Published on February 26, 2014
URBAN PLANNING, SANITATION & BEAUTIFICATION December, 2013 BUREAU MUDHC, Addis Ababa
PART ONE: PHYSICAL ASPECTS 2
PHASE Purpose Expected Outputs Time required TASK ACTIVITY TIP 3
PHASE ONE: PREPARATORY WORK Purpose: To undertake various preliminary works so as to smoothen the consecutive tasks particularly the collection of data. Expected outputs: Checklists, questionnaires, Base maps, Topographic maps, etc., Summary results/information of the rapid appraisal, and, Field work schedule. Time required : 5 to 7 days 4
Task 1: Preparatory Work for Data Collection Activity 1: Decide what data types are required At influence region, and At urban level. Activity 2: Prepare (update) the necessary respective (regional as well as urban) data collection formats. Questionnaires, Checklists, and Regional, Zonal and Woreda Political (Administrative) and Infrastructure Maps. 5
Task 2: Acquire Data and Relevant Maps Activity 1: Prepare blueprint of the urban base map with appropriate scale (1:5000 and/or 1:2000) Activity Topographic scale 2: Maps Purchase/Get of 1:50,000 Activity 3: Get/purchase climatic 6 data (if not available at hand)
Task 3: Conduct Background Assessment Activity 1: Review plans (if any) of previous urban Activity 2: Review secondary documents such as CSA Abstracts, atlases and others and collect information on the following: Geographical location and physical environmental characteristics; Population size; Current status of the town, etc. and 7
PHASE TWO- DATA COLLECTION AND COMPILATION Purpose To obtain information on physical characteristics, physical infrastructure services, expansion areas and other components. Expected outputs Filled/answered questionnaires; Minutes of meetings; Sketch maps; and, Compiled primary and secondary data. Time Required: 10-15 days 8
Task 1: Data Collection A. INFLUENCE AREA LEVEL Activity 1: Delineation of the influence region Conduct discussion with stakeholders, and Identify the influence region. Activity 2: Collect physical and environmental data of the influence region Get location map; Geographical setting of the influence region Absolute geographical location, and Relative geographical location. Natural resources 9 [topography,
Cont…. Activity 3: Collect influence region’s area, population and urban system data Area and population size; Area (km 2 ), Total area of cultivated land; and Cultivable land, Population size (total, urban and rural population), Regional urban system Get map of regional urban settings and spatial distribution 10
Activity 4: Collect information on physical infrastructure elements of the study region Transport data Get regional road map of appropriate scale, road types and length, Transport systems (road, air, rail and water), and transport system. traditional Communication systems data: Telecommunication (fixed and mobile) service data, Internet service data, and Postal service data. Electric service data, and Water service data. Activity 5: Collect information on urban-urban and ruralurban linkage Administrative service linkage data, Infrastructure linkage data, and Municipal service linkage information. 11
B. URBAN LEVEL Activity 6: Collect information on physiographic features of the project town Get base map of the project (1:5000, 1:2000) and Conduct observation; Location of the town; Area and shape of the town; Topography; Altitude/elevation; Drainage system; town field Type and condition of surface water drainage basins /catchments/, Efforts made to conserve the water resources from being contaminated by urban wastes and 12 the utilization of land on the banks of rivers for compatible activities
Cont… Activity 7: Collect Climatic data of the project town Temperature Daily maximum, minimum and average, Monthly maximum, minimum and average, and Yearly maximum, minimum and average. Rainfall Mean monthly; Mean annual; and, Humidity. Wind Wind direction, and Wind speed. 13
Cont… Activity 8: Collect data on physical infrastructure of the project town Road network and transport conditions; Existing condition of road network in terms of accessibility and surface condition; Condition of pedestrian walkway and bikeway; Types of means of transport in the town; and Existing condition of bus station (if there is bus station). Power supply; Telecommunication; and, Postal services. 14
Activity 9: Collect relevant information on natural and man-made constraints for future development of the project town Get base map of the town and Conduct field observation and identify and sketch Natural constraints which are related to topography (like excessively high and/or low gradient) watercourses and gullies, geological hazards, etc. Man made constraints (substation and high tension electricity cables, camps, quarry sites, etc.) airport, military 15
Cont… Activity 10: Collect relevant information on municipal/towns services General Market and Gulit/daily market/; Livestock Market; Abattoir; and, Religious centers and cemetery, 16
Task 2: Compile Collected Data Activity: Organize the collected data using appropriate methods Tally qualitative/quantitative information as required; Tabulate the statistical data; Present the data in the form tables; and, Organize appropriate maps/diagrams as required. 17
Tips to Phase 2: Data Collection Methods and Sources (TASK 1) Key Questions Have all the relevant (qualitative as well as quantitative) data been collected? Have all key resources been obtained? Are the key stakeholders consulted? Collect Primary data through: Interview; Structured or other types of questionnaires; Field observation, recording and sketching/mapping; Reviewing existing Base Maps and Topographic maps; Purchasing raw data from National Meteorological Agency; and, Public and stakeholders discussion. Collect secondary data through reviewing various documents from CSA, atlases, regional profiles, publications/reports of zonal and Wereda offices. 18
PHASE THREE- DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Purpose of the Phase To give a realistic assessment of the situation at hand and to draw critical problems and gaps to be addressed in the subsequent planning processes. Expected Outputs Final Report (analysis dynamics, opportunities, weaknesses and proposals) of current situations, trends, potentials, threats, strength, Slope and constraint map/maps Time required : 20– 25 days 19
Task 1: Delineation of the Influence Region Activity 1: Define the influence Area/Region Assessment of various physical, socio-economic and environmental parameters. Experts related to physical and environmental, economic and population and social aspects should be involved in the selection process. Participatory approach will be mandatory. TIPS: The major variables that should selection include the following: be considered Geographical proximity, Services catchement (school and health facilities), Supply of agricultural products, Market catchement, Interaction in terms of both passenger and freight flow, Availability of development projects, Administrative (political) influence, and Recreation and tourist related impacts. for 20
Values in % Administr ative services (30) Transport interaction 20 20 20 30 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 (15) Service catchments Marketcat. (15) Recreation and tourist sites (10) Rural supply catchments Total Rank 7.5 13 11 15 12 13 10 9 8 7.5 7.5 7.5 5 10 5 10 5 5 5 3 3 2 2 2 7.5 13 11 15 12 13 10 9 8 7.5 7.5 7.5 54.5 75.5 62.5 100 65.5 72.5 63.5 61.5 57.5 47 43 42 9 2 6 1 4 3 5 7 8 10 11 12 0 7.5 12.5 14 (15) School 7.5 Health 7.5 7 12 8 15 9 14 11 13 11 10 6 5 7.5 - 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 - 0 5 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 7.5 12.5 14 0 0 5 5 0 0 0 0 7.5 0 0 7.5 12.5 12.5 14 14 Bordering Weredas from GPNRS 0 4 0 5 0 0 7.5 16.5 13 Bordering Weredas from SNNPRS 0 4 0 5 0 0 7.5 16.5 13 Weredas from different Zones and regions Weredas from Illubabor Zone Nano-Sale Ale-Didu Halu-Bure Metu Darimu Yayu-Hurumu Alge-Sachi Chora Dega-Mako Bedele-Dabo Gechi-Borecha Dedesa Bordering Weredas from E.Wellega Zone Bordering Weredas from .Wellega Zone Bordering Weredas from Jima Zone Jimma town Other weredas 21
Cont… Activity 2: Analyze the organized physical environmental data of the influence region and Describe location and interpret the influence region with the help of appropriate maps; Analyze physical and natural resources such as topography, drainage, climate, water, soil, mineral, vegetation and wild life; and Potential/opportunity and risks for development. Activity 3: Analyze the area, population distribution and density of the study region Calculate/measure the area of the study region; Evaluate population distribution and density of the influence region; Compare and contrast the influence region with zonal, regional, etc, levels and contrast among Woredas within the study region Identify potentials and threats for development. 22
Cont… Tips to Activity 3: Calculate crude population density, agricultural density and physiological using the following formula Crude population density = Total population Total area (km2) Agricultural density = Rural population Cultivated land (km2) Physiological density = Total population Cultivable land (km2) 23
Cont… Activity 4: Analyze the regional urban system Evaluate level of urbanization of the influence region, Calculate urbanization rate and compare with the national and regional, and zonal levels, Compare and contrast level of urbanization at woreda level within the influence region Assess the distribution pattern and hierarchy of urban settlement, Identify peculiar characteristics. 24
Tips to Activity 4: To determine level of urbanization employ (usually study region) Level of urbanization= Total Urban Population Total Population 25
Activity 5: Analyze physical infrastructure of the study region Assess the transport system (road, rail, air, water and traditional) ; Road length, network distribution and density; Identify areas that need intervention in terms of road; Describe the availability of telephone (fixed and mobile), postal, and electric services in the study region; and Identify potentials and threats for development. 26
Cont… Activity 6: Analyze administrative infrastructure linkage with the project town and Urban-Urban linkages Urban-Rural linkages Administrative linkage, Infrastructure, Municipal service linkage, and Identify threats and constraints. Activity 7: Analyze the urban specific location and topographic data Describe location and area, Analyze shape, topography and slope of the town, and, Identify critical problems. 27
Tips to Activity 7: SHAPE a) Length- Breadth ratio (L-B) ratio is expressed as: Length of long axis of an area (A-B) Length of short axis of an area (C-D) 28
Tips (Continued) b) Compaction Index (C.I):- is a more refined measure of compactness and is defined as: Area of the cell (an area) being measured Area of the smallest inscribing circle Results approaching a unit (one) indicate more compact shape and vice versa. Identify problems of interaction and infrastructure provision that arise due to elongated (linear) shape. 29
Tips (Continued) Slope Analysis Use GIS techniques( if available) If you work manually, follow the following procedures Get base map with contour lines, Classify & delineate contour lines with similar spacing, Measure horizontal distance (H.E) using scale ruler, Identify vertical interval (V.I), and employ: Slope = V.I x100 (in %) Horizontal Equivalent (or x60 in terms of degree.) 30
Tips (Continued) Classify the slopes and produce a slope map with appropriate shading or standardized color (0-1%, 1-5%, 5-10%, 10-15%, 15-20% and > 20%) Calculate area of each slope class and recognize (identify) the total area that could be potentially suitable for urban development. Identify areas subjected to flooding and water stagnation (<2%) Identify areas with excessive slope for urban development activities (> 20%). 31
Activity 8: Analyze climatic situation of the town Calculate mean monthly, mean annual, etc temperature of the town, Identify extreme low and high temperatures, Calculate mean monthly and annual rainfall, Identify the prevailing wind directions and indicate wind speed, Identify critical climatic problems for urban planning. 32
Tips to Activity 8: Temperature Analysis Get 10 years climatic data from National Meteorological Agency, then (if not available use at least 5 years data). Calculate mean daily, monthly and annual temperatures and present using tables and graphs Mean daily temperature = max. Daily temp. + Min. daily temp. Two 33
Tips (Continued) Mean monthly temp. = Sum of mean daily temperature for the month Number of days in the month Mean annual temperature = sum of mean monthly temperature for one year Twelve Identify extreme low and high temperatures & 34 impacts
Tips (Continued) Rainfall Analysis Calculate daily mean, mean monthly, mean annual, etc using: Calculate annual rainfall, mean annual rainfall and present using tables and graphs Mean annual rainfall = sum of ten or more years yearly rainfall Number of years 35
Tips (Continued) -Tips to Wind Direction/Speed Analysis N.B. prevailing wind directions help to determine the location of pollutant industries, waste disposal sites, abattoir, runway orientation, etc wind speed help to decide whether wind break (shelterbelt) is needed and/or unwanted winds to increase outdoor human comfort. Procedures Get wind data (about 10 years daily); Tally daily observations by categorizing in to main wind directions and speed categories; Summarize daily observation in to months and year. Finally tabulate cumulative observations. Interpret the result. 36
Tips (Continued) Calm N NE E SE S SW W NW Total Observation Percentage No 251 - - - - - - - - 251 6.8 % 6.9 - - - - - - - - - No - 72 114 260 103 82 193 420 40 1284 % - 54 32.9 33.3 39.5 55.4 37.5 37.0 48.2 - No - 55 169 451 139 56 294 651 38 1853 % - 41.4 48.8 57.8 53.5 37.8 57.1 57.4 45.8 - No - 5 49 56 11 8 23 59 5 216 % - 3.8 14.2 7.2 4.2 5.4 4.7 5.2 6.0 - No - 1 14 13 8 2 4 4 - 46 % - 0.8 4.1 16.7 3.0 1.4 0.7 0.4 0.0 - No 251 133 346 780 261 148 514 1134 83 3650 % 6.8 3.6 9.5 21.4 7.2 4.0 14.1 31.0 2.3 100 Direction Speed (m/sec) <1 1-3 4-6 7-10 11-15 Total 35.2 50.8 5.9 1.3 100 37
Tips (Continued) 38
Activity 9: Analyze major natural and manmade constraints for urban development Voltage line (kv) Required clearance right-of-way in (m) 15 35 45 66 132 230 7.5 10 10 10 15 20 39
cont Activity 10: Analyze the organized data on physical infrastructure of the town Existing road network in terms of access & suitability, and identify major gaps, Describe the condition of motor way, etc., pedestrian walkway, bikeway, Means of transport in the town and major problems, Traffic congestion and degree of car accidents, Parking spaces and identify gaps between demand and existing conditions, 40
Tips for Bus Station Site Selection (in Activity 10 ) Factors to be considered in bus station site selection are:- Accessibility:- bus station should be accessible by major and/or arterial road. Compatibility:- considering intensity of vehicular traffic, it should be far from noise sensitive areas such as school, hospitals, libraries, etc. Topography:- it is preferable if the slope the site is 5% or lower. Availability of infrastructure and other facilities telephone, electric power, pipe water line ,etc) Area:- depends on the number and types of vehicles to be served 41
Cont… The selection and level station depends up on of bus The number of vehicles that park at peak hours within a day; The importance of the urban center (commercial, administrative, etc); and, The extent of connection with important urban centers. 42
Table: Recommended Area for bus station Vehicle Types Remarks Large up to 5 300 Wereda centers up to 10 300 Centers of Agricultural Production Small up to 15 300 Rural urban centers Total 30 900 Large 5-25 600 Zonal capitals Medium 10-45 720 Centers of commerce & agricultural products Small 10-55 720 Wereda centers Total Medium or Secondary Level bus station Required area/m2 Medium Small or Third level bus station Level 25-125 2040 Source: Federal Transport Authority, 1998 EC. 43
Activity 11: Analyze the organized data on municipal services of the town: Conduct field observation, Analyze existing condition of the general market and livestock market, and identify the gaps, Assess the existing situation of abattoir and identify gaps between the existing and required services, and Assess the condition of religious centers, cemeteries and identify key problems. 44
Tips for General Market (in Activity 11) Factors to be considered in the selection general market site are:- Centrality; Accessibility; Compatibility; Topography:- slope less than 5% is more appropriate Area:- determined by the maximum number of market attendees of peak hour/season, availability of enough space 45
Tip to select sites for livestock market (in Activity 11) Factors that should be considered for the selection of sites for livestock market-: Peripheral location; Accessibility; Compatibility ; It should be outside the central part of the town/city in order to reduce traffic congestion. If possible it should be near abattoir (for large cities only). Dominant flow direction of livestock . Area- depends on the type (cattle, sheep, 46 etc) and number of livestock.
Tips (Continued) Table: - Area required for various category of livestock Number of Daily Livestock Supply Area Required Area Required (m2) Cattle Sheep/ Goat Equine Camel Cattle Sheep/ Goat Equine Camel Total Livestock(m2) Circulatio n (m2) Facilities (m2) 500 1000 20 20 (3.5)* 1750 (0.90) 900 (4.5) 90 (4.5) 90 2830(68%) 290 (7%) 1040 (25%) Total Area (m2) 4160 Source: - FDRE, Authority for Livestock Market, 1993 E.F.Y 47
Tips (Continued) NB: i. The area required to reserve for each cattle, sheep/goat, equine and camel is 3.5m2, 0.90m2, 4.5m2 and 4.5m2, respectively ii. The area required for circulation should be 10.25%of the actual required livestock area. iii. The area required for facilities should be 36.75% of the actual required livestock area. or iv. The area required for other facilities such as administrative offices, balance, toilet, incineration of solid wastes, reservoirs, etc. should not be more than 25% of the total reserved area; and the area required for circulation should not be more than 7% of the total reserved area 48
Tip for Abattoir site selection (in Activity 11) Factors to be considered in the selection of sites for abattoirs: It should be located in the periphery of a town/city; It should not be located close to residential houses, schools, churches, public offices, etc; It should be accessible gravel collector road; at least with a compacted It should be located at least 5km away from airport and runways (in the direction of approach and take off); It should not be located in the direction of urban future expansion area; Preferable slope is about 5%; There should be adequate infrastructure services such as water supply, electricity, etc; 49
Tips (Continued) Factors to be considered in the construction of abattoir (continued) It should not be near latrines or any other waste disposal system; It should not be near a factory from which smoke or dust can contaminate the meat; It should have adequate area to accommodate the whole operational facilities required. It should be 2 km away from any ranch boundary, a neighboring abattoir; It should be 5 km away from quarantine station; It should be at least 2 km away from sources of water supply (e.g. deep wells, ponds, lakes, etc.). 50
Tips (Continued) Table: Sample for rating suitability of sites Score Name of proposed site 5 points 20 points 10 Availability Water supply availability Waste of enough space points disposal facilities 10 points Road facility 10 points 7 points Availability of public transport The presence of establishm ent 2 points Wind direction 10 6 points 5 points 10 points 5 points Flow Accessib ility to animal Location from airport Facility livestock market Availability of telephone, electricity points direction of livestock transport for 100 Remarks Total score X Y Z 51
Tips (Continued) The score given to each factor has proposed by the committee assigned to select site for a new Abattoir in Addis Ababa. The method to be employed is designed in a way to evaluate each variable by assigning a value (score) proportional to its significance. The value to be given to each factor is subjective and may vary from individual to individual and from group to group. However, the variation should not be 52 significant.
Tips (Continued) Tips for Cemetery Site Selection (in Activity 11) Factors to be considered in cemetery site selection are:Compatibility: It should be far from recreation areas, health facilities, sport fields, schools, etc. There should be a buffer zone between cemeteries and other urban activities Accessibility:- The site should be accessible to collector or minor arterial roads. Topography:- It is preferable if the slope is below 10%. However, in towns/cities where there is a shortage of land, areas with more than 10% slope can be used. Area: the area required for cemetery during the planning period is determined by death rate, number of followers of major religions and the area required for a single burial (i.e. 2.88m2). 53
Tips (Continued) Other points: Cemeteries should be outside central parts of a town/city; Cemeteries should not be located in direction of future expansion areas; If there is an opportunity, it is better to locate cemeteries places. within compounds of worship 54
Task 2: Proposals and Finalization Activity 1: Summarize the overall findings, Activity 2: Identify planning issues and propose planning solution, Activity 3: Discuss on the results with the planning team and the stakeholders, Activity 4: Update the study as per the agreed comments, and Activity 5: Finalize the report and arrange deliverables 55
Planning Issues Planning Proposals/solutions Natural and Man-made constraints, Urban Expansion and Controlled Area Delineation Topography (steep slope very flat areas Propose appropriate buffer zone for the with poor efficiency of drainage), water natural & man made constraints to avoid or courses, gullies, geological hazards, etc minimize related problems & to have Substation, high tension lines, airport, sustainable urban growth. Relocate man made constraints as required, military camps, quarry sites Propose compatible land use types along constraints. Absence of well defined boundary Formulate legislative framework that ensure the delineated urban promotion and controlled boundaries. Large land holdings Propose appropriate land use regulation. Trends of squatting Propose proper controlling mechanism for illegal settlements. 56
Planning Issues Planning Proposal/solutions Road Network and Transport Car accident Upgrading and maintenance of road Awareness creation Construction of Standard roads Improve traffic management Traffic Congestion Appropriate urban land use planning Encourage public transport services Encourage traffic discipline Propose hierarchically well articulated urban roads Provide adequate parking space Locate activities related to transport at appropriate sites Absence, incompatibility and inadequate size (area) of bus and freight terminals. Propose bus and freight terminals at appropriate locations with adequate size (standard size) Air Transport Location incompatibility Relocate some land use activities around the air port Height regulation Delineate buffer zone with aviation technical criteria. Electric power supply High tension electric lines and sub-station Indicate buffer zone and designate appropriate land use activities. 57
Tips to Task 2 (in Activity 5) Maps and graphs that are included in the report are:Location map of the influence area. Slope and constraint map. Graphs and tables of various variables. Wind rose diagram. 58
PART TWO:URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 59
ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT (URBAN LEVEL) Topics to be discussed : A. Relationship between the urban land use and environment B. Development and Management of urban Green Area and open spaces C. Industrial development and the urban environment D. Waste management. Data Types Implications Planning issues & proposals 60
A. Relationship between the Urban land use and environment Data Types: Relationship between land use and transportation; Relationship between land use (existing and future) and environmental protection; Identify different land features and natural factors, and indicate their merits and demerits for urban development; Identifying future expansion/ development area; Identify activities and services that could threaten the environment; Identify natural and man made constraints that guide (affect) different land use types. 61
Relationship between the Urban land use and environment Implications: To recommend appropriate types of land uses; To recommend appropriate housing and population densities; To indicate appropriate zoning laws that ban urban development in specific areas of the city such as greenbelts and green ways, and open space; To protect fragile lands/ ecologically sensitive areas; To indicate impacts of squatter settlements on the environment; To encourage improved land management in cities; To encourage coordination among various concerned bodies for issues that transcend the study area. 62
B. Urban Green Areas: Data Types: Identify the location, size, type, character, ownership and management of open spaces/green areas; Assess the accessibility and centrality of parks; Current status and use of green areas/open spaces; Cultural and aesthetic aspects. 63
Urban Green Areas (Continued): Implications: To indicate appropriate green areas/open spaces in the proposed land use plan to locate appropriate urban green areas/open spaces to create comfortable living environment; To enhance citizens’ participation and enforce legislative and planning aspects in management and maintenance of open space and urban green development; Respect cultural and aesthetical aspects when developing open space and urban green. 64
C. Industrial development and the urban environment Data Types: Compatibility with adjacent land uses and vulnerable natural resources; Type, volume and nature of waste generated by different Industries; Factors for the siting of industries; Waste management system of respective industries; Type, nature and amount or volume of raw materials used; Other major environmental and socio-economic impacts associated with industrial development; 65 etc.
Industrial development and the urban environment (continued) Implications: To assist Industrial site selection/industrial zone; To examine the degree of industrial pollution and waste; To suggest sustainable industrial development. 66
ndustrial development and the urban environment (continued) Steps of industrial selection: Prepare the list of the factors considered important to the location of the individual plant that are not being evaluated on a cost basis. Establish relative values for each factor. Establish a number of degrees for each factor. Define the degree. Assign point values to the degree. Designate mandatory factors. Evaluate all locations. Assign points to each location factor. Select the location. 67
Industrial development and the urban environment (continued) Selection criteria for industrial sites: Reasonably flat land (Not more than 5%); Availability of utilities; Accessibility; Compatibility with the surrounding uses; and, Consideration of prevailing winds. 68
D. Waste management Data Types (Solid waste): Types and nature of solid waste generated; Major sources of solid waste; Average per capita solid waste generation rate; Methods of solid waste collection and transportation; Number of solid waste storage facilities, their volume, and spatial distribution; Employees engaged in solid waste management; Available equipments for solid waste management; Factors for solid waste disposal site; Role of different actors (NGOs, informal sector, government); Recycling and reusing mechanisms; Budget allocated; Inter-municipal cooperation. 69
Waste Management (continued) Data Types (Liquid waste): Availability of toilet facilities by type; Mechanisms of transportation, disposal recycling, and treatment of liquid waste; Number of public toilets and their spatial distribution; Budget allotted for waste management; Inter-municipal cooperation; Site selection. 70
Waste Management (continued) Implications (both solid and liquid wastes): To conserve ecologically sensitive areas; To Identify poor sanitation areas, improper waste disposal sites and their impacts & propose solutions; To determine amount of solid waste generated and propose appropriate storage, collection, transportation and disposal mechanisms for the future planning period. To develop alternative strategy for recycling of wastes; To propose appropriate dumping sites or sanitary landfill sites; To assess the existing condition of toilet facilities, and liquid waste disposal sites; To initiate economic utilization of wastes; etc. 71
Waste Management (continued) Solid waste Management The four principal elements of any solid waste management system: Storage; Collection; Transport; and, Disposal. Compatibility between each of the three stages of storage, collection and transport is essential to ensure efficient 72 operation.
Solid waste storage Solid waste storage facilities may be classified as primary (or individual) and secondary (or communal) storage facilities. As far as possible the storage facilities must be animal-proof, insect-proof, washable and robust enough to meet the exigencies of normal use. 73
Solid Waste-collection Methods Communal collection Block collection Kerbside (entrance) collection Door-to-door collection 74
Table: Comparison of various methods of service collection Description Communal Block Kerbside Door to door Householder cooperation carrying refuse bins in Yes Yes Yes No Householder cooperation emptying refuse bins in Yes Optional No No Need for scheduled service No Optional Yes No Susceptibility to scavenging Very high None High None Average crew size 1-2 (portable) 2-4 (stationary) 1-3 1-3 3-7 Complaints regards trespassing No No No Yes Level of service Poor Fair Good Good Collection cost Low Medium High Very high Source- UNCHS (no date), Refuse Collection Vehicles For Developing Countries 75
Solid Waste- Characteristics, capacity and range of radius of non-motorized means Types Scope of use Capacity Range radius 1 km of Handcarts Road sweepings 200 kgs Primary refuse collection vehicles Pedal tricycles Mainly used as 500 litres 2 to 3 km primary refuse collection vehicles Animal drawn carts Essentially primary 2 cu m. collection vehicles 3 km Source- UNCHS (no date), Refuse Collection Vehicles For Developing Countries 76
Solid Waste- Comparative characteristics of nonmotorized vehicles of refuse collection Variables Body capacity uncompacted Operating range Loading speed Labor requirement Capital cost (cu m waste collected) Running cost Economic life of vehicle Maneuverability Suitability for local manufacture of body Type of non-motorized vehicle Handcart Pedal tricycle Animal cart 0.4 Short Fast High Low 0.4 Medium Fast High Low 2.0 Medium Fast Medium Low Low Long Good Yes Low Long Good Yes Low Medium Good Yes Source- UNCHS (no date), Refuse Collection Vehicles For Developing Countries 77
Solid Waste Frequency of collection of solid wastes is expressed as (days)Capacity of container (m3) * density (kg/ m3)* 75% full _____________________________________________ Generation rate (kg)* No. of population served in one container 78
Solid waste: disposal mechanisms Sanitary landfill/open dump sites Incinerators Reusing/recycling mechanisms 79
sites Table : Selection criteria for solid waste disposal Area exclusion criteria applicable worldwide Aspect Criteria Transport Natural conditions Land use Public acceptability Safety More than 2 km from a suitable main road Uneconomical travel distance Flood plains or areas liable to flooding Extreme morphology (steep slopes liable to landslips) Designated groundwater recharge Incompatible future land use designations Within a military exclusion zone Within 200 m of existing residential development Within 5 km of an airport runway in the direction of approach and take-off Area of former military activity Within a microwave transmitter exclusion zone Within a safe buffer distance (say 100 m) from an existing or planned quarry Areas known to contain collapsing soils Source: Philip Rushbrook (1999) Solid Waste Landfills in Middle and Lower Income Countries 80
Identification of Planning Issues and Planning Proposals Planning Proposals/Solutions Planning issues Relationship between the urban land use and the environment Urban sprawl Propose compact urban development Clearly indicate urbanization promotion and controlled area and create favorable conditions for its legality Incompatibility Relocation of some activities Indicate buffer zone for functions that deserve buffer Conversion of agricultural land to built-up area Encourage infill development as a first priority Encourage urban renewal schemes Encourage urban development towards areas with low agricultural value Undertake development towards fertile agricultural lands as a last priority Development and Management of urban green areas Absence or lack of adequate open spaces/green areas Inappropriate management of green areas Propose suitable open spaces/green areas in the proposed land use plan Indicate proper management system for green areas Industrial development and the urban environment Inappropriately located industrial sites Incompatibility Envisage industrial zones Propose appropriate location for industries Relocation of some activities Indicate buffer zones Waste Management Indiscriminate disposal of wastes Envisage appropriate waste management schemes Propose appropriate dump sites 81
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