Published on March 7, 2014
Advance separation technology: high performance liquidchromatography(HPLC) Sardar hussain, Asst.prof.biotechnology, Govt.science college, Chitradurga email@example.com
Basic Principles of HPLC:-
INTRODUCTION :HPLC is a form of liquid chromatography used to separate compounds that are dissolved in solution.
TYPES OF PHASES :Separation is based on the analyte’s relative solubility between two liquid phases Mobile Phase Stationary Phase Solvent Bonded Phase Partitioning :-
Normal Phase. - Polar stationary phase and non-polar solvent. Reverse Phase. - Non-polar stationary phase and a polar solvent.
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) Solvent reservoirs, Solvent degasser, Gradient valve, Mixing vessel for delivery of the mobile phase, High-pressure pump, Switching valve in "inject position" Switching valve in "load position", Sample injection loop, Pre-column (guard column), Analytical column, Detector (i.e. IR, UV), Data acquisition, Waste or fraction collector. PICT URE OF HPLC SYST EM :-
PICTURE OF HPLC EQUIPMENT :-
FOUR TYPES OF HIGH PERFOMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY :-
1. PARTITION CHROMOTOGRAPHY Partition chromatography uses a retained solvent, on the surface or within the grains or fibres of an "inert" solid supporting matrix as with paper chromatography; or takes advantage of some additional coulombic and/or hydrogen donor interaction with the solid support. Molecules equilibrate (partition) between a liquid stationary phase and the eluent. Known as Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography (HILIC) in HPLC, this method separates analytes based on polar differences. HILIC most often uses a bonded polar stationary phase and a non-polar, water miscible, mobile phase. Partition HPLC has been used historically on unbonded silica or alumina supports. Each works effectively for separating analytes by relative polar differences, however, HILIC has the advantage of separating acidic, basic and neutral solutes in a single chromatogram.
Partition Chromatography:• Most widely used • Bonded-phase Chromatography • Silica Stationary Phase: OH OH OH OH O O O Si Si Si Si • Siloxanes: O CH3 Si O Si R R= C8, C18 O CH3
Ion-exchange chromatography is a process that allows the 2. ION EXCHANGE CHROMATOGRAPHY separation of ions and polar molecules based on their charge. It can be used for almost any kind of charged molecule including large proteins, small nucleotides and amino acids. The solution to be injected is usually called a sample, and the individually separated components are called analytes. It is often used in protein purification, water analysis, and quality control Ion exchange chromatography retains analyte molecules on the column based on coulombic (ionic) interactions. The stationary phase surface displays ionic functional groups (RX) that interact with analyte ions of opposite charge. This type of chromatography is further subdivided into cation exchange chromatography and anion exchange chromatography. The ionic compound consisting of the cationic species M+ and the anionic species B- can be retained by the stationary phase.
BASIS FOR MOLECULAR SEPARATION :Ion Exchange Gel Filtration Affinity Charge Size Conformatio n
Components of ion exchange :A charge solid phase or matrix Liquid phase contains molecules of different charges Solutions (eluant) of different charges to influence interactions between liquid and solid phases
Solid matrix exchangers : 1. A cation exchanger: › Matrix negative charge › Exchanges cations 2. An anion exchanger: › Matrix positive charge › Exchanges anions
3. SIZE EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY :Size exclusion chromatography (SEC), also known as gel permeation chromatography or gel filtration chromatography, separates particles on the basis of size. It is generally a low resolution chromatography and thus it is often reserved for the final, "polishing" step of purification. It is also useful for determining the tertiary structure and quaternary structure of purified proteins. SEC is used primarily for the analysis of large molecules such as proteins or polymers. SEC works by trapping these smaller molecules in the pores of a particle. The larger molecules simply pass by the pores as they are too large to enter the pores. Larger molecules therefore flow through the column quicker than smaller molecules, that is, the smaller the molecule, the longer the retention time.
Size Exclusion Chromatography(SEC) : Gel permeation(GPC), gel filtration(GFC) chromatography Technique applicable to separation of highmolecular weight species Rapid determination of the molecular weight or molecular-weight distribution of larger polymers or natural products Solute and solvent molecules can diffuse into pores -- trapped and removed from the flow of the mobile phase
SEC (continued) :• Specific pore sizes.average residence time in the pores depends on the effective size of the analyte molecules – larger molecules – smaller molecules – intermediate size molecules
4. AFFINITY CHROMOTAGRAPY :This is the most selective type of chromatography employed. It utilizes the specific interaction between one kind of solute molecule and a second molecule that is immobilized on a stationary phase. For example, the immobilized molecule may be an antibody to some specific protein. When solutes containing a mixture of proteins are passed by this molecule, only the specific protein is reacted to this antibody, binding it to the stationary phase. This protein is later extracted by changing the ionic strength or pH. .
Affinity Chromatography Affinity Chromatography Surface bound with Epoxy, aldehyde or aryl ester groups Metal Interaction Chromatography Surface bound with Iminodiacetic acid + Ni2+/Zn2+/Co2+
Affinity Chromatography Binding Capacity (mg/ml) medium 12mg of histag proteins (MW= 27kDa) Depends on Molecular weight Degree of substitution /ml medium ~15 mol Ni2+ Backpressure ~43psi Change the guard column filter
ACCESSORIES FOR HPLC EQUIPMENT :HPLC COLOUMS:-The column is one of the most important components of the HPLC chromatograph because the separation of the sample components is achieved when those components pass through the column. The High performance liquid chromatography apparatus is made out of stainless steel tubes with a diameter of 3 to 5mm and a length ranging 10 -30cmNormally, columns are filled with silametica gel because its particle shape, surface properties, and pore structure help to get a good separation. Silica can be used to separate a wide variety of chemical compounds, and its chromatographic behavior is generally predictable and reproducible.
HPLC COLOUMN :-
Instrumentation :Gradient Controller • Pump Injector Column Detector
Liquid Chromatographic Column Smooth-bore stainless steel or heavy-walled glass tubing Hundreds of packed columns differing in size and packing are available from manufacturers ($200-$500) Add columns together to increase length
For injecting the solvent through the column Minimize possible flow disturbances Limiting factor in precision of liquid chromatographic measurement Volumes must be small .1-500 L Sampling loops › interchangeable loops (5-500 L at pressures up to 7000 psi)
Mostly optical Equipped with a flow cell Focus light beam at the center for maximum energy transmission Cell ensures that the separated bands do not widen
HPLC-UV:HPLC Pump Mobile Phases Sample loop 6-port valve HPLC column A and B syringe MP waste Detector
Chromatograms :- Restek® ULTRA C-18 and CN Columns (250mm x 4.6mm, 5µ), Mobile Phase: (1:1 Methanol:Water), 1.5 mL/min.
Chromatograms :- A Supelcosil LC-PAH Columns Conditions: A: 150mm x 4.6mm, 5µ. Flow Rate: 1.5 mL/min B Conditions: B: 50mm x 4.6mm, 3µ. Flow Rate: 3.0 mL/min
1.This technique is used for chemistry and biochemistry research analyzing complex mixtures, purifying chemical compounds, developing processes for synthesizing chemical compounds, isolating natural products, or predicting physical properties. It is also used in quality control to ensure the purity of raw materials, to control and improve process yields, to quantify assays of final products, or to evaluate product stability and monitor degradation. 2. In addition, it is used for analyzing air and water pollutants, for monitoring materials that may jeopardize occupational safety or health, and for monitoring pesticide levels in the environment. Federal and state regulatory agencies use HPLC to survey food and drug products, for identifying confiscated narcotics or to check for adherence to label claims. USES OF HPLC :-
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