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Published on March 10, 2014

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An Assignment on Human Resource Management Of Marks and Spencer Submitted by: Name: Id: Date of Submission: |

2 SUBMITTED TO:

3 An Assignment on Human Resource Management Of Marks and Spencer Submitted by: Name: Id: Submitted to: Date of Submission:

4 Table of Content: Executive summary ……………………………………………………………….. iii Task- 1Understand learning theories and learning styles 1.1.1 Different learning styles ……………………………………………... 7 1.1.2Learning style in M&S ………………………………………………. 8 1.2.1. Learning curve ……………………………………………………… 8 1.2.2.Significance of knowledge transfer…………………………………. 9 1.2.3. Learning curve………………………………………………………. 9 1.3.1. Learning style and theory …………………………………………… 9 1.3.2. Relationship among learning style, theory & event ………………… 10 1.3.3. Contribution of learning style & theory....... ………………………... 10 Task- 2Be able to plan and design training and development 2.1.1 Training in different level…….………………………………………. 11 2.2.1 Current training method….…………………………………………… 11 2.2.2 Adv. and Dis-adv. of training methods…….………………….……… 11 2.3.1 Planning training event…….………………………………..………… 13 2.3.2 Training participants……..……………………………….…………… 13 Task- 3Be able to evaluate a training event 3.1.1 Evaluation of training event…….…………………………………….. 14 3.1.2Process of documentation……………………………………………... 15 3.1.3 Analysing the documents……..……………………………………….. 15 3.2.1 Explaining the training event………………………………………….. 16 3.3.1 Review of evaluation method…..……………………………………… 16

5 Task- 4Understand government-led skills development initiatives 4.1.1 Role of Govt. in training and development……..…………………….. 16 4.2.1 Impact on public and private sector………….………………..……… 17 4.3.1 Cotemporary training by UK government…………….………..…….. 17 4.3.2Role of contemporary learning in M&S………………………….…... 18 References…………………………………………………………………………. 18

6 Executive summary: Marks and Spencer is functioning of around 120 years as one ofmassivemerchandizingstocks in UK. Around 65000 numbers of employees are working here.Because of huge competition, Company need to develop its main principles and policies generally focused on the development of recital of the bodies. To cope up with customers’ needs and capabilities and to bring up more competence and customers’ satisfaction, the company has been organizing dissimilarnatures of training program(Patel 2010). This firm provides all on-the-job & off- the-job training programs to make its employees more skilled in case of performance & to make its employees more capable and adaptable in the varying environment. This firm has created more opportunity and for the employees by compacting its organizational structure. The assigned person offered a idea regarding training event which will more useful in attaining the objectives. Government took initiatives for the development of human resource department of M & S employees which can contribute more in the economy.

7 Task- 1Understand learning theories and learning styles: 1.1 Learning styles: M & S built up new business policies and principles because of extreme competition. That is why the environment quite changed and it was huge challenge for the employees. It was necessary for the employees to make a career path for their own good through the learning arc regarding their training & development procedure of M & S. 1.1.1 Different learning styles:Among different learning styles, which style will be followed by an organization mostly depend on which style is the best for an individual. 4 types of learning approaches are considered by Honey & Mumford (1986). Those are activist, theorist, pragmatist and reflector. Activists:these types of employees engage themselves in new experience which is like nonstop change in activities(Patel 2010). Activist employees involve themselves in new experiences as a continuous change in activities. They just move from one experience to another within a short time span. In rapidly changing situations and experience requirements these learners can engage themselves in altering and wider responsibilities.Within a short length of time, employees move from one experience to another. Theorists:These employees are called the perfectionist because before making any decision, they always emphasize on their logics and theories. They are strict to analytical and rationality of any task or objective to be done. Their decisions are not from their experience or previous learning. They make analysis and based on their rational findings on the current scenario, they come to a conclusion. They are actually strict about maintaining analytical and rationality of any task or objective. Pragmatist:these employees are quite practical and they like to take any opportunity. They grow their confidence level through experience and leaning. They actually enjoy taking challenges and building decisions by that confidence level. They are ready to take new responsibility and build up skills accordingly. The learners are able to adapt quickly in changing situations, challenging environment and tasks. They love to make ready themselves for taking any new responsibility and rising skills consequently. Reflector: Reflectors seek for opportunities. Usually they do not take any initiatives. They are actually working bee for the firm who sit back to gather data, evaluate, and think about it carefully and then a logical decision will be made. These people normally don’t participate

8 actively in discussion only listen to others to make own points. Reflector learners are slow in developing and judging a situation because they spend a lot of effort in analysing the data, theory and finding.Generally these people don’t participate actively in conversation. They make their own point by listening others. 1.1.2 Learning style followed:Pragmatic learning chic is mainly followed by M & S for helping employees to acquire more confidence. This confidence helps employees to take more challenge and responsibilities. This firm maintains a profile that indicates which area an employee needs to develop. This profile is known as competency profile. Employees can know about their progress by reviewing performance. In M & S the on-the-job method is like attaching a manager who coach employees to obtain practical learning and to developnecessary technical skill and business policies. Another training program (off-the-job) provides learning like how to develop efficiency and effective decision making. 1.2.1Learning curve:the continuous development process which is achieved through experience is known as Learning curve. Learning curve is very important to make efficiency and perfection slowly to a new task environment.This curve facilitates employees to focus on improving their skills, making values and set their own goal or set career path. In M & S employees had to face new challenges in the altering environment because of this firm’s new business policies and new core principles. Through building experience in performing a task, learning curve helps the organisations to focus on developing new skills, adding values and set career path.That is why employees had to cope up with new learning curve so that they could regulate with the firm’s technical skill and business policies at a standard level.

9 1.2.2 Significance of knowledge transfer: line managers and performance coaches’ helps employees by sharing and transferring learning about the work and how to develop their performance area which is firm’s requirement. Workshops, workbooks are very useful for the employees learning and develop their skills.Transfer of knowledge through off- the-job trainings like workshops, workbooks is very helpful to employees for learning and development of skills. It’s very essential for the organization to build skills, understand core values & perform so. 1.2.3 Effect of learning curve:KnowledgeTransfer is not just a communication; it is the involvement of implicit and practical knowledge which will assistanceemployees making their skills. Using learning curve and efficient transferring of knowledge helped employees to recognize the performance level according to their skill and business competency. Effective transfer of knowledge and use by learning curve helped the employees to identify the performance level in technical skill and business competency, being able to set realistic career path, participate in decision making more effectively and bring efficiency in performance.Effective knowledge transmission also made employees being able to choose practical career path and contribute in decision making. 1.3.1Contribution of learning styles and theories:Knowing theories is all about providing aconceptual structure to the learning goals and requirements. So, before selecting and conducting training actions for the employees learning styles &philosophies must be analysed

10 and adjusted according to the firm expectations and desires. Thus successful study on learning preferences and theoretical evidences contribute to the successful HR event organizing. According to the employees’ preference and how swiftly the firm wish for workers to cope up with the new situation, a learning style will be selected for using. 1.3.2Relationship among learning style, theory, event: Sometimes it’s being difficult to choose a single style. That’s why blending of several learning styles can be more useful for designing learning events. Thus, learning theories describe a learning category and learning style which state that how effectively learning can be planned and learning event is the functioning of the development prospect. 1.3.3Contribution of learning theory and event: M & S is emphasized on the most effectual result which could be acquired through learning events by using Learning style and theories. An event can be measured as successful or not through each and every employee’s reaction. Choosing a single style can be difficult and that’s why combination of multiple learning styles can be more effective in designing learning events. Firm may require improving different capabilities and skills like leadership skills, decision making ability, efficiency, team work, enhancing responsibility area etc. These needs define the characteristics of training development necessities. And learning theories defines learning types, structures and theoretical explanations and learning style dictates how most effectively learning can be designed with the most appropriate targeted objectives. The assigned person will focus on which learning option prioritized by the workers to plan and design such an event.

11 Task- 2Be able to plan and design training & development 2.1.1 Training needs at different level: Different training styles in different level of its operations need to be operated by this firm. This firm has formed a family-friendly working atmosphere for the personnel. Management level Customer service level Operation level Realistic learning for structuring skill, team work and decision making ability. Workshops and other off-the-job training programs to develop skills and get assessment. Queue management: Train staffs; how to handle the queue more efficiently and capably and help customer to find what they wish for. It will reduce the waiting time length. Performance reassesses and evaluation of line managers is done to encourage managers to work more effectively and lessen cost that will include value to the product. 2.2.1 Analysing current training method: Diverse training facilities are provided to guide its employees. This firm offers counselling to facilitate employees making successful career track. Employees can identify them performance level & improvement level through performance assessment.Performance appraisal provided identifying their performance standard and improvement sectors. They can realize the responsibility and ability in new position and context by taking the help by role-playing. Some off-job-training programs like workshop, workbooks are designed for developing skills and efficiency. 2.2.2 Advantage & Disadvantage of current training methods:

12 Training methods Advantage Disadvantage Performance appraisal It Helpsworkforces to discover their progress of skill competencies. Employees can then recognize what skills they required to meet the criterion It may discourage the under- performing employees because of the feeling of shame. Role playing aid employees to observe what it takes to be successful in an administration or indifferent position Employees might feel unenthusiastic and worried about a different position that can effect in performance degradation. Discussion Discussion with managers help employees to be able to make their own skill and career improvement plan A constructive support role of the manager is vital or else employees won’t be capable of developing a plan. Induction New employees can get an overview about role & corporate culture of M&S through differentprogram gives. These programs help employees to have clear views about his/her role and purpose in the firm. Statements prepared in the firm varies from the real situation which can threat for the firm. It may generate a negative impression later. Workshops Employees can get their necessary learning materials to exercise and understand the idea about their skills and performance requirement. Mainly achievement depends on the candidates that how well they may obtain the message. But it increases cost. Performance coaching Measure employee performance and indicate the area of development. It aids the employees to recognize opportunity and grow confidence in decision building. The appraisal needs to be impartial and correct or else it can create negative result in the employee’s development process.

13 2.3.1 Training and development for a group training event: A problem resolving training program will be implemented by the assignedperson will be reallyeffect on taking part in decision making. A realistic problem will be provided to the Employeesand they will be asking for making an appropriate analysis and probable solutions. A final evaluation will be done by the management and other employees will also assess the selected solutions. It’s a continuous procedure and employees willget encouraged to come up with any new organizational problem situationon the topic of customer service development, production effectiveness, employee relation, inspiration, effective management.I will execute problem solving training program which will be actually outcome by taking part in decision make. In this event employees will be given a realistic problem and appropriate analysis will be asked to be made by them and possible solutions. A final assessment will be done by the entire team where the management and other employees will also evaluate the selected solutions. 2.3.2Training process of the event: the assigned person will invite a group of stuffs. Then this person will first introduce each and every one with the management team. Employees will be introduced with the genuine problem situation in details tosolve this scenario(Henry 2002). Again time will be provided to re-shape the findings and the final submission will be judged and examined by the whole team. Through discussion and Q&A session managers will decide which solution was most appropriate and will be undertaken. Problem scenario introduced Q&A session Come up with findings & discussion Solution to the problem in team Scrutinized and re- submission of solutions Best solution after discussion and Q&A

14 Then a Q&A session will be arranged for the things and confirmthat they have undoubtedly understood the situation. Proper instructions will be provided to the Individuals and next day they will be asked to come up on the connected factors, findings and a dialogue session among themselves will be organized(Vhin 2001). Then will be asked for analysing and finding the solution within a particular time period after forming a group of 3 members(Liao 2005). The managers then evaluate different findings and they will let the employees know which sector they should develop. Again the employees have to re-shape the findings within a given time and afterwards a whole team will judge and evaluate the final submission. After that managers will decide which solution was most suitable and that solution will be accepted. Task- 3Be able to evaluate a training event: 3.1.1 Methodology of evaluations: Managers will use various types of methodology to examine the effect, efficiency and effectiveness of event. Top manager needed to decide on whether the event will continue or not and for that reason they will want to know about the training program’s success or failure(Henry 2002). The assigned person used five approaches of Jacobs. F, (1988), that normally evaluated a program in five levels and judged the real outcome with the expected result of the program. The reason that the program designed at 5 different steps had met the requirement or nothing is measured in fiveapproaches. 1. Need assessment: It respondstothe question that what is the concrete problem? The answer will state whether the training program will be needed or not. 2. Monitoring and accountability:For this the question is answered for, who are the applicants and what service this firm is delivering? 3. Program clarification:Itstatestheassessment at different requirement level to respond how more successful the event could be built up. 4. Progress:This stage recognizes and assesses the improvement of the applicants’ answers the question- how much better the applicants are making improvement? 5. Program impact: It’sanew approach that assesses the long-term effect of the training package. Need assessment

15 3.1.2 Process of documentation of the training program:The assessment process used to measure the program is mainly qualitative. The assigned person used three systems to spot the break by various types ofstages of the training event. i. Trainer/Trainee feedback: when each training program ends feedback from the trainer and trainee will be taken for knowing that what they think about this program. Their opinion and feedback is essential for the accurate and realistic finding on the training program that will help the managers to identify how the related parties were unnatural. ii. Observation:The activities and participation of the employees will be carefully observed. Carefully observe the activities and participation of the employees and effects of internal and external factors on the training event. !!! Customer comments:Effectiveness of employees applying skill in customer service will be evaluated. Employees can get to know about different factors in the organization environment regarding customer service through problem solution and conversation. Through customers comment employees will know how positive or negative change occurred in the customer service. 3.1.3 Documents used for evaluation: For the evaluation of the training, some major factors needed to be measured. Thesefactorswere used for evaluating the training program; how much effective it was. i. Quality improvement: If the quality of product is better or not is measured. Accountability Program clarification Progress Program impact

16 ii. Customer service: If customer service is developed or met the vital value of the company. iii. Production efficiency:Efficiency and inspiration in work place are primarily focused in this training program.Productivity change is also assessedin this evaluation method. iv. Change in sales:to identify the effect of the training program,how much change is madeduringthe training program is considered. 3.2 Analysis and evaluation of the training event:it was asuccessful training event considering the active involvement and interest of the forces. There was a customer service problem scenario at the 1st event and a good number of realistic and appropriate solutions were found(Seigner 2000). . In the discussion session management team and the participants had long discussion session which resulted in a more feasible and logical conclusion.The long discussion session resulted in a more practicable and logical ending. The real benefit was employees found out what was necessary to be better in their client service. 3.3 Success of the evaluation method: Five estimation method was very helpful to measure the success of the event. The system assessed the expected profit and realprofit to systematize the diversion and practicability of the training event. Thus it was easy to find out whether it will continue or not or development need to be made.During the assessment procedure employees, managers provided their problems and critical activities of the training event that affected adversely in their development process. Thus it was easy to figure it out the cost-benefit ratio to decide on whether it will continue or not or improvement need to be made. The management found it a successful assessment system which critically analysed all the steps and policies taken by HR managers. Task- 4Importance of Government-led initiatives: 4.1.1 Role of Govt. in training and development: The UK government plays a vital role in the training and improvement of the employees of private firms. Govt. set up training programs by expert trainer to ensurethatthe employees can improve and attain at least a least amount standard of performance. M & S is a giant retailer firm in UK. Thus UK govt. has toworry about the internal advancement of the firm’s performance(Seigner 2000). SoGovt.Lifelong learning is the self-motivated learning by the employees. Govt. involvement in training can aid the employees to pursuit knowledge from the working environment.

17 Moreover the firms might not be able to invest in high amount and design the needed training facilities. In these cases the firms are benefitted through the Govt. involvement and support in their HR development. has to take the liability to take the performance to a benchmark level. Govt. participation in training can help the employees to tracking down knowledge from the working environment. 4.2.1 Impact of competency movement in public & private sector: Private companies are spending more in this region to enlarge their capability to increase competitive advantage. Deloitte a private consulting and auditing firm makesgiant investment in training their employees. A steeper learning curve is provided to enlarge their proficiency quickly. Since growth in private firm’s performance has an effect on the economy, the public bodies have also developed themselves to raise their performance. In UKPubliccompanieslike‘East Coast Trains’ are making continuous attempt to grow the performance level and service quality at a standard level.They provide a steeper learning curve to develop their expertise quickly. The knowing is never-ending and qualification is delivered to grow their self- assurance level. As growth in private firm’s show has an impact on the economy, the public figures have also improved themselves to lift up their performance. Public companies in UK like ‘East Coast Trains’ are making continuous effort to uplift the performance and service quality at a standard level. Movement of competencies and skills are essential part of learning and effective and improved performance. 4.3.1 Assessment of Contemporary training initiatives:UK government took the Contemporary training initiative to make available the small and medium firms business a helpful T&D program to bring constancy and development in economy(Seigner 2000). The training is professional and intended forrapid learning on different areas of a business. UK govt. designsa variety of qualitative training programs for different firms. For different learning requirements and development necessities, the firm need to identify more critical areas and organizational problems for effective implication of theories and practices. The employees can be at their best performance level if management provide full support to them and toward their organizational structure and work environment.

18 4.3.2Role of contemporary learning in M&S:This training programme is very essential for further improvement and acquiring competitive advantage for Marks and Spencer. This firm has developed and transformed their main principle. And by making this firm as a successful one, specific training facilities for its employees are needed. Marks and Spencer is a leading retailer firm possessing a high impact over the UK economy. The management bring different facilities for a faster performance adjustment of workers. These helped the firm to stay and fight in the highly competitive market gaining more customer gratification and loyalty.This cotemporary training will help the employees to get used toquickly to the shifting environment. This training program is assessed by promoting on the customer expectation, competitive position, adaptability issues and market situation. References: Henry, J., Eggland, S.&Henry, A. (2002). Principles of Human resource management New York: Basic books [online] collected from- http://nhokanson.wordpress.com/2007/02/01/definitions-of-human-resources-human- resource-management-and-their-relation-to-human-resource-development/ Liao Y. (2005) Business strategy and performance: the role of human resource management control, Personnel Review, Vol. 34 Issue 3, pp.294-309 Patel, A. 2010, 10 HR tips for entrepreneur [online], Available from: http://info.shine.com/Career-Advice-Articles/Shine-Experts/10-HR-tips-for- entrepreneurs/3788/Aty18.aspxJacobs, F. (1988). The five-tiered approach to evaluation: Context and implementation . Evaluating family programs (pp. 37-68). Seigner P. (2000) Evaluating levels of strategic integration and devolvement of human resource management in the UK, Personnel Review, Vol. 29 Issue 2, pp.141-157 Vhin T. (2001) The effects of linkage between business and human resource management strategies, Personnel Review, Vol. 30 Issue 2, pp.132-151

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