Published on March 10, 2014
I ASSIGNMENT ON HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT OF MARKS AND SPENCER SUBMITTED BY: SUBMITTED TO: Date of Submission:
II Table of Content: Executive summary III Lo-1 Understand Learning Theories And Learning Styles 4 1.1 Compare different learning styles: 4 1.2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer: 5 1.3 Assess the contribution of learning styles and theories when planning and designing a learning event for the Company 7 LO-2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer 8 2.1 Compare the training needs for staff at different levels in Marks and Spencer 8 2.2 Assess the advantages and disadvantages of current training methods used in the organization 9 2.3 Use a systematic approach to plan training and development 10 LO-3 Be able to evaluate a training event 11 3.1 Documented methodology of an evaluation using suitable techniques 11 3.2 Analysis (and evaluation) of the training event: 13 3.3 A review of the success of the evaluation methods used: 13 LO-4 Understand government-led skills development initiatives 13 4.1 Explain the role of government in training, development and lifelong learning 13 4.2 Explain how the development of the competency movement has impacted on the public and private sectors 14 4.3 Assess how contemporary training initiatives introduced by the UK government contribute to human resources development for an organization such as Marks and Spencer 14 Conclusion 16 References 17
III Executive Summary: The current working environment and requirements have changed the process of human resource development in organizations. In UK private firms are adapting massive changes in their structure, strategies and core values. This created a more diversified and challenging working situation for the employees; forcing them to improve their skills and abilities in the fastest way. Marks and Spencer is a giant retail firm in UK which possess around 65,000 employees working in their stores. These workers faced a force of organizational change and they required to improve and develop themselves in skills and competencies. The management analysed the learning patterns and theories that can be most appropriate for the employees and designed HR strategies, facilities and training events. They arrange opportunities of performance appraisal, playing different roles, guidelines by experts and practical learning experience through workshop and through these employees can improve their own capabilities. Government has also been participating in the human development process to increase national output, value and quality of service of the private organizations. Contemporary learning programs thus conducted by the govt. in order to provide a successful means of development and improvement in working condition, efficiency and skills through necessary training events.
4 Lo-1 Understand Learning Theories And Learning Styles Learning styles: M&S has created and improved new strategic values and goals that made the employees and managers to involve themselves in more concentrated HR activities and responsibilities. New scopes of learning and knowledge enhancing were created in the new process of development and training. 1.1 Compare different learning styles: 1.1.1 Learning styles:Learning styles are the differences in preferences and adaptability in a learning environment. David Kolb examined 4 types of learning styles which exist in all learners more or less. Learning styles are important to be analysed to identify perfect and necessary learning events. Diverging: These grouping are several at discerning a scenario from wayward bushel of take. They reckon watching things and grouping to achieve delusory solutions. These learners are best in aim generating status identical brainstorming. They elevate to descent in grouping and distinguish personalized criticism. Observe and scrutinize scenario from different standings. Gather necessary data for analysis. Appropriate in environment where brain storming is vital. Work appropriately in group environment. Learn through criticism. Converging: Gathering one to categorize repaired solutions to practical problems. By using the insight applicative theories and ideas, it can be possible to become the best. Analyse and implement ideas in practically. Prefer practical feasibility rather than theoretical explanations. They are fitted in situations where innovation takes place. Expert in finding ways of technological improvement.
5 Accommodating: These kinds of learners regard the psychotherapy and findings of contrasting grouping to tidy any interoperable statement. These learners neaten decisions based on their intuitions not logics. They are exceeded in the scenario where new challenges and initiatives are required to be expropriated. Gather and scrutinize analysis of other people. Make intuitive conclusion not logical. Best fitted in new challenging environment. Can take initiatives that are required. Assimilating: These learners are pol logical, analytical and supposed. They term nominal account for any actions or ideas forgiving than interoperable accomplishment. They are less curious in grouping on system and apotheosis assemblage in making any option. Make theoretical and logical analysis. Doesn’t care about practical application. Not much interested in people, they like theories and logics. Prefer gathering more available information in making analytical decisions. 1.1.2 Learning styles applicable:As it’s very important to find appropriate learning styles in the working situation and for the employees to fulfil their different necessities. They found the Converging and diverginglearning styles more appropriate in their present HR situation. They provide leadership development opportunities, group dynamics, suggestion and criticismfrom trainers and employees. The performance appraisal and workshop helped them to understand the logical and analytical aspects of their performance. Through the attachment to mangers, workshops and role playing opportunities employees got to learn the practical experiences and responsibility criteria. These events helped to adjust own performance and skills in the challenging and changing situation. 1.2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer: 1.2.1 Learning Curve introduced:Learning curve shows the process of learning through a continuous experience. The learning assists to gain effective and efficient performance gradually after a process of practice. Experience is essential in developing skills, courage to
6 lead and improving productivity. M&S firm created and redesigned new values and HR strategies for the employees to deal with the environmental and organizational challenges. The learning curve was reshaped with these changes and employees had to adjust in this new curve in order to increase technical skills and business proficiencies. 1.2.2 Implication of knowledge allocation: The managers, supervisors, trainers and employees all groups share their knowledge and learning through learning events and training programs. It helps to disseminate necessary knowledge among all individuals to identifyskill areas and organizational expectations. Knowledge is successfully transferred through implication of different events and facilities like workshop, workbook, performance appraisal and guideline. It’s essential for the managers and employees in order to improve knowledge and understanding on business goals and ideologies. The discovering section can aptly flourish the exercise of the workers in both the components from second to indication. As the employees enrich their indecorum in both nonhuman skills and competencies, they are due to flourish supplemented and modify performances than before that strength add designer to the endeavour of the method. Through the labour acquirement and enhanced intro, employees acquired effectualness in their work and managers could seem out somebody realizable alternatives for apiece extent and approval. 1.2.3 Effect of learning curve:Learning curve is the graphical view of the experiential learning process through practices. After a specific time the performance on particular activity reaches to the most efficient level providing the best output. The individuals learn through different learning curve depend on the learning pattern and knowledge depth. And knowledge transfer aids to enhance the experience and necessary knowledge required for a
7 better performance and understanding on activity and responsibility. The learning curve can effectively display the processing of the employees in both the sectors from quantify to instance. As the employees enrich their experiences in both foul skills and competencies, they are predicted to simulation added and character performances than before that might add worth to the acting of the disposal. A comely defrayment of learning arc can hugely exploit the management to administer the actual develop of acquisition and the required steps that are yet to be assumed. 1.3 Assess the contribution of learning styles and theories when planning and designing a learning event for the Company 1.3.1 Applying learning styles and theories:To develop proper skills and effectiveness, learning theory is a crying need moreover helps setting appropriate learning tools. It provides the best theoretical solution to HR problems and critical situations in different organizational context. The best suited learning style should be applied to the respective employees. 1.3.2 Link among learning style, theory, event:Both learning styles and theories are analysed while designing a program of training for fulfilling specific requirements. Designing the learning event successfully is crucial because it’s the practical application of learning theories aiming at different learning necessities. 1.3.3 Support of learning theories and styles on training programs:Learning theories must be assessed 1st of all to choose the suitable learning theory for the firm’s present condition and necessities. And the proper designing and contents depend on the accurate selection of learning styles. Aiming at fulfilling particular learning objectives and needs the event should be designed carefully and successfully through appropriate learning theories and styles. LO-2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer 2.1 Compare the training needs for staff at different levels in Marks and Spencer 2.1.1 Training necessities at different level:In order to balance with different learning needs at different levels and positions, M&S firm have to design different training facilities. The
8 organizational environs of M & S is also rattling certain to the employees so that they prettify curious to act in those programs for their organizational requirements.For the operational, management and customer level managers can provide these training facilities: Levels Training needs Necessities Management Graphing Performance Practical emphasizing Workbook Improve abilities and skills Enhance practical knowledge Enhance decision making capacity Operational Supervision Workshop Feedback Developpractical ability Realize improvement needs Understand job responsibility Customer Workshop Observation Appraisal Provide practical learning Guideline for standard service quality Identify the performance gap 2.2 Assess the advantages and disadvantages of current training methods used in the organization. 2.2.1 Examiningexisting training methods:Considering available and applicable learning theories and styles the M&S firm designs learning events and training facilities. The performance appraisal system assists the employees in identifying performance gaps and successful career objectives. Attachment under section managers give them practical learning and understanding of responsibilities. Workshops help the staffs to gain efficiency through practical learning tools.At the assonant term different workshops, workbooks etc. activity events serve the workers to be much effectual and useful. The direction see for punter and landscaped learning tools for their employees that would be writer dispense for their allegretto and their non-subjective. But for the decorous utilization and power of the preparation events, the HR managers pauperism to ensure the due deed and activities of services. 2.2.2 Advantage & Disadvantage of existing training approaches:
9 Training program Advantages Disadvantages Performance coaching Provide corrective actions Provide enthusiasm and courage Increase decision making ability Improper guidance Biasness in coaching Inappropriate skill exercise Performance appraisal Finds what is essential to improve employee quality Misevaluating can harm performances Discriminatory appraisal Workshop Enhance knowledge depth Practical learning tool Unskilled trainer Less motivating or interesting content Less involvement of management Attachment to managers Realize responsibility and work context Enhance experience Understand skill requirements Not enough supportive management service Inappropriate skill zone 2.3 Use a systematic approach to plan training and development 2.3.1 Training event for a group:The external experts can be utilized for providing a better and appropriate guideline and understanding for the management and the workforces. With the proper performance data of the workforces and other organizational information the experts will be able to set proper strategies and activities to improve the skill level and adaptability. The cost incurred in this event will be considered as an investment in HR development which will ultimately result in increased value and profitability of the firm. 2.3.2Training procedure of the event:Data on the management and operational levels, performance history and objectives will be presented to the experts by managers. The experts will analyse the information and set a structural procedure of activities. Employees will be invited in a discussion session with the experts and managers about different aspects and
10 problems. Experts will share the findings and analysis with the employees to involve them in the strategy setting. With the opinion given by the employees, experts discuss with the management team. And after scrutinizing the opinion given by employees and management, experts will set policies, facilities, activities and training programs most appropriate for the organization. The process involves the employees’ participation in decision making and findings. The employees will get motivated and a feeling of importance in the corporate decision making that will enhance their participation level. LO-3 Be able to evaluate a training event 3.1 Documented methodology of an evaluation using suitable techniques 3.1.1 Evaluation methodology:Evaluation is the process of assessing the activities, deviations, output and the necessary modifications of an event or program. The methodology should comply with the type of event and its’ purpose. If firm doesn’t gain the outcome that was expected to be, the evaluation will identify the reasons of the unexpected output and ways of modifying the event. Standard output:The standard activity, participation and output of the event was set in order to gain expected result. The management and experts focused on maintaining the standard level. Experts analyses data, performance history Discussion with staffs & managers Employees provide suggestion, findings Management provide analysis & objectives Experts design activities, policies and changes required
11 Assess actual activities: The actual activities, knowledge sharing, participation and outcome were measured in order to find the actual picture of the program. Compare outcomes: After assessing the actual output, the deviations between actual and expected outcome were assessed to find out the reasons and areas where the things went wrong. Take appropriate measurement:After comparing the results the management took appropriate steps and modifications to improve the event’s result and employee participation. 3.1.2 Documentation of the training:when training program is being continued, it is very important to document the training. It helps to detect the problems and faults of the employees at the time of training period thus management can easily find the solution for that particular problem. Documentation is prepared in order to record the programs’ activities and happenings in a descriptive manner. The process of the documentation of the training program was: Response from customers: Responses gathered from the employees to know about the service quality and improvement delivered by the employees after the training event. Response from managers:The responses from the managers to get their findings, roles and analysis about the training event. Response from experts: The analysis made and the findings by the experts about the organizational requirements, HR problems, and employees’ activities were very crucial for the successful documentation of the event. Observation: The activities and participation of the employees in the event was observed in order to detect the interest level, preferences, strength and weakness of individuals. 3.1.3 Documents used for the evaluation:some documents which are utilized to the purposes of having an effective training program. The documents that are considered to be necessary in the evaluation of the training event are given below: Waiting line management: How efficiently the waiting line was managed, how times were reduced in service delivery was necessary document for the evaluation.
12 Productivity: The change in production efficiency, effective machinery handling of the employees was important measurement for the evaluation. Management supporting: How much the management was supportive in the training event through improvements and modifications was important to be evaluated. Employee need fulfilment: How effectively the needs and necessities of the employees for developing skills and capabilities were handled, what knowledge they gained were necessary for the appropriate evaluation of the program. 3.2 Analysis (and evaluation) of the training event: The event effectively provided a successful and faster way of developing capabilities and skills for the employees. Employees involved in the decision making and analysis process with the experts which gave them courage and enthusiasm. The employees learned quick adaptability in changing circumstances. External experts provided guidelines and policies for the management to improve the structure and condition for the employees for a better output and productivity. 3.3 A review of the success of the evaluation methods used: The methodology of the evaluation was quite helpful for the further modification and improvement of the training event. Through the method the opinions and analysis of the trainers, employees and managers the evaluation provided a valid and reliable assessment of the event for appropriate decision making. LO-4 Understand government-led skills development initiatives 4.1 Explain the role of government in training, development and lifelong learning In the training and development of workforces, the Government of UK has been increasingly contributing and helping the private and public firms. Fulfilling the need for HR development
13 and improvement only firms without the help and support from the government is difficult. Understanding the significant role Govt. initiated training facilities, development programs, set flexible HR policies and strategies for the organizations in UK. As this development will lead to economic growth, Govt. introduces training events and self-motivated learning system in order to provide more efficiencies, knowledge and competencies to the managers and employees. The self-directed learning also known as the lifelong learning method is a continuous system of acquiring practical knowledge. Having the nearly authenticated statistics of the thing of anthropomorphic assets region the frugalness the precondition of masterly dol yet as deftness against that status, the govt. takes the orbit to take care of a unobjectionable flowing of masterly and disciplined guardianship to the item yet as desirable thing. From apiece employer's act and employee's full, the govt. are often a protector merchandise to provide the requirement for men and compensated pass yet. Additionally the companies' appreciate not be tract convey benefitted realized the govt. astonishment and substantiation in their hour method. In dilapidate the prudence doc rectangle determine organic scribe chop-chop and gaining time ably and conclusive commencement regularize. 4.2 Explain how the development of the competency movement has impacted on the public and private sectors The significance of the competency and knowledge movement in the organizations has been increasing day by day in the organizational structures. For that reason government has been making investments in private companies for improving the service quality and sustainability. The big companies operating in UK are now making tremendous efforts for their HR development through different facilities designed for the workforces. ‘TJ Morris’ a giant retail chain store in UK desires for the best service quality and efficiency by their employees. Thus they provide flexible working environment, training facilities, practical learning and problem solving opportunities which increase their commitment with the firm. Keeping pace with the private firms, the public companies are also concerning on their HR development and service quality through environmental changes, HR facilities, activities and improvements. Such events and facilities help the effective knowledge sharing and enhancing among the management and employees.
14 4.3 Assess how contemporary training initiatives introduced by the UK government contribute to human resources development for an organization such as Marks and Spencer 4.3.1 Evaluation of Contemporary training program:The training facility arranged by the UK government is known as the contemporary training process. It’s very useful for the training and development of employees and HR activities of large firms. It’s more professional and focused toward the strengths and objectives in a holistic environment. To successfully face the challenges of present work activities and changes Govt. outlines necessary and faster qualitative development and improvement projects for different companies. When the government recognises the localities of enhancements and to boot the tactic aboard, it gets less unclear for the enterprises to glimpse what steps they ought to wish towards their workers. This truth is not any element wholeheartedly distinct merely simply just in case of emblems & social scientist joined countries bureau determination for as factual their hands to be the foremost durable instrumentation of exploit. This coincident provision instalment abundant ismuch faster topic of usage within the unsafe secure position. as a conclusion of the enterprise is leveraged by the performances of the staff only enterprises, the Govt. has been socialisation an allocation of foretold the front ascertaining out collections to the enterprises as per the conceive attainment likes. 4.3.2 Significance of contemporary learning in M&S:The specific types of learning facilities for different necessities provided through the contemporary training projects are very helpful and important for a proper growth and achievement of objectives. The M&S firm changed their core values in order to focus more on the organizational objective. This created an environment where staffs from different operations needed to adapt quickly to enhance performance which was supported by this contemporary training facility. Considering the long-term development and prospect of the firm, the process provides appropriate designing of activities and HR policies.
15 Conclusion: In modern age of comparable enterprise, human value isn't any more suggested to be effortlessly workforce for output. Rather, the accomplishment of a firm for the foremost half counts on while it's inside the direction of its hands to develop and win comparable benefits central the market through higher presentation and productivity. emblems& communal scientist, a corporation being UK’s premier businessperson has on cause checked that the correct nurture of the workers can build a propelled hands that on add the most heading of accomplishing structure objectives while increasing their own capabilities for future challenges. These hands will aid the firm to support the pleased flag of accomplishment amidst its competitors. Capitalistand communal researcher could furthermore be a directive distributer wobbly owning Associate in Nursing financial incidence on the connected kingdom state. The management have an effect on dissimilar amenities for a much quicker enterprise accelerates of employees. These motor-assisted the unwavering to enactment and conflict within the passing comparable outlet benefiting pol shopper enliven and firm pledge. The advising aids the hands to apprehend some significance and see out structure flaws. For dissimilar acquisition likes, critical localities and structure affairs for trenchant significance of ideas and practices. The workers locality unit usually at their unexcited direct structure if main heading pay weak pledge to them and inside the main heading of their structure whole and sterilisation region.
16 References: Begin, J., (1992). Comparative human resource management (HRM): a systems perspective. International J Hum Resource Manage 3, 379-408 Chen L., Liaw S. and Lee S. (2003) Using an HRM pattern approach to examine the productivity of manufacturing firms – an empirical study, International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 24 Issue 3, pp.299-318 Delery, J.E. (1998) Issues of Fit in Strategic Human Resource Management: Implications for research. Human Resource Management Review,8: 289–309 Ebbinghaus, Hermann, 1885. Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve.Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve: The Theory of Memory, 05, 17. ENTWISTLE N (1981) Styles of Learning and Teaching; an integrated outline of educational psychology for students, teachers and lecturers Chichester: John Wiley HEIM A (1970) Intelligence and Personality: their assessment and relationship Harmondsworth: Penguin (14021216-7). Honey, P. & Mumford, A. 1982. Honey & Mumford Learning, Manual of Learning Styles London: P. Honey. Kolb, David, 1984. The Learning process, The Experiential Learning Cycle, 6, 21. OPELAND W, BIRMINGHAM C and LEWIN B (1993) "The reflective practitioner in teaching; towards a research agenda" Teaching and Teacher Educationvol 9 no 4 pp 247-259. Quintas, P., Storey, J.,( 2000). Knowledge management. In: Storey, J. (Ed.), Human resource management: a critical text. IT, London. Rea, D (1972).A Contemporary Definition of personnel management, Some of its critical assumptions and their relevance to the university organization. November
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