HPS PDS Yu 7 15 2007

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Published on January 1, 2008

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Tools for Assessing Radiological Doses to Human and Biota:  Tools for Assessing Radiological Doses to Human and Biota Charley Yu, PhD, CHP Argonne National Laboratory Presented at the 2007 HPS Professional Development School Corvallis, Oregon July 15, 2007 Presentation Outline:  Presentation Outline Introduction Dose Assessment Tools RESRAD Family of Codes Human Dose Assessment Radionuclide transport in environment External, inhalation, and ingestion pathways Dose and risk coefficients Exposure and transport parameters Biota Dose Assessment Dose limits Reference animals and plants Dose conversion coefficients Bioaccumulation and allometric methods Demonstration of RESRAD codes Radiological protection standards have been formulated on the basis of potential risks to human:  Radiological protection standards have been formulated on the basis of potential risks to human Dose or dose limits/constraints for human (mrem or mrem/yr): 5000 Worker dose ~300 Background radiation 100 Public dose 25 NRC cleanup level 15 EPA proposed cleanup level 10 NESHAPS air dose limit ~5 Chest X-ray 4 EPA drinking water limit ~3 Air travel for 3000 miles 1 IAEA clearance level ~1 Watch color TV for one year Note: 1 mrem = 10 uSv Software Tools for Dose Assessment Have Been Significantly Improved Over the Years:  Software Tools for Dose Assessment Have Been Significantly Improved Over the Years Partially due to the invention of personal computers and advances in computer technology Dose assessment tools are now more user-friendly Easy to use with on-line help Allows for error-checking (within parameter bounds) Results are shown in graphical output and text report Can be exported to spread sheets or text reports Example Software Tools for Dose Assessment:  Example Software Tools for Dose Assessment CAP88 (models dose from radioactive air emmission) COMPLY (atmospheric screening model) DandD (decommissioning and decontamination screening model) DCAL (calculates tissue dose from intake and exposure to radionuclides in the environment) DUST (a disposal unit source term model) GENII (models the dose from chronic and acute releases) MEPAS (used for multimedia transport of chemicals and radionuclides) PRESTO (models low level waste) RESRAD Family of Codes (Used for various applications ranging from cleanup of contaminated sites, to assessment of waste disposal facility performance, to dose assessment for animals and plants) Similarities and Differences Among Software Tools:  Similarities and Differences Among Software Tools Although they are designed for different applications, all of them rely on the same basic theory of radionuclide transport in the environment Advection and dispersion Ingrowth and decay Dose conversion coefficients Potential differences include: Assumptions made in the code Pathways included Parameters used Method used in solving mathematical equations Design of code may be different (user-friendliness, error checking, on-line help) RESRAD Family of Codes:  RESRAD Family of Codes Calculation of Radiological Doses to Human — Using RESRAD (onsite) Methodology as an Example:  Calculation of Radiological Doses to Human — Using RESRAD (onsite) Methodology as an Example What is RESRAD (onsite)?:  What is RESRAD (onsite)? RESRAD is a computer code developed at Argonne to calculate: Site-specific RESidual RADioactive material guidelines (cleanup criteria or DCGLs), and Radiation dose and excess lifetime cancer risk to an on-site resident (a maximally exposed individual or a member of a critical population group) RESRAD Code Considers All Pathways:  RESRAD Code Considers All Pathways Nine major environmental pathways are available in RESRAD External (Ground) Inhalation Particulates Radon Ingestion Soil Water Plant Meat Milk Aquatic Foods Exposure Pathways for a Subsistence Farming Scenario:  Exposure Pathways for a Subsistence Farming Scenario Exposure Pathways for a Industrial Use Scenario:  Dust, Radon Drinking Water Soil Ingestion Infiltration Leaching External Groundwater Exposure Pathways for a Industrial Use Scenario Surface Water Analysis of Multiple Scenarios:  Analysis of Multiple Scenarios Current use and plausible future use scenarios can be easily simulated One or more exposure pathways may be added or suppressed Occupancy factors and consumption parameters may be tailored according to the scenario being simulated Typical exposure scenarios include industrial, recreational, residential, and subsistence farming Both onsite and offsite receptors in RESRAD-OFFSITE Major Features of RESRAD:  Major Features of RESRAD Probabilistic input/output interface Conventional (pCi and mrem) and SI (Bq, Sv) units Latest risk databases (FGR 13 morbidity and mortality and HEAST 2001 morbidity) Comprehensive external gamma dose model Ground-water transport model for decay chains Expanded radionuclide database (838 radionuclides) with user selected cut-off half-life Major Features of RESRAD (continued):  Major Features of RESRAD (continued) Five output reports (Summary, Detailed, Health Risk, Concentration, Daughter Contributions) New radionuclide uptake and transfer factor database Time integrated dose and risk Ability to create and edit DCF, risk coefficients, and plant, meat, milk, and fish transfer factors Shared databases with other RESRAD family of codes Dose Conversion Factors:  Dose Conversion Factors External exposure pathway: infinite depth volume factors (mrem/yr per pCi/g) area, depth, and shape correction factors Inhalation pathway: inhalation factors for adults age-dependent DCFs in RESRAD-OFFSITE Ingestion pathways ingestion factors age-dependent DCFs in RESRAD-OFFSITE References: External DCFs - Federal Guidance Report No.12 (1993) Inhalation/Ingestion DCFs - FGR No.11 (1988), Age-dependent DCFs: ICRP 72 (1996) Cancer Slope Factors:  Cancer Slope Factors Units of Sfj,p: For external radiation -- risk/yr per pCi/g For inhalation and ingestion pathways-- risk/pCi Source of Sfj,p: EPA publications -- HEAST (2001) Federal Guidance Report # 13 (1999) Morbidity Mortality Note: Values of Sfj,p include contributions from associate decay products with half-lives < cutoff, which are assumed to be in equilibrium with their parent principal radionuclide. Source Mass Balance:  Source Mass Balance Mass balance is maintained between the contaminated source and each transport pathway RESRAD keeps track of source losses from radioactive decay, leaching, and erosion RESRAD accounts for ingrowth of daughters from initially present parent radionuclides RESRAD Parameter Database:  RESRAD Parameter Database Decay and ingrowth data Dose conversion factors Cancer slope factors Food transfer factors (plant/soil, meat/feed, milk/feed, fish/water) All 838 radionuclides contained in ICRP-38 are in RESRAD database Site Specific Input Parameters:  Site Specific Input Parameters Physical parameters (size, depth, density, porosity, diffusion coefficient) Hydrological parameters (hydraulic conductivity, gradient, soil b parameter, and dispersivity) Geochemical parameters (distribution coefficient, leach rate, solubility) Meteorological parameters (precipitation, evapotranspiration, and dispersion coefficients) Usage and consumption parameters (inhalation, irrigation, ingestion, occupancy) RESRAD Calculates the Dose to Source Ratio:  RESRAD Calculates the Dose to Source Ratio Calculation of the Dose to Source Ratio:  Calculation of the Dose to Source Ratio DSRip (t) = DCFjp = dose conversion factor (mrem/yr per pCi/g or mrem/pCi) BRF = branching factor (dimensionless) ETFjp (t) = environmental transport factor (dimensionless or g/yr) SFij (t) = source factor for ingrowth, decay and leaching (dimensionless) Dose Conversion Factor/Risk Factor Libraries:  Dose Conversion Factor/Risk Factor Libraries Using the Dose Conversion Factor Editor Users can modify DCFs Select a more appropriate DCF Create a new DCF Users can modify Slope factors HEAST 2001 FGR 13 Morbidity FGR 13 Mortality User Specified Source Factors:  Source Factors Ingrowth of principal radionuclide j from principal radionuclide i, assuming associate radionuclides are in secular equilibrium with their principal radionuclides Accounts for radioactive decay and leaching See Appendix G for more details Factors Affecting Source Loss:  Factors Affecting Source Loss Environmental Transport Factors: External Ground:  Environmental Transport Factors: External Ground Appendix A: RESRAD users manual FO1 = occupancy and shielding factor FSi1 = shape factor FAi1(t) = nuclide specific area factor FCDi1(t) = depth and cover factor Occupancy and Shielding Factor:  Occupancy and Shielding Factor Comprised of fotd;: Fraction of time spent outdoors find : Fraction of time spent indoors Fsh: External gamma shielding factor Fsh is radionuclide INDEPENDENT Default Case Fsh =0.7 meaning that the indoor radiation level is 70% of outdoor level Depth and Cover Factor:  Depth and Cover Factor Allows users to enter Any contaminated zone thickness, and density Any one cover thickness and density Based on a regression analysis of FGR 12 DCFs FCD’s are radionuclide dependent Examples of FCDs for Two Radionuclide (No Cover):  Examples of FCDs for Two Radionuclide (No Cover) FCD for Co-60 Variable Contaminated Zone Thickness No cover Infinite external DCF 16.2 mrem/yr / pCi/g FCD for U-234 Variable contaminated zone thickness No cover Infinite external DCF 4.02 x 10-4 mrem/yr / pCi/g Examples of FCDs for Two Radionuclide:  Examples of FCDs for Two Radionuclide FCD for Co-60 Contaminated Zone Thickness = 2m Variable cover thickness FCD for U-234 Contaminated zone thickness = 2m Variable cover thickness Area Factor:  Area Factor Radionuclide specific factor to correct an infinite geometry (FGR 12) to finite geometry (site-specific) Performs point-kernel integration on the dose Uses ICRP-38 photon spectra Benchmarked against MCNP Area Factor Calculation:  Area Factor Calculation Co-60, Pu-240 Example No cover 1 cm thick contaminated zone Pu-240 infinite DCF 1.47 x 10-4 mrem/yr / pCi/g Shape Factor: Non-Circular Shapes:  Shape Factor: Non-Circular Shapes RESRAD allows users to construct non- circular shaped sources Allows users to place receptors anywhere on the source Biggest Impact on long rectangular sources Roads Railroad right a way Primarily affects the external pathway Environmental Transport Factors: Inhalation Pathway:  Environmental Transport Factors: Inhalation Pathway Appendix B: RESRAD users manual ASR2 = mass loading factor (air/soil concentration ratio) FA2 = area factor FCD2(t) = cover and depth factor FO2 = occupancy factor FI2 = annual intake of air Contaminated Zone Mixing Layer Area Factor for Inhalation:  Area Factor for Inhalation Ratio of airborne concentration from a finite area source to the airborne concentration of an infinite source. Empirical model based on least square regression. Inversely proportional to square root of the Area Fit parameters are correlated to wind speed Occupancy Factor:  Occupancy Factor Methodology identical to that used for the external pathway Indoor dust filtration factor (Fdust) 0.4 default Meaning that indoor concentration is 40% of the outdoor concentration Ingestion Pathways:  Ingestion Pathways Water independent Not dependent on contaminated ground water and/or surface water Deposition on leaves Root uptake from soil contamination Water dependent Water used for Drinking Irrigation Livestock Feed What about dose to animals and plants? Environmental Transport Factors: Soil Ingestion:  Environmental Transport Factors: Soil Ingestion Appendix F: RESRAD users manual Models the incidental ingestion of soil FSI = annual intake of soil FA8 = area factor FCD8(t) = cover and depth factor Same model as inhalation pathway FO8 = occupancy factor Total time spent on the site Indoor time fraction + outdoor time fraction Area Factor: Soil Ingestion:  Area Factor: Soil Ingestion Fraction of work area that might be contaminated A is the area of contaminated zone and 1,000 m2 is the assumed play or work area which is approximately the size of a single house lot Environmental Transport Factors: Plant Meat and Milk Pathways:  Environmental Transport Factors: Plant Meat and Milk Pathways Appendix D: RESRAD users manual Where DF = dietary factor (annual consumption rate) FSR(t) = food/soil concentration ratio FA = area factor FCD(t) = cover and depth factor Area Factor: Plant, Meat & Milk Ingestion:  Area Factor: Plant, Meat & Milk Ingestion Plant Ingestion User override Meat and Milk Ingestion User override Area required to grow plants or raise livestock Cover and Depth Factor: Direct Root Uptake:  Cover and Depth Factor: Direct Root Uptake Fraction of root length in the contaminated zone Uncontaminated Cover Contaminated Zone Water Pathway Factors:  Water Pathway Factors Appendix E: RESRAD users manual Radionuclide Transport in Groundwater:  Radionuclide Transport in Groundwater Transport Mechanisms Advection Dispersion Adsorption/desorption Radiological decay and ingrowth Methods of Solution Analytical Semi-analytical Numerical Leaching Model :  Leaching Model Sorption-desorption ion-exchange model Contaminated Zone Unsaturated Zone Runoff Precipitation Evapo-transpiration Irrigation Leaching Model:  Leaching Model Note: Rs ≤ 1 Ksat ≥ I Leaching Model :  Leaching Model Radionuclide-specific KD Hydraulic conductivity (m/yr) 0.02 [Loam] to 5,500 [Sand] Soil-specific “b” parameter 4.0 [Sand] to 11.4 [Clay] Field capacity Lower limit of volumetric water content See Data Collection Handbook for more information Summary of Human Dose Assessment:  Summary of Human Dose Assessment Source Term Radionuclide Transport in the Environment Decay and Ingrowth Inhalation and Ingestion External Exposure Dose and Risk Coefficients Occupancy Factor Exposure Scenarios and Parameters Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis RESRAD Supporting Documents:  RESRAD Supporting Documents User’s Manual for RESRAD Version 6, ANL/EAD-4, July 2001 RESRAD Parameter Sensitivity Analysis [8/91] Data Collection Handbook to Support Modeling the Impacts of Radioactive Material in Soil [4/93] A Compilation of Radionuclide Transfer Factors for the Plant, Meat, Milk and Aquatic Food Pathways and the Suggested Default Values for the RESRAD Code [8/93] Verification of RESRAD [6/94] RESRAD Benchmarking Against Six Radiation Exposure Pathway Models [10/94] External Exposure Model Used in the RESRAD Code for Various Geometries of Contaminated Soil [9/98] Evaluation of Area Factor for Finite Area Sources for Inhalation Dose Calculations [7/98] Development of Probabilistic RESRAD 6.0 and RESRAD-BUILD 3.0 Computer Codes [11/00] Calculation of Radiological Doses to Biota — Using RESRAD-BIOTA Methodology as an Example:  Calculation of Radiological Doses to Biota — Using RESRAD-BIOTA Methodology as an Example Increasing Interest in Radiation Protection of the Environment :  Increasing Interest in Radiation Protection of the Environment Revisiting ICRP assumption Different exposure pathways Site, regulator, and stakeholder interest International activity IAEA ICRP Other Countries The Evolving ICRP Position on the Protection of the Environment :  The Evolving ICRP Position on the Protection of the Environment “…if man is adequately protected then other living things are also likely to be sufficiently protected.” (ICRP Pub. 26, 1977) “The Commission believes that the standards of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk.” (ICRP Pub. 60, 1991) “Occasionally, individual members of non-human species might be harmed, but not to the extent of endangering whole species or creating imbalance between species.” (ICRP Pub. 60, 1991) “…ICRP therefore needs to revise its current system of protection, and particularly, develop a comprehensive approach to the study of the effects on, and protection of, all living matter with respect to the effects of ionising radiation…” (ICRP Pub. 91, 2003) Slide53:  The Proposed Common ICRP Approach Reference Man Environmental radionuclide concentration(s) Reference Animals and Plants Dose limits, constraints Decision-making regarding public health and environment for the same environmental situation Derived Consideration Levels Normal situations, accidents and existing exposures 53 Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs):  Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs) Deer Rat Bee Earthworm Duck Frog Trout Marine Flatfish Crab Pine Tree Grass Seaweed Evolution of Dose Limits for Biota:  Evolution of Dose Limits for Biota Historical setting: Human limits are dose-based Protection established by examining all exposure pathways 1990’s DOE considered parallel protection for biota DOE Standard (DOE Order 5400.5): 1 rad/d (10 mGy/d) for aquatic organisms Dose Limits for Biota:  Dose Limits for Biota Based on NCRP and IAEA findings Other standards proposed 10 CFR 834, Subpart F: 1 rad/d for aquatic animals 1 rad/d for terrestrial plants 0.1 rad/d for terrestrial animals Comparison of Acute Lethal Dose Ranges:  Comparison of Acute Lethal Dose Ranges Approximate acute lethal dose ranges for various taxonomic groups. Adapted from Whicker & Schultz (1982). Scientific Basis for Biota Dose Limits :  Scientific Basis for Biota Dose Limits IAEA Report 172 (1976) Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Aquatic Organisms and Ecosystems ICRP Report 26 (1977) Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection NCRP Report 109 (1991) Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Aquatic Organisms IAEA Report 332 (1992) Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Plants and Animals at Levels Implied by Current Radiation Protection Standards DOE Workshop Report (1995) Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Terrestrial Plants and Animals UNSCEAR (1996) Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation; pers. com. 2002 & 2003 ACRP Report INFO-0730 (2002) Protection of Non-Human Biota From Ionizing Radiation UK Environment Agency R&D Publication 128 (2002) Impact Assessment of Ionizing Radiation on Wildlife ICRP Report 91 (2003) A Framework for Assessing the Impact of Ionising Radiation on Non-human Species Basic Screening Methodology: Biota Concentration Guides (BCGs):  Basic Screening Methodology: Biota Concentration Guides (BCGs) Dose Limit BCG = Internal Dose + External Dose Evaluate for unit concentration (e.g., 1 Bq kg-1) for single media (e.g., soil) Use sum of fractions approach for multiple media (e.g., sediment, water) and radionuclides Conservative assumptions and default parameters DOE’s Graded Approach:  DOE’s Graded Approach Compare media concentrations with Biota Concentration Guides (BCGs) (RESRAD-BIOTA Level 1) Site-representative parameters (RESRAD-BIOTA Level 2) Data Assembly General Screening Analysis Site Specific Screening Site Specific Analysis Site Specific Biota Dose Assessment Kinetic/allometric modeling tool (RESRAD-BIOTA Level 3) Collection of biota using eco-risk protocols Receptors Used in Deriving the Screening Methodology:  Receptors Used in Deriving the Screening Methodology BCGs Riparian Animal Terrestrial Animal Aquatic Animal Terrestrial Plant DOE Biota Technical Standard :  DOE Biota Technical Standard MODULE 1: Principles and Applications (users guide) Overview of the graded approach & evaluation process Application considerations Look-up tables; step-by-step guidance; RAD-BCG Calculator Examples MODULE 2: Detailed Guidance (links to users guide) Radiological ecological risk assessment: tutorial & issues Time averaging and spatial variability (contaminants & doses) Defining the evaluation area Biota sampling design and methods Radiation weighting factor for alpha particles Evaluation of individuals; special considerations MODULE 3: Methods Derivation (links to users guide) Equations and models for deriving BCGs / default parameters Download: http://homer.ornl.gov/nuclearsafety/nsea/oepa/bdac/biota/ RAD-BCG Calculator:  RAD-BCG Calculator Encodes Method Microsoft Excel® Visual Basic® Contact: Kathryn A. Higley, PhD, CHP Dept. of Nuclear Engineering & Radiation Health Physics Oregon State University 541.737.0675 kathryn.higley@oregonstate.edu RESRAD-BIOTA is the “Next Generation” Tool for Biota Dose Evaluation:  RESRAD-BIOTA is the “Next Generation” Tool for Biota Dose Evaluation The RAD-BCG Calculator (Microsoft Excel-based) is approaching the limits of it’s software platform capabilities The RESRAD platform was selected because: It has a highly-regarded pedigree: QA and validation studies It is widely recognized and implemented within DOE, other U.S. Federal and State agencies, and the U.S. nuclear industry Can leverage & link RESRAD capabilities with RESRAD-BIOTA It provides the software architecture and degree of sophistication needed for expanding upon DOE’s biota methods and capabilities; and for being responsive to the needs of a broader community of users Development of RESRAD-BIOTA:  Development of RESRAD-BIOTA Code development initiated by DOE in June 2000 Principally developed and sponsored by DOE since 2000; DOE then formed the ECORAD-Workgroup, an inter-agency group consisting of DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to continue code development in collaboration RAD-BCG Calculator successfully converted into beta version of RESRAD-BIOTA in 2001 Added sensitivity analysis capability in 2002 Generated dose conversion factors for 8 organisms in 2003 Designed a new user interface with Organism Editor in 2003 A total of 46 radionuclides in the current database Features of RESRAD-BIOTA:  Features of RESRAD-BIOTA Reproduces RAD-BCG results Has a user-friendly input interface with Help files Users can view dose conversion factors (DCFs), dose results, BCG results, etc., and select radiological units User can modify lumped parameters (B values and Kds), dose limits, area factors, radiation weighting factors, DCFs, and allometric parameters, etc. Shows screening results (pass or fail) and have text reports and bar charts Users can do sensitivity analysis on input parameters RESRAD-BIOTA Main Window:  RESRAD-BIOTA Main Window Parameter Access vs Level:  Parameter Access vs Level Assumptions for Level 1 External Dose:  Assumptions for Level 1 External Dose Source medium infinite/semi-infinite in extent and contains uniform concentrations of radionuclides Extremely small organism Source & receptor geometry: water & sediment soil Assumptions for Level 1 Internal Dose:  Assumptions for Level 1 Internal Dose Extremely large organism All decay energies retained in tissue Chain-decay progeny included Radiation weighting factor included (and modifiable) Nuclides uniformly distributed Internal Dose Factors:  Internal Dose Factors Where the following terms apply: DCFInternal,i = Gy/y per Bq/kg of wet tissue for radionuclide i; Yj = yield (abundance) of radiation j per disintegration of nuclide i; Ej = energy (MeV) of radiation j for nuclide i; and Qj is the radiation weighting factor (quality factor) for radiation j of nuclide i. Deriving Limiting Concentrations:  Deriving Limiting Concentrations DCFinternal (Gy y -1/ Bq kg-1) is the dose conversion factor for radionuclides in the tissue of the organism; LP is a parameter which relates radionuclide concentration in the media external to the organism to its internal tissues; DCFexternal (Gy y -1/ Bq kg-1) is the dose conversion factor for radionuclides in the media external to the organism; Lumped Parameters:  Lumped Parameters Measures degree of radionuclide transport in an ecosystem Sometimes called Concentration ratio Concentration factor Transfer factor, or Wet-weight concentration ratio (BiV) Lumped Parameter Dataset :  Lumped Parameter Dataset Addressing Data Gaps:  Addressing Data Gaps Lumped Parameters (LPs) Empirical data Product approach Calculational method called “kinetic/allometric” Lessons learned in method development: Less data available than we originally thought Continuously “reality checking” with site applications Kinetic Approach, Internal Exposure:  Kinetic Approach, Internal Exposure Input Rate Loss Rate Body Burden Kinetic Approach, Body Burden Estimates:  Kinetic Approach, Body Burden Estimates time q Function of: Body mass Intake rate Loss rate Exposure time Need to address: varying mass intake exposure period Allometric Relationships :  Allometric Relationships Cross-species relationships Y = aXb Empirically obtained Derived from energy/nutrient transport limitations Mass and Metabolic Rate M3/4 (Ingestion, Inhalation) M1/4 (Life-span) aMx (biological elimination rate) Mass and Home Range M~3/4 (Defining exposure areas) Combining Kinetic & Allometric:  Combining Kinetic & Allometric Allows prediction of body burden for any body mass lifespan loss rate Can be tailored to specific species Stochastic analysis used to ground truth approach and compare to “lumped” parameters RESRAD-BIOTA: Key Features:  RESRAD-BIOTA: Key Features Duplicates DOE Graded Approach process & BCGs Retains flexibility to modify organism exposure profile, parameters, dose limits, allometric relationships Like the Graded Approach, the code implements primary and secondary reference organism concepts Organism Wizard allows users to configure their own “secondary” organisms Includes DCFs for 8 specific geometries covering a wide range of organisms Sensitivity analysis Import and export data Procedure for Deriving Level 3 DCFs :  Procedure for Deriving Level 3 DCFs Calculate absorbed fractions for photons and beta particles (electrons) of different energies for different organisms (dimensions) using MCNP Calculate effective absorbed beta and photon fraction for each radionuclide The absorbed fraction for alpha radiation for all geometries is assumed unity Absorbed fractions for default geometry is also calculated. Default geometry is infinitely large for internal DCF and infinitesimally small for external DCF Comparison of absorbed fractions with available data Calculate internal and external DCFs DCF Methodology:  DCF Methodology Y = Nuclide yield n = number of nuclides (parent + associated) type = electron, photon, alpha k = 5.04E-6 (unit conversion factor) (Gy/y per Bq/kg) per (MeV/Bq-s) E = energy in MeV r = radiation identification y = radiation yield ftype(Er,org) = Fraction absorbed (F) for internal DCF (1-F) for external DCF 1 for both internal and external for default organisms International Biota Dose Assessment Activities and Resources:  International Biota Dose Assessment Activities and Resources IAEA EMRAS Biota Working Group EU EURATOM PROTECT Project FREDERICA Radiation Effects Database ERICA (Environmental Risk from Ionising Contaminants: Assessment and Management) Assessment Tool IAEA TRS 364 Handbook Summary of Biota Dose Assessment:  Summary of Biota Dose Assessment Radionuclide Concentration in the Environment Radionuclide Concentration in Biota Lumped Parameter Transfer factors (Biv, etc) Dynamic/Allometric Method Reference Animals and Plants External and Internal Exposures Dose Conversion Coefficients Home Range Consideration Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis

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