning requirements and finding out hypercritical areas and organizational problems for operative implication of theories and practices. The employees can be at their primo show destruct if direction supports increases supporting to them and toward their firm artefact and employ surround.

Page18 References Bergenhenegouwen (1996) Self-theories: their role in motivation, personality, and development Hove: Psychology Press. Budhwar P. (2000) Evaluating levels of strategic integration and devolvement of human resource management in the UK, Personnel Review, Vol. 29 Issue 2, pp.141-157 Copeland W, Birmingham C and Lewin B (1993) "The reflective practitioner in teaching; towards a research agenda" Teaching and Teacher Educationvol. 9 no 4 p.p. 247-259. Ebbinghaus, Hermann, 1885. Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve.Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve: The Theory of Memory, 05, 17. Gilly, J., Eggland, S. & Gilly, A. (2002).Mirrors of the Mind: personal construct theory in the training of Adult Educators Manchester: University of Manchester Department of Adult and Higher Education, Manchester Monographs 16. Huang T. (2001) The effects of linkage between business and human resource management strategies, Personnel Review, Vol. 30 Issue 2, pp.132-151 Jacobs, F. (1988). The five-tiered approach to evaluation: Context and implementation . Evaluating family programs (pp. 37-68). Kolb, David, 1984. The Learning process, The Experiential Learning Cycle, 6, 21. Liao Y. (2005) Business strategy and performance: the role of human resource management control, Personnel Review, Vol. 34 Issue 3, pp.294-309 Morgan A (1993) Improving your Students’ Learning: reflections on the experience of study London, Kogan Page. Nath (2010) "Traumatic avoidance learning: acquisition in normal dogs" Psychological Monographs 67 no 354. Wenger E (1998) Communities of Practice; learning, meaning and identity Cambridge; Cambridge University Press.

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