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HIV Vaccine

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Information about HIV Vaccine
Health & Medicine

Published on March 11, 2014

Author: mahmoodi2000

Source: slideshare.net

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60 million people, infected since 1981 39.5 million people are living with HIV 4.3 million new infections in 2006 Over 28 million have died since 1981 Ten new infections occur every minute

Facts Special Features of HIV Human Immune System Response Ideal HIV Vaccine Current Achievements Prospective

FactsFacts  AIDS kills more people than any other infectious disease  Impact on economics  Unreliable pharmacotherapy  HIV is the best studied pathogen  Yet we don’t have any vaccine for it

Facts Special Features of HIV Human Immune System Response Ideal HIV Vaccine Current Achievements Prospective

Special Features of HIV  HIV is highly mutable  Genetically diverse population of viruses  Too variable epitopes of the viral envelope  Masking of gp120  High levels of viral replication Long latent period of infection

Special Features of HIV GP 120

Slide 7.37

Facts Special Features of HIV Human Immune System Response Current Achievements An Ideal HIV Vaccine Prospective

Human Immune System Response Humeral immunity

Human Immune System Response Cell-mediated immunity

Facts Special Features of HIV Human Immune System Response Current Achievements An Ideal HIV Vaccine Prospective

Current Achievements Since 2000 30 vaccine versions have been tried  Many clinical trials are ongoing in developing countries  Large scale AIDS vaccine trials could be conducted

Current Achievements

Live Attenuated Whole Killed Live Vector Re- combinant Proteins DNA Vaccines Pseudo virion Vaccine Types Current Achievements

Whole, Killed HIV  Not under study in primates  No useful immunity  Difficult to maintain viral configuration  Difficult to make large quantities

Live, Attenuated HIV Studied in non- human primates Has pathogenic potentiality

Live Vector Vaccines  Phase I and II trials  Inserting HIV or SIV genes into viruses or bacteria  Effective humoral and cellular immune responses

Recombinant Viral Protein Vaccines  Phase III  Uses viral surface antigens as immunogens  Uses genetically engineered bacteria, yeasts, insects or cell cultures

Naked DNA Vaccines  Stages I , I/II and II  Synthesizing antigens using host-cell’s machinery  Presented on the cell surface with host MHC class I and class II molecules

Pseudovirions Pre-clinical trials Virus-like particles Self-assembling, non- replicating, virus-sized structures

Facts Special Features of HIV Human Immune System Response Current Achievements An Ideal HIV Vaccine Prospective

An Ideal HIV VaccineAn Ideal HIV Vaccine Sterilizing Long-term controlled infection Transient Infection Altruistic vaccine

Epidemiological Aspect Individual Aspect An Ideal HIV VaccineAn Ideal HIV Vaccine

Efficacy  Protection from infection Sterilizing immunity  Protection from disease Reduction in set point viral loads Time after infection Viralload Ideal vaccine Peak Set point Sub optimal vaccine

Facts Special Features of HIV Human Immune System Response Current Stand An Ideal HIV Vaccine Prospective

Total New Infections Averted By An AIDS VaccineNewinfectionsinmillion Vaccine introduction Base Low scenario Medium scenario High scenario Total new infections averted by an AIDS vaccine between 2015-2030 30% efficacy 20% coverage 50% efficacy 30% coverage 70% efficacy 40% coverage 5.5 million 28 million 17 million 28 million

Is an AIDS vaccine really Preparable? Is an AIDS vaccine really Preparable? In 1984 researchers predicted that a vaccine was right around the corner…

INTERNATIONAL HEALTH SECURITY 2007 …..HIV/AIDS threatens the stability of entire regions and nations…. While there are major efforts under way to find a vaccine and to expand access to affordable treatments, much more still needs to be done…

What To Do Now?

Conclusions  The scale of HIV problem is huge  Humanity needs an effective vaccine to end the pandemic  Developing an HIV vaccine is a laborious task  HIV vaccines on different stages of trials are only partially effective  The best primary prevention up till now is : - Health education - Personal protection

Acknowledgments  Dr. Seyed Mohsen Mahmoodi  Dr. Abdel Hamid Elhawary  Mr. Mohammad Reza Rahimi  Dr. Rizwana Sheikh

THANKTHANK YOU!!!YOU!!! You Can Visit My Website: www.mahmoodi.org

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