Published on March 10, 2014
Assignment on Human Resource Management of Marks and Spencer Submitted By: Submitted To:
i Table of Content: Executive summary ii Lo-1 Understand Learning Theories And Learning Styles 1 1.1 Compare different learning styles: 1 1.2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer: 2 1.3 Assess the contribution of learning styles and theories when planning and designing a learning event for the Company 4 LO-2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer 5 2.1 Compare the training needs for staff at different levels in Marks and Spencer 5 2.2 Assess the advantages and disadvantages of current training methods used in the organization 6 2.3 Use a systematic approach to plan training and development 6 LO-3 Be able to evaluate a training event 7 3.1 Documented methodology of an evaluation using suitable techniques 7 3.2 Analysis (and evaluation) of the training event: 9 3.3 A review of the success of the evaluation methods used: 9 LO-4 Understand government-led skills development initiatives 10 4.1 Explain the role of government in training, development and lifelong learning 10 4.2 Explain how the development of the competency movement has impacted on the public and private sectors 10 4.3 Assess how contemporary training initiatives introduced by the UK government contribute to human resources development for an organization such as Marks and Spencer 11 Conclusion 12 References 13
ii Executive Summary People are the most important asset for any organization. Human resource development concept has now a day become more popular and almost every organization nurture their human resource in order to achieve targeted goals(Budhwar 2000). Actually there is no alternative for developing human resource to become successful in this competitive era. Only skilled and experienced workers can lead the company towards the required objectives. Human resource are used to produce the ultimate products that we use or consume in fact they are the behind the scene workers. Marks &Spencer, in this case has also given too much importance in developing their human resource to achieve their goals. To ensure skill augmentation, companies have to work with the theories of human resource development and define which process to choose as suitable for their type. Lots of trainings methods are adopted by the company to make their human resource more skilled and to ensure the growth in the long run(Budhwar 2000). Not only these methods of developing human resource are used but also the true executions are monitored. The proper investigation whether these techniques are worthwhile or not can only make these efforts successful. Lastly government lead skilled development programs also be adapted and consultation on regular basis could definitelymake the human resource effective.
Lo-1 Understand Learning Theories And Learning Styles Honey and Mumfordthetwo lecturers has given the idea of different learning styles which are much effective and already been adopted by different organizations(Gilly et al. 2002). In order to cope up with the competitive business market company tries to motivate and make skillful workforce as there are no alternatives(Nath 2010). 1.1 Compare different learning styles: According to Honey and Mumford the 4 types of learning styles that are followed by the companies to make their human resource developed. The styles are discussed here: Reflector: Only the opportunist people adopt this style. Under this style employees try to make logical explanation of new learning‟s and they act like optimistic.They fundamentally retired in treatment and favour to pore to others exclusive. Reflector learners are electricity in developing and judging a put because they driblet a lot of moil in analysing the collection, theory and act. As they neaten own points after a lank and thoroughgoing cerebration, the chances of divagation and problems in their decisions are low. They are timesaving in perspicacity making but not effectual. Theorist: Theory based learning are adopted by the employee and employer. They mainly follow different types of theories and strictly maintain the learning process.They are real invariable to be sensible in their duty and use. Their decisions are not from their being or early acquisition. They elasticity demythologized and supernatant on their intellection findings on the moving scenario, they succeed to an occurrence. Activist: In this process, the employees look for fresher events to go through and learn through newer experiences. The shifting tendencies from one fact to another have been experienced by both employee and employer.They do not demand longish clip to move from any have to added. In apace arbitrary situations and eliminate requirements these learners can pioneer themselves in altering and wider responsibilities. But activists' ratio is whiz to hold in diverse responsibilities and tasks but they are lowly superstar in any fact demesne of acquirement and force.
2 Pragmatist: In this process, the employer and the employees share a common interest in applied knowledge. The real life experience helps them to learn new things. They make logical explanation and execution of all the information they get and make a path of effective learning. At the homophonic reading the same to support new arena and thusly they ameliorate their skills. The learners are fit to unsex speedily in dynamical situations, gruelling surroundings and tasks. The express M&S recital has created for the employees and managers requisite these kinds of learners to be vigorous to fit themselves according to the requirements. Marks & Spencer in this case follows pragmatist style which helps the employees more skilled(Budhwar 2000). When an employee joins the team, he or she is put into an environment where the employees are exposed to real working situations and thus trained up through practical learning(Gilly et al. 2002). Moreover, the company has „Off the job‟ training facilities too that also helps the employees enrich their knowledge about what they do. 1.2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer: The purpose of Learning curve is to present the relation between experience of worker and the level of performance. It states that as gradually an employee gets more experienced, his or her level of performance also increases accordingly. The experience increase is presented in the horizontal axis(Huang 2001). On the other hand, the development of learning as well as performance is presented in the vertical axis. The idea is, as an employee experiences different working scenarios through working in different sections with different job responsibilities, his capability of understanding and accomplishing targets as well(Liao 2005). He can better understand his objectives and the ways that need to be followed. As a result, with the increment of working experiences, the performance level also increases.
3 Figure: Learning Curve Significance of Learning Curve:The learning curve can be a wonderful tool for the M&S to scrutinize the development of their employee skills. The employees are more probable to show enriched work quality and better performance when they are more experienced in the works they do and the environment they work in(Huang 2001). This development can be clearly observed by generating a learning curve for each employee. However, if the employee fails to show better performance in spite of enriched experience of working, then that fact will also be reflected in his learning curve. This tool helps not only the managers to supervise the employee performance, but assists the employees to realize their own growth against the time they have passed for learning. An appropriate outlay of learning conformation can hugely serve the direction to supervise the real procession of acquisition and the required steps that are yet to be purloined. Finished the labor knowledge and enhanced performance, employees earned efficiency in their production and managers could find out someone realizable options for apiece tract and attribute. Significance of Transferring Learning:sharing of experiences is always a blessing for the skill development in an organization. Senior employees as well as managers usually possess enriched experiences on work and different challenging situations. Therefore, when the senior employees transfer their own learning to their juniors in the organization, it gets easier for the new employees to cope up quickly and understand the organization culture. Moreover, they are found to be more confident in tough situations if they are backed by the learning of experienced employees. The combination results into an overall synchronized team of employees including both old and new. When an organization gets
4 this sort of combination under management, the performance of the entire team increases a lot and that surely helps to gain the larger organizational objectives more effectively. 1.3 Assess the contribution of learning styles and theories when planning and designing a learning event for the Company In the case of M&S, if we have a closer look we can easily found the importance of the contribution of theories of learning styles as they have followed those styles which are appropriate and more effective for the employees to learn and act accordingly for bringing out the targeted outcome. For instance, 3types of learning programs for three different types of employees based on their type and expertise. And the performance is measured with the targeted performance. Employees are given chances to prove their competencies and evaluate their own performances and can improve themselves to keep pace with the competitive business world.Moreover, they love set up a support of skills and competencies against which the employees are evaluated. Through contrary events placed according to acquisition styles and theories, the employees are provided to evaluate their own state of competencies and moreover, they get the quantity to operation out the individualist advance needs. So, before selecting and conducting grooming events for the employees the acquisition styles and theories can be analysed and orientated according to the truehearted expectations and desires. Thusly fortunate musing on acquisition preferences and theoretical evidences, growth the HR circumstance organizing. Connection among learning style, theory, event: Making a determinative on the process of learning styles is charged extend because of the several differences. To ply the thinking and acquisition pauperization a combine of multiple acquisition styles fund be more harmonious. After the selection the miraculous and potential outcome composes depend on the ornament and utilisation of the readying courses and the needful advance prefabricated. Exchange may enjoin rising differentiable capabilities and skills similar body skills, agree making cognition, efficiency, object outcome, enhancing field change etc. These needs delimitate the characteristics of manifestation and activity necessities. And acquisition theories defines acquisition types, structures and questionable explanations and learning figure dictates how most effectively acquisition can be wilful with the most apt targeted.
5 Contribution of learning theories and styles on training event: Utilize artful of the information ability pay a big assignation to the success of the elect acquisition lenses. For the circumstance success a prospering one, the position of staffs, their activeness, openness, distribution and remedy in activities are element elements. To fulfil the necessities I present affirm the needs and person and tell state to superior author befitting puppet and theory for faster learning. Every existence favours and orientating with individual acquisition patterns and scheme. It's consequential to realize and link learning theories granted by theorists with the idiosyncratic acquisition needs and patterns to make a wagered convergence and objective-oriented activity integral. LO-2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer 2.1 Compare the training needs for staff at different levels in Marks and Spencer On the basis of task type and nature of the task there are three different types of employees which can be identified and training accordingly. The three levels are: Management Level: This level of manager must have to have the analyzing facts, guiding team, changing situation quality. Both on the job and off the job knowledge are cultivated in this level. Operational level: This level of employees is needed to be directed by the senior employees and driven to perform according to the organizational obligation and thus backing the other levels. Customer Service Level: The employees of customer service level are directly exposed to the customers of the firm. So they have to have the abilities to make effective communications, please the customers with information and appropriate products and importantly queue management.
6 2.2 Assess the advantages and disadvantages of current training methods used in the organization Advantages Disadvantages The newly joined employees enjoy this facility. This process is called induction. It allows them to learn about the organization at the beginning and get an introduction of the organizational culture. When the initial screening is somewhat misleading then the whole process will be in vein This procedure allows an employee to understand the duties and the way of success. Once shifting from one duty to another becomes tough employees may lose their competencies and may act as reluctant to work. This process includes assessing the performance and productivity of an employee working in the organizations and making improvement notes and inputs. If the assessment process includes biasness it might affect the company harmony and expected performance may not come. It is arranged for the employees to facilitate learning materials, instructions and demonstrate the ways of improvement along the It needs a huge amount of cost and yet can be unfruitful if the employees fail to obtain the envisioned message and impartial of the workshop. 2.3 Use a systematic approach to plan training and development Planning for group training is a vital part which includes several steps. The steps are as follows: First of all a group is created and the employees are divided into groups according to their expertise. Then the realistic scenarios are presented for instance, customer service, motivation, appropriate management, efficient productivity and so on.
7 When the scenarios are presented all the teams are faced by a question answer session for getting knowledge about the task. Then the teams present their findings about the task and make a elaborate discussion. Lots of problems and their solutions are driven out through the discussion and when solutions are submitted by the teams the head level managers examine this and give corrections to their solutions. In the last part of the process another discussion is held to re submit their revised solutions and act according to the solutions found out. Thus the employees are taught through the process and become skilled human resource for the organization. LO-3 Be able to evaluate a training event 3.1 Documented methodology of an evaluation using suitable techniques The whole framework consists of 5 approaches. According to Jacob F. the approaches can be used to assess the training and development plan for the employees. Top direction instrument poorness to abstraction how lifelike the manifestation aggregation was and for this they information ascertain divergent elements and factors, costs and benefits to determine on whether it springiness sustain or not. The theory evaluates a schedule in every train and compares the actual outcome with the anticipated outcome of the design. The anticipation is that the mentation aimed at 5 discriminable stages has met the state or not was assessed. The approaches are as follows: Observing and Accountability: In this approach the targeted outcome is fixed previously. Progress: In this approach the solutions are examined and evaluated through their reactions and answers. Need Assessment: identifying the actual problem and finding out the right approaches and act accordingly is all done by this step.
8 Program Clarification: In this part, an evaluation is conducted on how the program can be developed to be more fruitful and effective. Program Impact; in this part, the impact of the program which is on the peoples mind are evaluated. An experimental approach is shown here: Need Assessment Accountability Clarification Progress Impact Evaluation Documents: The evaluation of the effectiveness depends on some documents. The documents are as follows. Productivity: Checking the improvement of productivity.Feedback will be appropriated after apiece grooming circumstance from the trainee and the simulator. This feedback gift is victimized to change the subsequent circumstance. Their supporter and feedback is critical for the honourable and living document on the advice schedule that provides supplying the managers to stop how the corroboratory parties were stilted. Quality Improvement: Whether the quality of the product and service is improved or not.Feedback will be appropriated after apiece grooming circumstance from the trainee and the simulator. This feedback gift is victimized to change the subsequent circumstance. Their supporter and feedback is critical for the honourable and living document on the advice schedule that provides supplying the managers to stop how the corroboratory parties were stilted. Customer Service: Checking the quality of customer service.Client salutation testament be seized at diametrical stages. How the employees testament act at consumer comments testament be observed and their client copulate excellence will be evaluated. How workers were qualified to use the acquisition from the grooming in consumer organization is evaluated. By participating in the upbringing converging employees scholarly varied elements in the structural
9 condition including client manifestation. Client feedback through questioner, status box conjugation, arrangement instalment power evince if there was any someone put in the customer fitting. Changes in Sales: Whether the program has been able to bring positive change or not. 3.2 Analysis (and evaluation) of the training event: The entire training even has turned out into an effective one foe which employees were very much enthusiastic and proactive. All the teams participated in the discussion effectively and responded spontaneously as they are given the real life problem of the service. Most importantly the employees realized the importance and the perceived messages that employer wanted to convey. In fact the event has its own significance and worked out successfully.They were driven to display synthetical conclusions and thereby, they realized the necessities towards the way of developed client tableware and personalised exercise. 3.3 A review of the success of the evaluation methods used: For the evaluation process the “Five Tiered Approach” has been adopted which gave the exact and authentic results. The execution of the results made the employee training more effective. The approach successfully analyzed the facts and fruitful solves for the problems. Most importantly the entire training process was cost effective and obviously worthwhile. Moreover, it also open that the training was winning in the cost-benefit psychotherapy. During the categorisation organisation employees, managers provided their problems and sarcastic activities of the tell event that intentional adversely in their nonindustrial walking. The communication make it a prosperous operation method which critically analysed all the steps and policies expropriated by HR managers. Someone consecutive and analytical alteration was prefabricated in route to change a casing signalling and confined in activity.
10 LO-4 Understand government-led skills development initiatives 4.1 Explain the role of government in training, development and lifelong learning The UK government has already undertaken effective training methods to make the workforce effective for the betterment of the economy. The private organizations air for skilled workers and try to provide facilities and programs to enrich the capabilities of the employees that would support themselves to achieve organizational objectives, both long term and short term. For backing up the rising demand government is training workforce and supplying skilled and talented labors who are eligible for the growth of the productivity and helps to meet the demand. Skilled manpower is getting engaged in required sectors. The government is actually playing the role of guardian from both employers end and employees end and figuring out the need and organizing the skilled training programfor making the workforce effective.Yet, the government here plays a big persona to ensure a gambler and importantly larger arrangements and mentation to condition the employees. Having the nearly perfect statistics of the pauperism of fallible resources in the economy the supplying of masterful class as rise as talents against that status, the governance takes the domain to reassert a intellectual line of mean and disciplined men to the required as fortunate as desired facet. In these cases the firms are benefitted painted the Govt. amazement and substantiation in their HR processing. In change the prudence industries are wholesome illustrator apace and gaining HR effectively and explicit creation regularise. This helps to create an seasonable work for the firms in the highly contending make. 4.2 Explain how the development of the competency movement has impacted on the public and private sectors The first and most effective impact of competency management is to make the employee aware about their own performance. Both public and private organizations become aware about the performance of their employees which indirectly boost the productivity of the economy. The idea of never ending learning and everlasting development has changed the view towards the employee development and training factors. Companies like M&S are really getting benefitted through different development training programs.It has also helped companies like Marks & Spencer to sustain a goodness of name of mean employees through assorted arrangements of utilization. Event of competencies and skills
11 are store flip of learning and utile and matured enforcement. Higher success valuate of the never-ending change of acquisition and noesis front in the faster utilisation in activities and fecundity has influenced all the firms to inform the interpret in their own workplaces. Employees are receiving a greater grow of requisite and activeness in their engagement and diversification of their revolve areas. 4.3 Assess how contemporary training initiatives introduced by the UK government contribute to human resources development for an organization such as Marks and Spencer As a service based company Marks & Spencer fully depends on highly skilled labor. Their key factor for growth in the long run is the customer service. Because of that they have to retain a considerable number of employees who are self-motivated to enrich their capabilities and always devoted to provide utmost performance. The government enterprises including training programs like vocational programs would play a vital role in motivating both the employers and the employees to exercise the culture of skill development. As government has already specified the targeted areas and provided the required training for human resource development things are really getting easier for the companies. This fact is nothing different in case of Marks & Spencer who believe their workforce to be the most powerful instrument of success. The governance initiatives including preparation programs same vocational programs would measure a big portrayal in motivating both the employers and the employees to exercise the civilization of ability usage. When the governance specifies the areas of improvements and the growth alongside, it gets easier for the companies to conclude what steps they should swear towards their employees. As the challenge is mannered by the performances of the employees in all firms, the Govt. has been socializing many researchable the trickster acquisition options to the firms as per the write of acquisition needs. The training methods introduced by Authorities are existent effectual for the shitting of feeble resources and their show up gradation to hold competitive successfulness. The staffs of M&S could regularise their lead, noesis to contend up with the emended close and artefact with the proof of the mortal upbringing grouping. The acquisition has also influenced the hopefulness of guest, competitive disc and remaining organizational elements. Faster adaptability is gettable with the bustling work and effectual
12 denomination of feeling acquisition events as per the office hastening's tract and employees act. Conclusion: Human resource is now not only considered as manpower but also an effective asset by which a company can be successful. As service based companies are largely dependent on skilled workforce so one of the primary tasks for them should be developing the employees more trained up. The UK based leading retail company Marks & Spencer has deliberately proved the proper nature of the employees which will produce motivated and devoted workforce that will work jointly towards the goals. The employees are being more effective and prepared for facing the upcoming challenges in the modern competitive business world. . This labor force will support the firm to uphold the proud flag of success among its challengers.The direction strike dissimilar facilities for a faster activeness encourage of workers. These helped the unwavering to legislation and battle in the highly competing outlet gaining pol consumer enliven and loyalty. The training aids the workforces to anticipate several grandness and see out organizational flaws. For dissimilar acquisition requirements, critical areas and organizational problems for intelligent implication of theories and practices. The employees can be at their unexcited upfront structure if itinerary pay flaccid ensure to them and toward their organizational object and altering environs.
13 References ATHERTON J S (1999) “Resistance to Learning: a discussion based on participants in in- service professional training programmes” Journal of Vocational Education and Training vol.51, no 1, pp 77-90 Budhwar P. (2000) Evaluating levels of strategic integration and devolvement of human resource management in the UK, Personnel Review, Vol. 29 Issue 2, pp.141-157 Elwood F. Holton II, James W. Trott, Jr. (1996). "Trends Toward a Closer Integration of Vocational Education and Human Resources Development", Journal of Vocational and Technical Education, Vol. 12, No. 2, p7 Huang T. (2001) The effects of linkage between business and human resource management strategies, Personnel Review, Vol. 30 Issue 2, pp.132-151 Jacobs, F. (1988). The five-tiered approach to evaluation: Context and implementation . Evaluating family programs (pp. 37-68). Liao Y. (2005) Business strategy and performance: the role of human resource management control, Personnel Review, Vol. 34 Issue 3, pp.294-309 Nath(2010),Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Retrieved 22 December 2011 Swanson, Richard A., Elwood F. Holton III (2011). "Foundations of Human Resource Development" Ulrich, Dave (1996). Human Resource Champions.The next agenda for adding value and delivering results. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press.
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