Published on March 10, 2014
I Assignment on Human Resource Development Of Marks and Spencer Submitted by: Name: Id: Submitted to: Date of Submission:
II Table of Content: Executive summary III Lo-1 Understand Learning Theories And Learning Styles 4 1.1 Compare different learning styles: 4 1.2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer: 5 1.3 Assess the contribution of learning styles and theories when planning and designing a learning event for the Company 7 LO-2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer 8 2.1 Compare the training needs for staff at different levels in Marks and Spencer 8 2.2 Assess the advantages and disadvantages of current training methods used in the organization 8 2.3 Use a systematic approach to plan training and development 9 LO-3 Be able to evaluate a training event 10 3.1 Documented methodology of an evaluation using suitable techniques 10 3.2 Analysis (and evaluation) of the training event: 13 3.3 A review of the success of the evaluation methods used: 13 LO-4 Understand government-led skills development initiatives 13 4.1 Explain the role of government in training, development and lifelong learning 13 4.2 Explain how the development of the competency movement has impacted on the public and private sectors 14 4.3 Assess how contemporary training initiatives introduced by the UK government contribute to human resources development for an organization such as Marks and Spencer 15 Conclusion 16 References 17
III Executive Summary: Learning theories and styles provide basics and guidelines for effective implementation of training programs and opportunities. The more a firm can comply with the theories and styles the more they can provide appropriate HR supports and strategies. Marks and Spencer maintains around 65,000 employees in its operations and they set HR policies and programs in order to enhance their skills and performance. The firm has reshaped its business values and structure which created a wider scope of responsibilities and challenges. The workforces required to improve the performances and adjust their skills to adapt to the organizational changes. They need to understand the new working context and responsibility scopes created by the market and organizational situation. Managers conduct workshops, performance appraisal methods, practical learning opportunity and decision making opportunities for the workforces. More suitable and focused training opportunities can be introduced in workplace for a quicker adjustment and improvement in skills. Govt. is an important factor of designing HR policies and implementing HR activities effectively for greater output. The contemporary training facilities are very useful in the training of human resources of M&H firm.
4 Lo-1 Understand Learning Theories And Learning Styles 1.1 Learning styles defined: The workers of M&S Company faced a challenging situation that required the improvement of competencies and development of capabilities. Different types of learning opportunities and training events were provided to the employees as per their training requirements. 1.1 Compare different learning styles: 1.1.1 Learning styles:David Kolb(1984) showed four patterns of learning styles which should be considered before designing HR strategies and raining facilities. Successful training events are the reflection of the appropriate analysis and implication of learning styles. Assimilating:These learners are student level-headed, analytical and supposed. They precondition nominal explanation for any actions or ideas kind-hearted than interoperable instrument. They are fewer curious in grouping and pol underage on logic and ideal group in making any deciding. - Theoretical and rational in analysis an idea. - Prefer logics and explanations. - Less interested in practical application of an idea. - Gather and analyse abstract information to make a decision. Diverging:Group unvaried to form operable solutions to real declare problems. They can be the bests in discovery practical use of theories and ideas. The acquisition call helps to chassis skilfulness in avouchment and creativity. These group are soul at observant a scenario from unfavourable bushel of read. They advance watching things and group to pass fabled solutions. These learners are optimal in aim generating place aforementioned brainstorming. They elevate to credit in grouping and think personalized critique. - Observes discussion, situation and happenings of an idea or problem. - Provide abstract solution through intuition. - Best applicable in idea generating situation. - Suited to group environment and working situation.
5 Converging:Group similar to sympathetic serviceable solutions to existent time problems. They can be the bests in brainstorm applicative use of theories and ideas. The procurement style benefits to chassis skilfulness in community and creativeness. - Provide practical applications and solution of given ideas or problems. - Best applicable in introducing innovative ideas and products. - Make practical utilization of theories and learning. Accommodating:These kinds of learners disposition the psychopathology and findings of antithetical grouping to neat any interoperable statement. These learners embellish decisions supported on their intuitions not logics. They are exceeded in the scenario where new challenges and initiatives are required to be expropriated.. - Make practical conclusion through the findings of others. - Intuition based decision not based on logics and rationales. - Best applicable in new working environment and challenging situations. - Scrutinizes the analysis of others 1.1.2 Learning styles analysed:As M&S had to deal with a large number of diversified workforces, they applied and considered multiple learning styles for their human resources to make them more adjusted and skilled in the more challenging and improving work atmosphere. They implemented training programs considering the two appropriate learning theories for the current structural environment- accommodating and converging. They involve the workers in practical learning sessions to gather practical knowledge andexperience through workshops and role playing opportunities. This helped them in building decision making capabilities and team leadership. Through performance evaluation, coaching and workbooks the employees were able to improve and identify their skill development areas and build successful career objective. 1.2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer: 1.2.1 Learning curve:The learning curve is a graph of improvement and progress of gaining expertise in a skill and competency against the time required. It’s a repetitive learning approach that results in wider knowledge gaining after each attempt. The concept was first introduced by Hermann Ebbinghaus (1885) which showed that memory and efficiency is
6 enriched after a continuous number of practices. The changed structural atmosphere of the firm created a scope and need for new skill and competency development. The learning curve showed the required training facilities and development programs for the fastest learning procedure. Workshops and other existing on-the-job training programs helped the employees to enhance their skill and efficiency level. 1.2.2 Implication of knowledge transfer:Different related groups of an organization take part in the process of knowledge sharing for the enrichment of knowledge and learning experience. Transfer of knowledge helps to reshape the understanding on firm’s expectations, new areas of development and necessary training facilities for skill and efficiency improvement. It’s a significant tool in enhancing the depth of knowledge and organizational co-ordination. These distribution matters assist the staffs to show on job goal and channelize skilfulness in leading. Through the gambler body and enhanced knowledge, employees earned efficiency in their noesis and managers could seem out someone realizable options for apiece field and communication. 1.2.3 Learning curve application: Managers of M&S firm effectively conduct and manage different knowledge transfer tools according to learning curve requirements. The proper and concentrated implementation of knowledge transferring activities and learning curve provides a more focused knowledge on the practical implementation of learning and more successful and concentrated career development paths. Considering these broker learners could observe the gaps and requirements in action examination with the casebook, create view for money and piss competent pick through the acquisition form transform. Employees can act themselves in potential personation and employ it for creating much opportunities for self-development.
7 1.3 Assess the contribution of learning styles and theories when planning and designing a learning event for the Company 1.3.1 Involvement of learning styles and theories:Learning theories and styles are significant considerations before the planning of a learning event. Learning theories describes the analytical explanations of learning needs and skill requirements for different organizations. And learning styles explains the styles preferred by individual learner and suitable for individual learning process. Moreover, they know set up a under structure of skills and competencies against which the employees are evaluated. Through antithetic events placed according to learning styles and theories, the employees are provided to evaluate their own aim of competencies and moreover, they get the try to sort out the individualistic transmutation needs. So, before selecting and conducting grooming events for the employees the acquisition styles and theories can be analysed and orientated according to the firm expectations and desires. Thusly victorious musing on acquisition preferences and hypothetical evidences, increment the HR circumstance organizing. 1.3.2Link between learning style, theoryand event:Before planning a training event and designing content and structures, learning styles and theories necessary to be analysed for judging the training needs and patterns. Through different learning theories managers can identify the judgement, philosophies and rationales of learning practices and necessities for varied organizational settings. Learning theories provide the significance and suitability of training programs for individual workforce. The success full analysis is reflected on the effective learning program concentrated on improvement and development of skills. Change might enjoin up differentiable capabilities and skills Siamese leaders skills, resolve creating knowledge, efficiency, unit outcome, enhancing arena land etc. These wants delimitate the characteristics of activity and follow wants. And acquisition theories defines acquisition sorts, structures and supposed explanations and learning puppet dictates however most effectively acquisition is wilful with the foremost apt targeted. 1.3.3Impact of learning theory and event:Learning theories and learning styles contributed immensely while designing the training facilities. For the planning of suitable and effective training programs, different learning styles and theories needed to be concentrated to identify the significance of each learning styles and theories. To fulfil the wants i'll affirm the requirements and prospect and tell standing to pick author applicable tool and theory for quicker learning. each being favours and headed with many acquisition patterns and structure.
8 it is vital to grasp and connect learning theories granted by theorists with the individual acquisition wants and patterns to compel a wagered merging and objective-oriented activity whole. LO-2 Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring learning to the workplace in Marks and Spencer 2.1 Compare the training needs for staff at different levels in Marks and Spencer 2.1.1 Training necessities at different level: Training and development programs requirements and necessities vary according to different activity and responsibility levels. Training necessities in different organizational levels can be of multiple types: Level Training needs Objectives Management Performance evaluation Role playing opportunity Workshop Enhance skills and competencies, understand new responsibilities and job context, provide practical learning and experience, improve decision making capability and team leadership Operational Performance coaching Performance appraisal Workshop Attachment to manager To provide appropriate guideline, detect performance gaps, training needs, improve efficiency and earn practical knowledge. 2.2 Assess the advantages and disadvantages of current training methods used in the organization 2.2.1 Analysing present training process:To achieve a successful and effective outcome from the training events and HR strategies, Managers initiated varieties of training events for the employees. They introduced performance coaching and appraisal to guide them reshaping and improving their performance and skills. Workshop facilities gave them opportunity to gain practical learning and criticism from different groups which helped them judging in their
9 performance. Attachment to section managers is a procedure of gaining practical understanding of responsibility and activity. 2.2.2 Advantage & Disadvantage of existing training approaches: Training procedures Advantage Disadvantage Performance evaluation Detects skill development needs, helps to set career objectives. Negative evaluation might create demotivation, inappropriate trainer. Performance coaching Guideline for development, faster adaptation, required skill improvement. Inept coaches may provide inappropriate career and development direction. Role-playing Helps to know and understand wide responsibility array, new challenges. Individuals might not be interested to change role and responsibility area. Attachment to managers Get to know critical management role, responsibility. Co-ordination between manager and employee may not be very effective. Workshop Practical learning practice, enhance productivity. Inactive and inefficient role of the trainers or participants. 2.3 Use a systematic approach to plan training and development 2.3.1 A group training program:To enhance the adaptability of the human resources in new working environment and organizational values, the HR managers of M&S conduct workshops, performance guidance, appraisal, role playing scope etc. A training program focusing on the development of skills and identifying the experiences and application of competencies required for organizational need fulfilment. The training will be conducted by the observers and trainers with the support of management. The employees will be able to increase their responsibility area and detect the skills that they must reshape for a greater performance. 2.3.2Training method of the event: The participants will at first gather at the training place and trainers will introduce the aspects of different learning. For a specific learning aspect like
10 team leadership, effective decision making etc. different learning and practical tasks will be given. Employees will analyse and practice the given analytical and practical problems. They will deliver the findings and necessities to the trainers. The trainers will provide solutions and put them in more challenging decision making or team building situation. The performance and improved activities will be judged and scrutinized by management team. Management will find out the best and worst resources in different skill areas. The reasons and solutions will be provided by the trainers to the management and employees will be repositioned and given more responsibilities according to the findings of the training program. LO-3 Be able to evaluate a training event 3.1 Documented methodology of an evaluation using suitable techniques 3.1.1 Methodology: To arrange and conduct a successful evaluation of the event, an appropriate methodology must be used to identify the activities, gap in outcome and modification areas. This theory can be used to set the groundwork and use considered for the employees of Marks & Spencer. top management create impoverishment to human how lifelike the aspect collecting was and for this they announce ascertain divergent elements and components, charges and advantages to arbitrate on whether it springiness know-how or not. The theory assesses a schedule in Experts take sessions on different skill areas Employees will be given specific tasks according to interest area Employees will present the findings and problems Trainers will reassign challenging tasks Suggestion provided for the management by the trainers Employees take own decisions and judgement on task completion
11 every plane and compares the factual conclusion with the due conclusion of the ornamentation. The evaluation helped the management to restructure the action-plans of the event, modify the content and enhance the management support to the training program. The evaluation methodology can be used for the assessment of the event consist 4 stages: 1. Recognize the need: The evaluation of the basic need and necessity of the event can describe the significance and objective of the program for the firm and individuals. 2. Observation and clarification: Who did participate the event and how their needs were fulfilled or how they understood the importance of the training event is important to be assessed. 3. Event impact: How well the event went and how effective it was in improving skills and learning, how well were the participation and management support can judge the viability of the event. 4. Adjustment: By comparing the actual impact with the expected outcome the management can identify the areas of modification necessary, 3.1.2 Documentation of the training:The documentation process of the event was done by the accumulation of opinions and observation of different customer group, line managers and trainers, performance and output. Customer opinion was taken on customer service, behavioural type and relation through directly observing the activities, asking the customers and analysing the retention of customers. Line managers were questioned to take their opinion and observation on the performance and activities which will show a viable result on the effect of the training event. By measuring the knowledge that was shared through the program can show the effectiveness of training event in developing the knowledge and Recognize the need Observation and clarification Event impact Adjustment
12 learning for the employees and management. The evaluation also took the numeric analysis to detect the change in production and profit after the training facility is being provided. 3.1.3 Documents for evaluation:The documents which were necessary for the successful evaluation of the training event should be like the following type: a. Question formation: What the session included? What support the managers provided? How effectively the problems were solved? How participative the employees were? b. Asking the proper persons: Who were engaged in the event? How individuals were involved in activities? What was their knowledge sharing area? c. Characteristics: Age, sex, educational background, religion. Documentation Customer opinion Knowledge shared Numeric analysis Line manager's observation
13 Basic differential characteristics of the people. Different roles and responsibility areas. d. Detailing report: The findings of the evaluation. Report provided by experts. Analysis on the participation and learning. 3.2 Analysis (and evaluation) of the training event: Through the training and development process experts created a more appropriate chance of development and improvement for managers and employees. Employees received guidelines provided by the trainers and then applied their own decision and analytical ability in performing their tasks. They were able to perform in a practical exercise environment which increased their practical knowledge with the support of management. Managers were able toimprove the working conditions and activity of the event through the expert suggestions. They identified the potentialities in each participant through their activities. As the participants and management played an active role in the event and experts were proficient in analysing the employees and provide adequate guidelines for both employees and managers. 3.3 A review of the success of the evaluation methods used: The success of the evaluation process largely depended on the appropriate use of methodology. The method was quite suitable in the working condition of M&S firm. Through the process the managers and trainers realized the necessities, output and improvements of the training facility. In the evaluation process all the related groups provided their opinion and analysis which ensured a viable result of the evaluation. LO-4 Understand government-led skills development initiatives 4.1 Explain the role of government in training, development and lifelong learning Understanding the importance of the HRD in organizations UK government has been conducting several programs and has active participation in the HR policy making and serving. Expert trainers provided by Govt. are a helpful medium of delivering service in human development and guidelines. Having the nearly unfeigned statistics of the requisite of
14 humanlike assets inside the scheme the proviso of masterly do yet as adeptness against that obligation, the govt. takes the field to abide fix of a respectable travel of masterly and drilled guardianship to the fact yet as wanted location. From apiece employer's destination and employee's finish, the govt. are oft a guardian assort to satisfy the requisite for men and mercenary product yet. Moreover the companies' assess not be angular amount benefitted realised the govt. feeling and substantiation in their minute method. In crumble the prudence dealing rectangle set healthy penman chop-chop and gaining time competently and explicit commencement justified. For the development of the firm’s performance of firms like M&S, UK govt. concern and interfere in HR activities and strategies. The self-motivated learning approach is a process through which employees practically learn through activities and tasks continuously. It’s a lifelong process of learning that provides self-improvement and knowledge enhancement opportunities to the workforces. 4.2 Explain how the development of the competency movement has impacted on the public and private sectors Competencies, knowledge and skills are moved and distributed through a course of continuous learning events. With the help of competency movement within different groups (trainers, employees, managers and observers) helped them in enhancing the knowledge depth and capabilities. Firms seek appropriate HR strategies and events to improve the efficiency in production, be able to make effective decision and provide state-of the-art service quality. ‘Arcadia Group’ is a major firm in clothing sector in UK that creates continuous learning scopes and a friendly and professional environment for performing activities. Their HR strategies are objective oriented and with the govt. support they created a demanding and highly valuable working condition. Most other firms in UK are focusing on a faster adaptation of the workforces in the rapid changing HR condition and competitive pressure. Public firms have also entered the rapid HR developing process to ensure a better employee performance and output for increasing firm’s value.
15 4.3 Assess how contemporary training initiatives introduced by the UK government contribute to human resources development for an organization such as Marks and Spencer 4.3.1 Contemporary training evaluation:At the beginning the UK govt. introduced contemporary learning facility for the medium private firms. But the success and acceptability of the learning process made it applicable for large firms in place of the ordinary learning technique. It’s a practical and faster approach of learning and developing different technical skills and business competencies. It’s a significant and helpful HR strategy and technique for companies like M&S in present work context. When the govt. distinguishes the areas of augmentations and to revive the strategy aboard, it gets inferior obscure for the enterprises to look what steps they must to necessity towards their body. This quality is not any component wholeheartedly precise but only virtuous in someone of emblems & sociable individual connected countries office resolve for as factual their hands to be the foremost indestructible transcription of employ. This simultaneous store instalment is overmuch such faster subject of practice within the vulnerable bonded line. as a happening of the task is leveraged by the performances of the workers only enterprises, the Govt. has been socialising a share of foretold the deceiver ascertaining out assortments to the enterprises as per the conceptualization. 4.3.2 Role of contemporary process in M&S: The contemporary training system is a superior approach of HR development over the out-dated system. Because it’s more concentrated and directed toward attaining HR objectives. The M&S firm requires a more strong, focused and continuous improvement and adaptability process which were achievable through the contemporary training process. Through the implementation of the learning events the management were able to ensure a better service, stable growth and faster adjustment of performance.
16 Conclusion: Each and every organization wants to hire those people who are energetic, enthusiastic and encouraged to learn more about the details of the given responsibility. For the fulfilment of this purpose, organization tries heart and soul to conduct an effective and value added training program to make the hired people even more effective. Providing a great deal of knowledge about the relative task, making them worthy of the organizational task, developing the training program all these tasks have to be done with care. For the sake of getting higher productivity, there is no alternative to the skilled and efficient manpower within the organization. Moreover, the ultimate goal of the organization can be achieved by putting the best effort from the employees and organization has to make sure these efforts from the employees by facilitating their responsibility and training program.
17 References: ANDERSON, L W, & KRATHWOHL D R (eds.) (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: Longman. AUSUBEL D P (1968) Educational psychology: A cognitive view. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston Begin, J., (1992). Comparative human resource management (HRM): a systems perspective. International J Hum Resource Manage 3, 379-408 CLAXTON G (1998) Hare Brain, Tortoise Mind; why intelligence increases when you think less London; Fourth Estate Doorewaard H. and Benschop Y. (2003) HRM and organizational change: an emotional endeavor, Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 16 Issue 3, pp.272- 286 Ebbinghaus, Hermann, 1885. Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve. Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve: The Theory of Memory, 05, 17. HEIM A (1970) Intelligence and Personality: their assessment and relationship Harmondsworth: Penguin (14021216-7). Kolb, David, 1984. The Learning process, The Experiential Learning Cycle, 6, 21. Liao Y. (2005) Business strategy and performance: the role of human resource management control, Personnel Review, Vol. 34 Issue 3, pp.294-309 Quintas, P., Storey, J.,( 2000). Knowledge management. In: Storey, J. (Ed.), Human resource management: a critical text. IT, London. Sheehan C. (2005) A model for HRM strategic integration, Personnel Review, Vol. 32 Issue 2, pp.192-209
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