Published on January 6, 2009
Export A limited number of items, mostly primary commodities or processed agricultural products, are subject to duties. Currently, the only products subject to an export tax (at the rate of 10%) are goat, sheep and bovine leathers. Products may also be subject to a minimum export price. The list of products subject to minimum prices includes basmati and nonbasmati rice, cotton, and hard and soft cotton waste. Most minimum export prices are specifiedin dollars on an fob basis. Settlement of Bills: The Government prescribes conditions for exchange control and settlement of bills related to exports under the authority of the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973. For normal commercial exports to all countries, except Nepal and Bhutan, exporters are required to complete the GR Form in duplicate. The GR Form covers exports not made by post. With few exceptions, all exports must be declared on the appropriate form and the exporter's code number as assigned by the Reserve Bank of India must be shown on the form. The payment arrangements are letter of credit, sight draft, time draft and shipment on consignment. The time limit for settlement of export proceeds, that is, the amount representing the full export value of the goods, is six months. A maximum of 15 months is allowed for exports to Indianowned warehouses abroad. Documents: The following documents are required for exports: 1. GR form; 2. export licence; 3. export declaration; 4. customs entry form; 5. customs invoice; 6. commercial invoice; 7. certificate of origin; 8. bill of lading/air waybill; 9. packing list.
Special documents may be required depending on the type of product or destination. Certain export products may require a quality control inspection certificate from the Export Inspection Agency. Some food and pharmaceutical product may require a health or sanitary certificate for export. To cover products under GSP (generalized system of preferences) a certificate of origin may be required. The Export Inspection Agency, the various export promotion councils, chambers of commerce or the regional offices of the Chief Controller of Imports and Exports are the responsible bodies for issuing the certificate of origin. In India, the main legislation concerning foreign trade is the Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act, 1992. The Act provides for the development and regulation of foreign trade by facilitating imports into, and augmenting exports from, India and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. As per the provisions of the Act, the Government : (i) may make provisions for facilitating and controlling foreign trade; (ii) may prohibit, restrict and regulate exports and imports, in all or specified cases as well as subject them to exemptions; (iii) is authorised to formulate and announce an export and import policy and also amend the same from time to time, by notification in the Official Gazette; (iv) is also authorised to appoint a 'Director General of Foreign Trade' for the purpose of the Act, including formulation and implementation of the export import policy. Accordingly, the Ministry of Commerce and Industry has been set up as the most important organ concerned with the promotion and regulation of foreign trade in India. In exercise of the powers conferred by the Act, the Ministry notifies a trade policy on a regular basis with certain underlined objectives. The earlier trade policies were based on the objectives of self reliance and selfsufficiency. While, the later policies were driven by factors like export led growth, improving efficiency and competitiveness of the Indian industries, etc. With economic reforms, globalisation of the Indian economy has been the guiding factor in formulating the trade policies. The reform measures introduced in the subsequent policies have focused on liberalization, openness and transparency. They have provided an export friendly environment by simplifying the procedures for trade facilitation. The announcement of a new Foreign Trade Policy for a five year period of 200409, replacing the hitherto nomenclature of EXIM Policy by Foreign Trade Policy (FTP) is another step in this direction. It takes an integrated view of the overall development of India’s foreign trade and provides a roadmap for the development of this sector. A vigorous exportled growth strategy of doubling India’s share in global merchandise trade (in the next five years), with a focus on the sectors having prospects for export expansion and potential for employment generation, constitute the main plank of the policy. All such measures are expected to enhance India's international competitiveness and aid in further
increasing the acceptability of Indian exports. The policy sets out the core objectives, identifies key strategies, spells out focus initiatives, outlines export incentives, and also addresses issues concerning institutional support including simplification of procedures relating to export activities. The key strategies for achieving its objectives include:- Unshackling of controls and creating an atmosphere of trust and transparency; Simplifying procedures and bringing down transaction costs; Neutralizing incidence of all levies on inputs used in export products; Facilitating development of India as a global hub for manufacturing, trading and services; Identifying and nurturing special focus areas to generate additional employment opportunities, particularly in semiurban and rural areas; Facilitating technological and infrastructural upgradation of the Indian economy, especially through import of capital goods and equipment; Avoiding inverted duty structure and ensuring that domestic sectors are not disadvantaged in trade agreements; Upgrading the infrastructure network related to the entire foreign trade chain to international standards; Revitalizing the Board of Trade by redefining its role and inducting into it experts on trade policy; and Activating Indian Embassies as key players in the export strategy. The FTP has identified certain thrust sectors having prospects for export expansion and potential for employment generation. These thrust sectors include: (i) Agriculture; (ii) Handlooms & Handicrafts; (iii) Gems & Jewellery; and (iv) Leather & Footwear. Accordingly, specific policy initiative for these sectors have been announced. For the agriculture sector :-
A new scheme called Vishesh Krishi Upaj Yojana (Special Agricultural Produce Scheme) to boost exports of fruits, vegetables, flowers, minor forest produce and their value added products has been introduced. Under the scheme, exports of these products qualify for duty free credit entitlement (5 per cent of f.o.b value of exports) for importing inputs and other goods; Duty free import of capital goods under Export Promotion Capital Goods (EPCG) scheme, permitting the installation of capital goods imported under EPCG for agriculture anywhere in the Agri Export Zone (AEZ); Utilizing funds from the 'Assistance to States for Infrastructure Development of Exports (ASIDE) scheme' for development of AEZs; Liberalization of import of seeds, bulbs, tubers and planting material, and liberalization of the export of plant portions, derivatives and extracts to promote export of medicinal plants and herbal products. For the handlooms and handicraft sector :- • Enhancing to 5 per cent of f.o.b value of exports duty free import of trimmings and embellishments for handlooms and handicrafts; • Exemption of samples from countervailing duty (CVD); • Authorizing Handicraft Export Promotion Council to import trimmings, embellishments and samples for small manufacturers; and • Establishment of a new Handicraft Special Economic Zone. For the gems and jewellery sector :- • Permission for duty free import of consumables for metals other than gold and platinum up to 2 per cent of f.o.b value of exports; • Duty free reimport entitlement for rejected jewellery allowed up to 2 per cent of f.o.b value of exports; • Increase in duty free import of commercial samples of jewellery to Rs.1 lakh; and • Permission to import of gold of 18 carat and above under the replenishment scheme.
For the leather and footwear sector, the specific policy initiatives are mainly in the form of reduction in the incidence of customs duties on the inputs and plants and machinery. These include:- Increase in the limit for duty free entitlements of import trimmings, embellishments and footwear components for leather industry to 3 per cent of f.o.b value of exports and that for duty free import of specified items for leather sector to 5 per cent of f.o.b value of exports; Import of machinery and equipment for Effluent Treatment Plants for leather industry exempted from customs duty; and Reexport of unsuitable imported materials (such as raw hides and skin and wet blue leathers) has been permitted. AGRICULTURE SECTOR Strategic Themes
 Expanding Trade Opportunities and Improving Trade Capacity of Producers and Rural Industries Regional growth, rapidly expanding urban areas, regional trade agreements, and the advent of World Trade Organization accords have meant that agricultural producers and entrepreneurs— both men and women—face greater domestic competition for agricultural products. It also means that there are significantly expanded opportunities for participating in markets, whether local, national, regional, or international. However, governments must create enabling policies and institutional environments that facilitate producers’ access to these markets. And to achieve increased levels of income, agricultural producers and entrepreneurs must have the capacity to respond to such opportunities. To enable producers and rural industries to better connect themselves to agricultural trade opportunities, We should support the development of sound policy environments that enable open markets, private sector investment, and genderequitable access to factors of production, products, and income. promote effective institutions and governance to enable female and male producers to acquire, protect, and use the assets they need to take advantage of emergent market and trade opportunities. expand rural finance to increase the capacity of producers and producers’ groups to invest in production and processing operations and overcome genderbased constraints to access. strengthen producers’ groups and other rural organizations to enable them to gain market mastery and reduce transaction costs; gain access to and effectively use information on domestic, regional, and international markets; and facilitate technology transfer. enhance access to production, storage, and processing technologies to enable male and female producers to provide products demanded by the market in the right qualities and at competitive prices focus on more nutritious foods (natural and fortified) that can be marketed as highervalue and benefit producers and consumers.
. Improving the Social, Economic, and Environmental Sustainability of Agriculture Because biodiversity and natural resources are central to the livelihoods of rural populations throughout the developing world, they cannot be separated from the broader context of social, economic, and development challenges. Sound environmental and natural resource management is fundamental to the sustainability of agricultural production systems and economic benefit streams, and offers possibilities of increasing productivity in the future. For rural populations, access to and control over natural resources are major governance issues. Improved governance and economic frameworks maximize the ability of rural populations to benefit from their resource base, while creating a powerful force for preserving land, water, and biodiversity over the long term. Sound environmental managementis key to reducing vulnerability of rural communitiesinan evolving global marketplace of increasing competitiveness in agricultural and natural resourcebased enterprises. To ensure positive benefits to local incomes and the ecosystem, We should restore the health of land, water, and forestry resources and develop sustainable and 1. renewable energy sources to regain productivity of degraded lands; maintain viable ecosystems; reduce vulnerability to disasters; and ensure adequate quality and quantity of resources for domestic, industrial, agricultural, and environmental needs. support the development and application of environmental assessment methodologies that 2. enable communities and implementing partners to better assess environmental risks and damage due to natural and conflictrelated disasters. strengthen local capacity for integrated management of agricultural and natural landscapes to 3. maximize benefits to individual women and men, while valuing public goods. improve analytical and economic frameworks linking agriculture and natural resource 4. investments to achieve the dual goals of resource protection and economic growth, while enhancing competitiveness in global economic networks protect natural ecosystems by finding organisms endangered in nature and securing them in 5. seed banks and botanical gardens to improve biodiversity management—including agricultural.
. Mobilizing Science and Technology and Fostering Capacity for Innovation Crop and livestock research has led to the production of more food at lower costs. Doubling and tripling yields mean that wheat, rice, and maize are now cheaper for consumers by half—in real terms—than 40 years ago. Overall, the productivity growth in staple food crops has made a critical contribution to agricultural development and reductions in poverty and hunger.8 Continued research and development are needed to sustain these achievements. Growth in staple food crops alone does not ensure agricultural development and food security. Access to nutritious food is also important, as is the need to improve the availability of protein and micronutrients in staple foods and vegetables. Another way to address the nutritional aspects of food security is through access to a variety of foods. Animalsource proteins and micronutrients can have longterm impact on productivity and economic development; these nutrients have been shown to have a strong and positive impact on the cognitive, physical, and behavioral development of children.9 Advances in science and technology that enhance protein
content and increase bioavailability of micronutrients will contribute positively to the health status of poor consumers, especially girls and boys particular culture, and ensure that investments in science and technology yield maximum benefits support technology development and application, addressing the different needs and • constraints of men and women throughout the agricultural sector, to raise agricultural productivity for increased economic competitiveness; stabilize and enhance food, feed, and fiber production in developing countries; increase protein content and bioavailability of micronutrients in staple foods and vegetables; and reduce environmental degradation and pollution. expand public and private sector partnerships and networks to facilitate collaboration on applied • research activities by networks of specialists on crops, including staple foods and vegetables; natural resource management; and other aspects of the food, feed, and fiber system. foster science and technology innovation capacity and national innovation systems to meet the • challenges of today’s agricultural environment, including volatile climatic and market changes, evolving grades and standards, infectious disease, political instability, and the special needs of women.  .Strengthening Agricultural Training and Education Outreach, and Adaptive Research Major advances in agricultural science and technology over the past decade have had uneven impacts on people’s productivity and livelihoods. Some farmers perceive some new technologies as too risky, either in production or financial terms. Farmers’ use of other technologies is limited by lack of access to necessary inputs (such as fertilizer and pesticides) or markets. Still othe potentially beneficial technologies are never adopted because farmers never hear about them. Over the past 20 years, new information and communication technologies have affected opportunities for productive enterprises as well as trade and commerce. Such technologies have enabled farmers to tap into new markets and acquire information about new production
approaches. The ability to access and manage information is fast becoming a fundamental requirement for rural producers to participate effectively in an increasingly global food, feed, and fiber system. Education and training programs that reach out to women and men who are rural producers and others in related processing and marketing chains can benefit from new information and communication technologies. ■ support education and training tailored to reach women and girls as well as longterm training and basic education curricula in the agricultural sciences and related subjects to strengthen the human and institutional capacity of developing countries ■ develop and extend innovative rural information and communication technology systems that address the differential abilities and needs of men and women to improve access by dispersed farmers and agribusiness entrepreneurs to information across an array ofagricultural disciplines and uses. ■ improve problembased, sitespecific learning approaches to solve problems—local, organiza tional, and sitespecific—by using adaptive research and getting “ontheshelf ” solutions into the field What to Export Commodity Composition of Exports Over the past decade, exports (measured in rupees) have grown by 21.7% on an average. Some commodities have enjoyed much faster export growth than others. Given below is the export performance, in Million US$, of some commodities during 1994 95 and its change in percentage terms over levels in 199394.
Composition of Indian Export 1994-95 1995-96 1995-96 1996-97 16.0 19.2 16.1 20.6 Agriculture& allied 1. Tea 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0 2. Coffee 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.6 3. Cereals 1.5 4.7 3.5 4.1 5. Spices 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.9 6. Cashewnuts 1.5 1.2 1.3 1.3 7. Oil meals 2.2 2.2 1.5 2.1 8. Fruits & vegetables 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 9. Marine products 4.3 3.2 2.8 3.0 10. Ores and minerals 3.8 3.7 4.0 3.7 11. Iron ore 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.4 12. Other ores and minerals 1.0 0.9 1.1 1.1 13. Manufactured goods 78.1 75.4 77.8 73.5 14. Leather & manufactures 4.0 3.6 3.8 3.1 15. Leather footwear 2.1 1.8 1.2 1.1 16. Gems & jewellery 17.1 16.6 16.9 14.0 17. Drugs, pharmaceuticals & fine 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.3 chemicals 18. Dyes / intermediates & Coal tar 1.8 1.5 1.6 1.6 chemicals 19. Manufactures of metals 2.7 2.6 2.6 3.0 20. Primary & semifinished iron & steel 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.3 21. Electronic goods 1.6 2.1 2.0 2.4 22. Cotton yarn, fabrics, madeups etc 8.5 8.1 8.2 9.2 23. Ready made garments 12.5 11.6 12.0 11.3 24. Handicrafts 3.9 3.5 3.8 3.5 25. Crude & petroleum products 1.6 1.4 1.6 1.6 26. Others & unclassified items 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.6 Grand Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 News Article
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