Published on January 27, 2016
1. Chapter I: In A Nutshell
2. Paris 1900 La Belle Epoque A period of high artistic or cultural development especially in France.
3. A psychologist named Alfred Binet was approached by city fathers of Paris with an unusual request.
4. “Could he devise some kind of a measure that would predict which youngsters would succeed and which would fail in the primary grades of Paris schools?”
5. Binet succeeded, his discovery was called “Intelligence Test” -measures the IQ Intelligence Quotient -a number that represents your score on Intelligence Test
6. The IQ test made its way to United States then it was used to test over one million American recruits. IQ test was known to be the Psychology’s biggest success. A genuinely useful scientific tool.
7. In the west, people relied on intuitive assessments But now, intelligence is seemed to be quantifiable.
8. Arthur Jensen, an American psychologist suggest that we could look at reaction time to assess intelligence a sets of lights go on or how quickly can the subject can react. While a British Psychologist Hans Eysenck suggests that investigators should look directly at Brain Waves.
9. Also, there are more sophisticated versions of IQ test. Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) - similar kind of measure - often use this to admit children into programs for the gifted. ex. If your IQ is in 130 you’re admitted to the program.
10. In the Uniform School there are regular assessments using paper and pencil instrument of the IQ or SAT variety. The brightest get into better college perhaps they will also get into better rankings in life.
11. Howard Gardner presents an alternative vision. People have different cognitive strengths and cognitive styles. This model didn’t exist in Binet’s time. Cognitive Science (study of mind) Neuroscience (study of the brain)
12. The whole concept of IQ Test has to be replaced with an approach which is known to be as “Theory of Multiple Intelligence” Look instead at more naturalistic sources of information about how people develop skills.
13. Example: The sailors in the South Seas who find their way around hundreds or even thousands of islands by looking at the constellations of stars in the sky, feeling the way a boat passes over the water and noticing a few scattered landmarks. *A word for intelligence of these sailors would probably refer to that kind of Navigational Ability.
14. Think of surgeons and engineers , hunters and fishermen, dancers and choreographers, athletes and athletic coaches, tribal chiefs and sorcerers. All of these different roles need to be taken into account if we accept the way Howard Gardner defined intelligence To solve problems and to fashion products.
15. A wide set of sources was examined by Gardner and others to define intelligence. 1. The development of different kinds of skills in normal children. 2. Information on the ways that these abilities break down under the conditions of brain damage.
16. Gardner’s research group looked into different populations as well, those children with special needs. The mass of information they found out was organize into seven intelligences.
17. ONE LINGUISTIC INTELLIGENCE Kind of ability exhibited in its fullest form perhaps by poets.
18. TWO LOGICAL-MATHEMATICAL INTELLIGENCE As the name implies, is logical and mathematical ability as well as scientific ability.
19. THREE SPATIAL INTELLIGENCE Ability to form a mental model of a spatial world and to be able to maneuver and operate using that model. (Sailors, engineers, surgeons, sculptors and painters).
20. FOUR MUSICAL INTELLIGENCE The fourth category of ability identified Leonard Bernstein had lots of it; Mozart, presumably had even more.
21. FIVE BODILY-KINESTHETIC INTELLIGENCE Ability to solve problems and to fashion products using one’s whole body. (Dancers, athletes, surgeons and craftspeople).
22. SIX INTERPERSONAL INTELLIGENCE Ability to understand other people (Salespeople, teachers, politicians, clinicians and religious leaders).
23. SEVEN INTRAPERSONAL INTELLIGENCE A capacity to form an accurate, veridical model of oneself and to be able to use that model to operate effectively in life.
24. Two assumptions was based for the design of ideal school. 1. The first is that not all people have the same interests and abilities, not all of us learn in the same way. 2. Nowadays, no one can learn everything there is to learn.
25. Roles for Educators Assessment Specialist Understand as sensitively and comprehensively as possible abilities and interests of the students in school. Student-curriculum Broker To help match the student’s profiles, goals, and interest to particular courses and to particular styles of learning.
26. School-community Broker Match the students to learning opportunities in the wider community. Master-Teachers Supervise the novice teachers and guide them. Also seek to ensure that the complex student-assessment-curriculum-community equation is balanced appropriately.
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