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HOCU Trivia Bee

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Information about HOCU Trivia Bee
Education

Published on April 24, 2008

Author: Manuele

Source: authorstream.com

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Slide1:  Hopewell Culture National Historical Park Slide3:  How well do you know Hopewell Culture? five archeological sites more than 1,200 acres total more than 2,000 years old Slide4:  Hopewell Culture Trivia Bee National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior Hopewell Culture National Historical Park 16062 State Route 104 Chillicothe, Ohio 45601-8694 (740) 774-1126 Version 1.0 – March 2007 Slide5:  48 41 4 10 25 50 42 24 35 46 15 45 16 44 34 11 33 31 39 32 49 43 22 38 21 14 47 12 18 20 30 40 37 36 26 23 29 1 5 9 17 6 13 27 19 28 3 2 8 7 Replay Introduction Click any number between 1 and 50 Hopewell Culture Trivia Bee that has not been answered correctly already Notes Slide6:  Uh, nope. Next Question? Next Contestant? Slide7:  Ya sure, you betcha. Next Question? Slide8:  Where did the Hopewell people get their name? From a local farm where artifacts were discovered From a type of flint they used to make spear points From evidence that they were optimistic and friendly Q1 Slide9:  The Hopewell are named for a farm once owned by Captain Mordecai Cloud Hopewell, a Confederate veteran of the Civil War. A great many artifacts were excavated at Hopewell’s farm specifically for display at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1892. To this day, since they left behind no records or written language, we do not know by what name the Hopewell called themselves. Yes. Next Question? A1 Slide10:  What year did Mound City Group National Monument become Hopewell Culture National Historical Park? 1982 1992 1972 Q2 Slide11:  Hopewell Culture NHP was established May 27, 1992 by a federal law that renamed Mound City Group National Monument, expanded the Hopeton Earthworks and authorized the acquisition of three additional sites – High Bank Works, Hopewell Mound Group and Seip Earthworks. Yes. Next Question? A2 Slide12:  What kinds of tools did the Hopewell use to build mounds? Shovels, horses and carts Heavy ropes and pulleys Baskets, shells and sticks Q3 Slide13:  Yes. The Hopewell made their monumental earthworks entirely by hand with only a few small tools that they also designed and made by hand. They did not have shovels, horses or carts outfitted with wheels to make their work any easier or more efficient for them. A3 Next Question? Slide14:  According to one oral tradition, which indigenous group built the mounds? Lenni Lenape Alligewi Delaware Q4 Slide15:  Yes. A4 The tradition of the Lenni Lenape, or Delaware, states that their true origins were in the west and that when they traveled east across the Mississippi they vanquished a mighty people who had been the builders of the great mounds. This group, known as the Alligewi, or Tallidewi, gave their name to what we call the Allegheny River. Source: People of the Mounds: Ohio’s Hopewell Culture by Bradley T. Lepper (Hopewell Culture National Historical Park and Eastern National Park and Monument Association, 1995) Next Question? Slide16:  What’s the biggest political distinction between Hopewell earthworks and the monuments of Egypt? Hopewell children could earn the right to vote Egyptians monuments were built by slave labor The pyramids weren’t accessible to common people Q5 Slide17:  Yes. A5 All of the effort that went into constructing the earthworks of the Middle Woodland period appears to have been provided at the consent of its people. “Although the Hopewell probably had leaders of some considerable power and influence there is no evidence, such as consistent patterns in burial practices, that their leaders inherited political power after the manner of kings or pharaohs.” Source: People of the Mounds: Ohio’s Hopewell Culture by Bradley T. Lepper (Hopewell Culture National Historical Park and Eastern National Park and Monument Association, 1995) Next Question? Slide18:  What year did it become an official violation of park rules to walk on top of the earthworks at Mound City? 1986 2006 1956 Q6 Slide19:  Yes. A6 Superintendent Ken Apschnikat issued a first compendium of orders for the park in 1986. The mounds and earth walls were closed to foot traffic to prevent erosion. Recreational pursuits were restricted to reduce potential for accidents, to avoid disturbances and “to preserve the dignity of a prehistoric burial area.” Source: Amidst Ancient Monuments: The Administrative History of Mound City Group National Monument/Hopewell Culture National Historical Park Ohio by Ron Cockrell (National Park Service, 1999) Next Question? Slide20:  Of the five separate archeological sites preserved as part of this national park, which is the oldest? Q7 Hopewell Mound Group Mound City Group Seip Earthworks Slide21:  Yes. Based on published radiocarbon dates or artifact typology, the order and approximate age of the park’s five archeological sites are – Mound City Group (2,200-1,750 BP) Hopewell Mound Group (2,100-1,600 BP) High Bank Works (2,050-1,700 BP) Hopeton Works (2,000-1,850 BP) Seip Earthworks (1,800-1,600 BP) Source: Ohio Archeology: An Illustrated Chronicle of Ohio’s Ancient American Indian Cultures by Bradley T. Lepper (Voyageur Media Group, 2005) A7 Next Question? Slide22:  What modern agricultural staple was tremendously rare in Hopewell gardens? Q8 Beans Corn Tobacco Slide23:  Yes. A8 Corn, or maize, was originally a wild Mexican grass that came to fuel the great civilizations of Mesoamerica. It was only very rarely cultivated in Hopewell gardens, however. One theory, known as the “Maize Debate,” suggests that the transition to a sedentary, corn-based agricultural society may have signaled the end of the Hopewell era. Source: People of the Mounds: Ohio’s Hopewell Culture by Bradley T. Lepper (Hopewell Culture National Historical Park and Eastern National Park and Monument Association, 1995) Next Question? Slide24:  What’s a Hopewell “Interaction Sphere?” A secluded, sacred space for religious rituals A technical name for their version of a soccer ball A region within which ideas or objects are exchanged Q9 Slide25:  Yes. A9 Interaction spheres exist when independent societies exchange goods or information. For the Hopewell, it stretched from the Atlantic Ocean to the Rocky Mountains and the Upper Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. They’re not merely “trade networks” since little evidence of exchanged crafts or materials from Ohio have been discovered in these distant places. Source: Ohio Archeology: An Illustrated Chronicle of Ohio’s Ancient American Indian Cultures, by Bradley T. Lepper (Voyageur Media Group, 2005) Next Question? Slide26:  In 1990, this park had the dubious distinction of being the very last in America to do what? Q10 Commemorate veterans of World War I Remove human remains from public display Adopt EPA pesticide control measures Slide27:  Yes. A10 Human ashes that had been exhibited in a cremation pit display in the park museum were replaced in 1990 with clean sand. Six years later, in 1996, the park closed a separate exhibit known as the “Mica Grave.” First constructed in 1965, this building had allowed visitors to view artifacts and objects inside Mound #13 just beyond the entrance to the mound area. Source: Amidst Ancient Monuments: The Administrative History of Mound City Group National Monument/Hopewell Culture National Historical Park Ohio by Ron Cockrell (National Park Service, 1999) Next Question? Slide28:  How many years ago did hunters and explorers first begin to settle this part of eastern North America? Q11 2,500 6,500 11,500 Slide29:  Yes. A11a While the Hopewell lived 2,000 years ago, the area was first settled almost 10,000 years earlier – “Ohio, in particular, must have been a Paleoindian paradise. It was rich country during the closing phases of the Ice Age. The environment was a mosaic of different kinds of forest and prairie, with a smorgasbord of resources from upland groves of nut trees to wetlands filled with waterfowl … Continued Slide30:  A11b “ … In addition to deer and beaver, there also were herds of caribou and musk oxen, mastodons, mammoths and giant ground sloths, as well as predators such as the saber-tooth cat, the short face bear, wolves and mountain lions.” Source: Ohio Archeology: An Illustrated Chronicle of Ohio’s Ancient American Indian Cultures by Bradley T. Lepper (Voyageur Media Group, 2005) Next Question? Slide31:  What was the Hopewell’s best hunting tool? Q12 Deadly poison brewed from native plants Bow & arrow A spear-throwing device called “Atlatl” Slide32:  Yes. A12a Since they lived many centuries before the local advent of the bow and arrow, the Hopewell used the spear and atlatl, pronounced at-ul-at-ul, a name derived from the Aztecs of Central America. Functioning as an extension of the thrower's arm, much like a flexing catapult, the device propels a spear in an overhand or side motion with far greater force. … Continued Slide33:  A12b The oldest atlatls in the world date back more than 25,000 years to northwest Africa. Immigrants from Siberia likely brought the atlatl to North America about 12,000 years ago. Next Question? Slide34:  How many different times was this park targeted for “disestablishment” while it was known as Mound City Group National Monument? 3 4 2 Q13 Slide35:  Yes. A13 Prior to its expansion and name change in 1992, the park survived four separate efforts to “disestablish” it either to help streamline the larger agency or due to a perceived lack of significance. Interior Secretary Harold Ickes actually approved a transfer of ownership to the state in 1937. Ultimately, all four attempts were stopped by opposition of citizens and local elected officials. Source: Amidst Ancient Monuments: The Administrative History of Mound City Group National Monument/Hopewell Culture National Historical Park Ohio by Ron Cockrell (National Park Service, 1999) Next Question? Slide36:  How many artifacts and documents are conserved in the park’s repository? 14,800 1,480 148,000 Q14 Slide37:  How much more energy, adjusted by weight, does it take a mammal to run the same distance a bird can fly? 5 times 10 times 3 times Q15 Slide38:  Yes. A15 This might be one reason why mammals – with the notable exceptions of caribou, bats and gray whales – aren’t known to migrate as often or as far as other creatures. Source: Life in the Cold: An Introduction to Winter Ecology by Peter J. Marchand (University Press of New England, 1987) Next Question? Slide39:  What’s that green stuff on some of the artifacts in the park museum? Q16 Curator’s preservative Decaying decorative paint Natural oxidation Slide40:  Yes. The green patina on copper objects is due to oxidation of the metal. Salts from the aging copper have preserved traces of woven fabric, animal skin, feathers and plant fibers, offering clues to ways that some of the objects were used. A16 Next Question? Slide41:  Which science specifically studies evidence of past human activity? Archeology Q17 Paleontology Dendrochronology Slide42:  Yes. Paleontology is a study of fossils, including the relics of dinosaurs. Dendrochronology is the study of tree rings to date past events. Archeology explores and describes human cultures by what they leave behind. A17 Next Question? Slide43:  How many bones make up a complete human skeleton? 260 602 206 Q18 Slide44:  What proof do we have that the Hopewell possessed advanced design and surveying skills? Sites built miles apart share alignments & dimensions They left behind elaborate drawings and blueprints By accounts passed down through other cultures Q19 Slide45:  Yes. A19a Of all the geometric enclosures the Hopewell built, only two feature circles joined to octagons. One, known as High Bank Works, is preserved as a site within this national park outside Chillicothe. Its “sister site,” now known as Octagon State Memorial, is located in Newark, Ohio. The alignments of these two large monuments are oriented precisely perpendicular to each other even though they are more than 50 miles apart. Continued Slide46:  A19b The dimensions of the two circles are identical and match that of yet a third site in Circleville, Ohio which once featured two vast concentric earthworks. The size of the outer concentric circle at Circleville also happens to be the same as a structure at the Newark complex known as the “Great Circle.” Source: People of the Mounds: Ohio’s Hopewell Culture by Bradley T. Lepper (Hopewell Culture National Historical Park and Eastern National Park and Monument Association, 1995) Next Question? Slide47:  In 2006, how many recreation visits were recorded for all national parks? 72,000,000 Q20 272,000,000 727,000,000 Slide48:  Yes. Overall, there were just over 272 million visits to all parks in 2006, about the same as 2005. The top 10 visited units were: 1) Blue Ridge Parkway; 2) Golden Gate NRA; 3) Great Smoky Mountains NP; 4) Gateway NRA; 5) Lake Mead NRA; 6) George Washington MP; 7) Natchez Trace Parkway; 8) Delaware Water Gap NRA; 9) Cape Cod NS; 10) Grand Canyon NP. A20a Continued Slide49:  All told, with 15,000 permanent and 5,000 seasonal workers, the NPS manages more than 80 million acres of land in 49 states, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Virgin Islands. Source: Public Use Statistics Office, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior A20b Next Question? Slide50:  What’s a beamer? A bone tool used to scrape hides Q21 A structural element in buildings A hunting club used to dispatch prey Slide51:  What is the largest number of distinct cremation remains that have been discovered inside any single mound at Mound City? 20 150 13 Q22 Slide52:  Yes. The cremated remains of as many as 99 different people have been discovered inside the 23 mounds of Mound City. Twenty were found in Mound #13, a moderate-sized feature once known as the Mica Grave. By contrast, Mound #3, one of the largest at 140 feet long, 60 feet wide and 11 feet tall, held as few as four sets of cremation remains. A22 Next Question? Slide53:  What’s midden? A decoration worn about the waist A nutritious meal of ground nuts and seeds Community waste, trash or garbage Q23 Slide54:  Yes. Archeologists can learn a great deal about a culture by excavating its trash. Small slivers of animal bones, seed hulls, craft scraps and charcoal from cooking fires all can provide very precise information about the life and economy of past people. Source: Expeditions into Ohio’s Past: An Integrated Curriculum for Grades 3-5 (Hopwell Culture NHP, 2005) A23 Next Question? Slide55:  What’s the best thing you can do for someone with a snake bite? Keep them calm, wash with soap and rinse thoroughly Cut an ‘X’ through the wound and suck out the venom Apply a tourniquet as fast and firmly as possible Q24 Slide56:  Yes. “The aim is to prevent poison spreading through the body. Reassure the victim. Make them relax, resting with the bitten area lower than the heart. ... Place the wound in cool water – a stream for instance. Use ice if available to keep as cool as possible. The casualty will almost certainly need treatment for shock and may require artificial respiration. Keep a check on breathing.” Source: SAS Survival Handbook by John “Lofty” Wiseman (HarperCollins Publishers, 2004) A24 Next Question? Slide57:  How many acres in size was this park originally? 57 1,200 17 Q25 Slide58:  Yes. In March 1923, President Warren G. Harding proclaimed 57 acres along the Scioto River to be Mound City Group National Monument. In the years since four other significant archeological sites have been added and preserved nearby for a current total size of more than 1,200 acres. A25 Next Question? Slide59:  What’s the main trait of the Intrusive Mound Culture? Q26 They altered earthworks to claim credit for them They buried their dead inside existing mounds They readily looted the graves of their enemies Slide60:  Yes. A26 In the late woodland period, the Intrusive Mound Culture occupied the Scioto Valley after the decline of the Hopewell and before the advent of the Fort Ancient. At Mound City alone, archeologists discovered as many as 15 intrusive burials within the earthworks. Source: Indian Mounds of the Middle Ohio Valley by Susan L. Woodward and Jerry McDonald (McDonald & Woodward Publishing, 2001) Next Question? Slide61:  There are now about 390 units in the National Park Service. How many different park types or designations are there? 20 27 7 Q27 Slide62:  Yes. The titles of NPS unit designations are rooted in administrative and legislative history, with differences reflecting changes in fashion as much as distinctions in character or management policy. Regardless of nomenclature, all units can be referred to generically as “parks.” Source: The National Parks: Shaping the System, by Barry Mackintosh, 1991, revised by Harpers Ferry Center, 2005 A27a Next Question? See list of 27 NPS designations Slide63:  IHS International Historic Site NB National Battlefield NBP National Battlefield Park NBS National Battlefield Site NHP National Historical Park NHP & PRES National Historical Park & Preserve NH RES National Historical Reserve NHS National Historical Site NL National Lakeshore NM National Monument A27b Next Question? Continue List Slide64:  NM & PRES National Monument & Preserve N MEM National Memorial NMP National Military Park NP National Park NP National Historical Park NP & PRES National Park & Preserve N PRES National Preserve NR National River NRA National Recreation Area NRRA National River & Recreation Area A27c Next Question? Continue List Slide65:  N RES National Reserve NS National Seashore NSR National Scenic River/Riverway NST National Scenic Trail PKWY Parkway SRR Scenic and Recreational River WR Wild River WSR Wild and Scenic River A27d Next Question? Slide66:  What’s a borrow pit? A place to store community property An open hole that yields dirt to build mounds A space designated for commodities trading Q28 Slide67:  In prehistory, what was the most important means of transportation? Ceremonial roads Deer trails Rivers and streams Q29 Slide68:  What year did the federal government first establish a military foothold near and among these ancient earthworks? 1861 1917 1812 Q30 Slide69:  Yes. Troops were first mobilized nearby at Camp Bull during the War of 1812, then also at a “drill ground” called Camp Logan during the Civil War in 1861, and again in 1917 during World War I when much of the valley became a U.S. Army training base called Camp Sherman. A30 Next Question? Slide70:  What general shape was the floor plan of most Hopewell homes? Rectangle Square Circle Q31 Slide71:  Yes. A31 “Hopewell houses generally were squarish structures made from logs set upright in the ground. The logs were then interlaced with twigs and covered with bark or plastered with mud mixed with grass. They were usually 20 to 30 ft on a side and may have been roofed with thatch, reeds or bark.” Source: Ohio Archeology: An Illustrated Chronicle of Ohio’s Ancient American Indian Cultures, by Bradley T. Lepper (Voyageur Media Group, 2005) Next Question? Slide72:  Q32 Just how fast can a grizzly bear run? 30 mph 43 mph 13 mph Slide73:  Yes. A32 Next Question? A grizzly bear can charge at speeds of more than 30 mph, or 44 feet per second. By comparison, an Olympic sprinter, a human being capable of running a hundred meter dash in ten seconds flat, travels at only about 33 feet per second. Source: Bear Attacks: Their Causes and Avoidance by Stephen Herrero (The Lyons Press, Revised 2002) Slide74:  How many feet tall was the biggest mound the Hopewell ever built? 33 38 17½ Q33 Slide75:  Yes. (We’ll accept either 33 or 38 feet.) A33 In 1848, archeologists Ephraim Squier and Edwin Davis described a great D-shaped enclosure of seven mounds, the largest of which was 38 feet tall, at a site now known as the Hopewell Mound Group. In 1891, Warren Moorehead estimated the size of this same cluster to be more than 500 feet long, 180 feet wide and 33 feet tall. At either height, it would have been about twice the size of the tallest earthwork at Mound City. Next Question? Slide76:  How did the Hopewell make open clearings in the forest for new gardens and earthworks? Q34 By pealing bark around the base of trees With primitive hand saws made of copper Encouraging insect and termite infestations Slide77:  Yes. A34 “This ‘girdling’ of the trees killed them and, after a year or two, they would be dried up hulks easier to burn and chop down. The charred stumps and many of the largest trunks were left to rot, and farmers would sow their crops around them. A sharpened stick was the only plow the Hopewell farmers used. …This kind of farming is called ‘slash and burn’ or ‘swidden’ horticulture.” Source: Ohio Archeology: An Illustrated Chronicle of Ohio’s Ancient American Indian Cultures, by Bradley T. Lepper (Voyageur Media Group, 2005) Next Question? Slide78:  What’s a hamlet? Q35 A stage play by William Shakespeare Development beyond a set boundary A small village of extended families Slide79:  Yes. A35 While archeologists have found and studied only a few Hopewell habitation sites, evidence suggests that their communities were small. “Perhaps only one or a few extended families lived in each hamlet. Some of these villages may have been more like farmsteads where a family settled for only a few years at a time.” Source: People of the Mounds: Ohio’s Hopewell Culture by Bradley T. Lepper (Hopewell Culture National Historical Park and Eastern National Park and Monument Association, 1995) Next Question? Slide80:  What’s happening with a forest fire that spews black smoke? Q36 It is saturated with unburned fuel It is burning over coal or oil deposits A new weather system is approaching Slide81:  Yes. A36 Black smoke is a result of incomplete combustion. A wildfire that generates little or no smoke means that it is burning material completely. White smoke comes from material with high moisture content. Orange smoke is an indication of a wildfire that has reached a very high temperature. Next Question? Slide82:  Many exotic materials have been discovered inside the mounds. Which came the farthest distance? Obsidian and elk teeth Shells and shark teeth Mica and copper Q37 Slide83:  Yes. A37 Scientists have determined that obsidian, a type of black volcanic glass, and elk teeth discovered at Mound City actually originated way off west in the Rocky Mountains. Also found here have been shark teeth from Chesapeake Bay, shells from the Gulf of Mexico, mica from the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina, and copper ore from the northern shores of Lake Superior. Next Question? Slide84:  Which group did Thomas Jefferson come to believe built the mounds? A race of master builders American Indians The Lost Tribes of Israel Q38 Slide85:  Yes. A38 Jefferson, who systematically excavated a mound in Virginia to learn about American Indian burial practices, is credited with the first scientific archeological excavation in the United States. Other leading thinkers of the day preferred to attribute the earthworks to lost races of Vikings, Greeks, Persians, Hindus, Phoenicians, emigrants from Atlantis or the Lost Tribes of Israel. Source: Indian Mounds of the Middle Ohio Valley by Susan L. Woodward and Jerry McDonald (McDonald & Woodward Publishing, 2001) Next Question? Slide86:  How much total area is enclosed within the earthen embankment at Mound City? 15.6 acres 13 acres 17 acres Q39 Slide87:  Yes. A39 Using GPS technology, Dr. Jarrod Burks recently recalculated the size of the enclosure at Mound City to be 15.6 acres – about 1.2 times larger than a 13-acre measurement archeologists first published in 1848. The total length of the earthen embankment, which ranges from 2½ to 3 feet tall, is listed as 2,050 feet. Source: “Remapping the Past: Mound City and the Hopeton Works,” by Dr. Jarrod Burks, Hopewell Happenings (park newsletter), 2006 and Indian Mounds of the Middle Ohio Valley by Susan L. Woodward and Jerry McDonald (McDonald & Woodward Publishing, 2001) Next Question? Slide88:  What’s an artifact? All objects formally collected & conserved An object with documented provenance Any object made by human hands Q40 Slide89:  In 1848, two local archeologists rendered maps and descriptions of earthworks for the very first book ever published by – Q41 The Library of Congress The British Museum in London The Smithsonian Institution Slide90:  Yes. A41 The book, entitled Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, was written by Ephraim G. Squier, a local newspaper editor, and Edwin H. Davis, a physician. Next Question? Slide91:  What’s an effigy? Any representation of a person or animal A gardening tool the Hopewell invented A scapegoat or convenient target to take blame Q42 Slide92:  Yes. A42 “Hopewell art included frequent depictions of various animals, but most especially deer, bear and assorted birds. There are representations of Hopewell shamans wearing deer antler headdresses and bear skins. … Certainly the white-tailed deer was by far the most important game animal hunted by the Hopewell people and it may have been as revered as the bison was by the Native peoples of the Plains.” Source: Ohio Archeology: An Illustrated Chronicle of Ohio’s Ancient American Indian Cultures, by Bradley T. Lepper (Voyageur Media Group, 2005) Next Question? Slide93:  How many people visit this national park each year? 43,000 29,000 86,000 Q43 Slide94:  Yes. A43 Official visitation was 42,697 in 2004, a 10.29 percent increase from the prior year. The lowest annual attendance on record was 29,000 in 1960. The park reported its “One-Millionth Visitor” in 1969. Source: Public Use Statistics Office, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior and Amidst Ancient Monuments: The Administrative History of Mound City Group National Monument/Hopewell Culture National Historical Park Ohio by Ron Cockrell (National Park Service, 1999) Next Question? Slide95:  What happens at a “killing ceremony?” Hunters dance to purify weapons, traps & tactics An animal is ritually sacrificed upon an altar Material objects are broken & burned Q44 Slide96:  Yes. A44 Aside from the possible practical purpose of discouraging prospective looters and grave robbers, the act of breaking and burning material items as part of a cremation ritual may have been viewed as means to release the power or spiritual essence of the objects. Source: Exploration of the Mound City Group by William C. Mills (Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society, 1922). Next Question? Slide97:  How much trouble can you make for yourself by collecting or disturbing archeological artifacts on federal land? Q45 None if it’s only for your personal use Lifetime ban from national parks and forests Six figure fines and years in federal prison Slide98:  Yes. A45 The Archeological Resource Protection Act of 1979 established federal criminal penalties for unauthorized excavation, removal, damage, alteration, or defacement of archeological resources, or trafficking archeological resources obtained in violation of federal, state, or local law. ARPA violations can carry up to a year in jail and $100,000 fine for misdemeanor convictions and up to two years in jail and a $250,000 fine for felony convictions. Next Question? Slide99:  Which agency administered Mound City after it became a national monument in 1923? The U.S. War Department The National Park Service The Ohio State Archeological & Historical Society Q46 Slide100:  Yes. A46 Just 25 days after it was proclaimed a national monument in 1923, the OSAHS was granted a “revocable license” to preserve and protect the historic mounds. In 1946, after 22 years, the license was canceled because it appeared that the site was being managed primarily as a recreation and picnic area. Source: Amidst Ancient Monuments: The Administrative History of Mound City Group National Monument/Hopewell Culture National Historical Park Ohio by Ron Cockrell (National Park Service, 1999) Next Question? Slide101:  What’s the universal distress signal or “SOS” in Morse Code using flashing lights or sound bursts? 2 short, 2 long, 2 short 1 short, 1 long, 1 short 3 short, 3 long, 3 short Q47 Slide102:  What’s a platform pipe? Q48 An element of construction scaffolding Tiles used to channel storm water A smoking implement unique to the Hopewell Slide103:  Yes. Platform pipes were made in a variety of sizes, bowl and platform shapes and decorative themes, including effigies of animals and people. Pipes probably played a large role in Hopewell ceremonies. It is not known what types of plants the Hopewell used as smoking material. Later tribes in this area used dogwood bark, sumac, tobacco leaves and other native plants. A48 Next Question? Slide104:  What fraction of an ounce does one mosquito weigh? 1/ 250 1/ 25,000 1/ 2,500 Q49 Slide105:  Yes. A49 Since it takes as many as 25,000 mosquitoes to make a single ounce, imagine how many a bat must catch to make a meal. Yet a female mosquito can drink several times her own weight in blood in less than 90 seconds. If it takes longer, the saliva she injects into her host can trigger an allergic reaction that causes itching. Source: Mosquitoes by Dorothy Hinshaw Patent (Holiday House Books, 1986) Next Question? Slide106:  About how many earthworks did the Hopewell build all told in the vicinity of Ross County, Ohio? 50 500 5 Q50 Slide107:  Yes. Ross County, Ohio is believed to have been the epicenter of cultural life for the Hopewell. More than 500 earthworks may have existed here at one time. The vast majority have long since been destroyed by looting, agricultural practices and development. A50 Next Question? Slide108:  Notes As an interpretive tool, this “Hopewell Culture Trivia Bee” isn’t intended to be a formal educational product as much as a means to inspire lasting interest and curiosity about the park’s resources. With 50 questions all told, the game presents 20 questions about archeology; 12 questions about the Hopewell and their way of life; ten questions about the park and its distinct history; six questions about natural resources and outdoor safety; and two questions about the larger National Park Service. Continued Slide109:  Start Again Acknowledgements This first version of the Trivia Bee is purposefully non-competitive. It doesn’t keep score or track mistakes. But that doesn’t preclude players from making up their own way of determining winners and losers. It can be played alone or as a group activity, especially if large-screen projection equipment is available. A separate, printable tally sheet is provided so that players can keep track of questions that they have already answered correctly. Slide110:  Acknowledgements Start Again Early maps & drawings of earthworks: ANCIENT MONUMENTS OF THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY by Ephraim Squier & Edwin Davis (Smithsonian Institution, 1848) Photograph of ceramic duck pot: MICHAEL BITSKO (NPS) Photograph of Mound City Group: JOE MURRAY

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