Hiv Aids Best

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Information about Hiv Aids Best
Health & Medicine

Published on November 13, 2008

Author: adroits

Source: slideshare.net

Description

A powerpoint presentation on HIV/AIDS useful for nursing, Health education, science, medicine, allied medical professionals and students.

Presented By- Dr. Satya K. Gutta MBBS Dr. Krishna Mohan Gopisetty BDS Course # 637, McNeese State University “ No war on the face of the Earth is more destructive than the AIDS pandemic.” - Colin Powell

HIV came from a similar virus found in chimpanzees - SIV. HIV probably entered the United States around 1970 CDC in 1981 noticed unusual clusters of Kaposi’s sarcoma in gay men in NY and San Francisco, which led to the disease to be called GRID (Gay Related Immune Deficiency). By 1982 the disease was apparent in heterosexuals and was renamed AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency). 1984- Scientists(Dr. Luc Montagnier, Dr. Robert Gallo) identify HIV (initially called LAV or HTLV-III) as the cause of AIDS 1987- AZT is the first drug approved for treating AIDS http://www.avert.org/aids-timeline.htm

HIV came from a similar virus found in chimpanzees - SIV.

HIV probably entered the United States around 1970

CDC in 1981 noticed unusual clusters of Kaposi’s sarcoma in gay men in NY and San Francisco, which led to the disease to be called GRID (Gay Related Immune Deficiency).

By 1982 the disease was apparent in heterosexuals and was renamed AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency).

1984- Scientists(Dr. Luc Montagnier, Dr. Robert Gallo) identify HIV (initially called LAV or HTLV-III) as the cause of AIDS

1987- AZT is the first drug approved for treating AIDS

The Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act ( Ryan White Care Act , Ryan White , (enacted August 18, 1990) was an Act of the U.S. Congress named in honor of Ryan White, an Indiana teenager who contracted AIDS through a tainted hemophilia treatment in 1984, and was expelled from school because of the disease. White became a well-known advocate for AIDS research and awareness, until his death on April 8, 1990. http://www.avert.org/aids-photo-gallery.php?photo_id=431&gallery_id=7

German Professor Harald zur Hausen (left), French Professor Luc Montagnier (centre) and virologist Francoise Barre-Sinoussi (right) were awarded Nobel Prizes for Medicine on October 6, 2008

Males>females Occurs in all ages and ethnic groups All areas of the country are affected In some city inner areas, as many as 50% of males are HIV positive AIDS is now the second leading cause of death for all men aged 25-44 years Unintended injuries is #1 and heart disease is #3 for this age group

Males>females

Occurs in all ages and ethnic groups

All areas of the country are affected

In some city inner areas, as many as 50% of males are HIV positive

AIDS is now the second leading cause of death for all men aged 25-44 years

Unintended injuries is #1 and heart disease is #3 for this age group

HIV Incidence Estimate Incidence is the number of new HIV infections that occur during a given year. In 2008, CDC estimated that approximately 56,300 people were newly infected with HIV in 2006 (the most recent year that data are available). Over half (53%) of these new infections occurred in gay and bisexual men. African American men and women were also strongly affected and were estimated to have an incidence rate that was 7 times greater than the incidence rate among whites. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/basic.htm#hivest

HIV Incidence Estimate

Incidence is the number of new HIV infections that occur during a given year.

In 2008, CDC estimated that approximately 56,300 people were newly infected with HIV in 2006 (the most recent year that data are available). Over half (53%) of these new infections occurred in gay and bisexual men. African American men and women were also strongly affected and were estimated to have an incidence rate that was 7 times greater than the incidence rate among whites.

HIV Prevalence Estimate Prevalence is the number of people living with HIV/AIDS in a given year. At the end of 2003, an estimated 1,039,000 to 1,185,000 persons in the United States were living with HIV/AIDS, with 24%-27% undiagnosed and unaware of their HIV infection. 1 “ Eighty percent of Americans with HIV do not know they are infected.” -Philip Emeagwali “ One out of every 100 American men is HIV positive. The rate of infection has reached epidemic proportions in 40 developing nations.” -Philip Emeagwali

HIV Prevalence Estimate

Prevalence is the number of people living with HIV/AIDS in a given year.

At the end of 2003, an estimated 1,039,000 to 1,185,000 persons in the United States were living with HIV/AIDS, with 24%-27% undiagnosed and unaware of their HIV infection. 1

“ Eighty percent of Americans with HIV do not know they are infected.” -Philip Emeagwali

“ One out of every 100 American men is HIV positive. The rate of infection has reached epidemic proportions in 40 developing nations.” -Philip Emeagwali

Sex of adults and adolescents with HIV/AIDS diagnosed during 2006 Transmission categories of adults and adolescents with HIV/AIDS diagnosed during 2006 http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/us.htm

http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/stateprofiles/Louisiana/Louisiana_Profile.htm

 

 

Anyone of any age, race, sex or sexual orientation can be infected with HIV, but you're at greatest risk of HIV/AIDS if you: Have unprotected sex with multiple partners. You're at risk whether you're heterosexual, homosexual or bisexual. Unprotected sex means having sex without using a new latex or polyurethane condom every time. Have unprotected sex with someone who is HIV-positive. Have another sexually transmitted disease, such as syphilis, herpes, Chlamydia, gonorrhea or bacterial vaginosis. Share needles during intravenous drug use. Received a blood transfusion or blood products before 1985.

Anyone of any age, race, sex or sexual orientation can be infected with HIV, but you're at greatest risk of HIV/AIDS if you:

Have unprotected sex with multiple partners. You're at risk whether you're heterosexual, homosexual or bisexual. Unprotected sex means having sex without using a new latex or polyurethane condom every time.

Have unprotected sex with someone who is HIV-positive.

Have another sexually transmitted disease, such as syphilis, herpes, Chlamydia, gonorrhea or bacterial vaginosis.

Share needles during intravenous drug use.

Received a blood transfusion or blood products before 1985.

Have fewer copies of a gene called CCL3L1 that helps fight HIV infection. Newborns or nursing infants whose mothers tested positive for HIV but did not receive treatment also are at high risk. Most dangerous sexual practice: anal intercourse Recent evidence that HIV can be transmitted by oral sex Fastest growing method of HIV transmission: heterosexual contact. Heterosexual transmission is easier from men to women than from women to men

Have fewer copies of a gene called CCL3L1 that helps fight HIV infection.

Newborns or nursing infants whose mothers tested positive for HIV but did not receive treatment also are at high risk.

Most dangerous sexual practice: anal intercourse

Recent evidence that HIV can be transmitted by oral sex

Fastest growing method of HIV transmission: heterosexual contact.

Heterosexual transmission is easier from men to women than from women to men

Risk of acquiring for men is greater if contact occurs during menstruation Uncircumcised men are more likely to be seropositive and contract HIV during sex HIV transmission rates: Risk from single sexual encounter with man who is not a member of a risk group: 1 in 5 million Risk from single encounter with man who is a member of a high risk group: 1 in 20 to 1 in 2 Needle-stick (with HIV-positive blood): 1 in 100 to 1 in 1000 (average 1 in 250) Seroconversion from blood transfusion: 2 of 3

Risk of acquiring for men is greater if contact occurs during menstruation

Uncircumcised men are more likely to be seropositive and contract HIV during sex

HIV transmission rates:

Risk from single sexual encounter with man who is not a member of a risk group: 1 in 5 million

Risk from single encounter with man who is a member of a high risk group: 1 in 20 to 1 in 2

Needle-stick (with HIV-positive blood): 1 in 100 to 1 in 1000 (average 1 in 250)

Seroconversion from blood transfusion: 2 of 3

If mother is HIV positive, 100% of children will test positive at birth About 20% of these will remain HIV positive after 1 year Breast feeding increases transmission rate AZT (zidovudine/Azidothymidine) reduces risk by half (to about 10%). AZT + c-section reduces transmission rate to 5% Neverapine : If given during labor to mother and to child after birth, cuts rate to 10%

If mother is HIV positive, 100% of children will test positive at birth

About 20% of these will remain HIV positive after 1 year

Breast feeding increases transmission rate

AZT (zidovudine/Azidothymidine) reduces risk by half (to about 10%). AZT + c-section reduces transmission rate to 5%

Neverapine : If given during labor to mother and to child after birth, cuts rate to 10%

“ HIV does not make people dangerous to know, so you can shake their hands and give them a hug: Heaven knows they need it.” Princess Diana “ HIV infection and AIDS is growing - but so too is public apathy. We have already lost too many friends and colleagues.” David Geffen

“ HIV does not make people dangerous to know, so you can shake their hands and give them a hug: Heaven knows they need it.”

Princess Diana

“ HIV infection and AIDS is growing - but so too is public apathy. We have already lost too many friends and colleagues.” David Geffen

There's no vaccine to prevent HIV infection and no cure for AIDS. Prevention includes educating yourself about HIV and avoiding any behavior that allows HIV-infected fluids — blood, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk — into your body. HIV-negative Individual prevention: Educate yourself and others. Know the HIV status of any sexual partner. Use a new latex or polyurethane condom every time you have sex. Consider male circumcision. Use a clean needle. Be cautious about blood products in certain countries. Get regular screening tests. Don't become complacent. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hiv-aids/DS00005/DSECTION=prevention

There's no vaccine to prevent HIV infection and no cure for AIDS. Prevention includes educating yourself about HIV and avoiding any behavior that allows HIV-infected fluids — blood, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk — into your body.

HIV-negative Individual prevention:

Educate yourself and others.

Know the HIV status of any sexual partner.

Use a new latex or polyurethane condom every time you have sex.

Consider male circumcision.

Use a clean needle.

Be cautious about blood products in certain countries.

Get regular screening tests.

Don't become complacent.

HIV positive individual prevention: Follow safe-sex practices. Tell your sexual partners you have HIV. If your partner is pregnant, tell her you have HIV. Tell others who need to know. Don't share needles or syringes. Don't donate blood or organs. Don't share razor blades or toothbrushes. If you're pregnant, get medical care right away. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hiv-aids/DS00005/DSECTION=prevention

HIV positive individual prevention:

Follow safe-sex practices.

Tell your sexual partners you have HIV.

If your partner is pregnant, tell her you have HIV.

Tell others who need to know.

Don't share needles or syringes.

Don't donate blood or organs.

Don't share razor blades or toothbrushes.

If you're pregnant, get medical care right away.

ABC rule Abstinence, Be faithful (one partner),Condom “ It is bad enough that people are dying of AIDS, but no one should die of ignorance.”

ABC rule

Abstinence, Be faithful (one partner),Condom

“ It is bad enough that people are dying of AIDS, but no one should die of ignorance.”

virus classification: Group: Group VI (ssRNA-RT) Family: Retroviridae Genus: Lentivirus Species : Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2

virus classification:

Group: Group VI (ssRNA-RT)

Family: Retroviridae Genus: Lentivirus Species : Human immunodeficiency virus 1

Human immunodeficiency virus 2

Types : HIV1 & HIV2 HIV1: HIV-1A & HIV-1B HIV-1A & HIV-2 are spread heterosexually, but HIV-1A is more virulent than HIV-2 HIV-1B dominates in Europe & the United States SIV: Simian Immunodeficiency virus from monkeys SIV-CPZ (Chimpanzee/ Pan troglodytes) is similar to HIV-1

Types : HIV1 & HIV2

HIV1: HIV-1A & HIV-1B

HIV-1A & HIV-2 are spread heterosexually, but HIV-1A is more virulent than HIV-2

HIV-1B dominates in Europe & the United States

SIV: Simian Immunodeficiency virus from monkeys

SIV-CPZ (Chimpanzee/ Pan troglodytes) is similar to HIV-1

Origins of HIV-1B from Cameroon to Europe SIV from Sooty mangabey (SIV-SM) is closely related to HIV-2 HIV-2 spreads poorly by sexual contact Individuals infected with HIV-2 are less likely to develop AIDS as it’s less pathogenic So, SIV-sm is being tested as a candidate vaccine against AIDS About 10% of Caucasians of Western European descent have the mutation for chemokine receptor-CCR5-▲32 making them resistant to HIV

Origins of HIV-1B from Cameroon to Europe

SIV from Sooty mangabey (SIV-SM) is closely related to HIV-2

HIV-2 spreads poorly by sexual contact

Individuals infected with HIV-2 are less likely to develop AIDS as it’s less pathogenic

So, SIV-sm is being tested as a candidate vaccine against AIDS

About 10% of Caucasians of Western European descent have the mutation for chemokine receptor-CCR5-▲32 making them resistant to HIV

Causative agent: Human Immuno-deficiency Virus

Causative agent: Human Immuno-deficiency Virus

Enveloped RNA retrovirus Spherical 120 nm in diameter envelope proteins make the spikes on the membrane. Truncated conical capsid Electron dense core Two copies of the single stranded (+) RNA Enzymes: Reverse transcriptase, Integrase & Protease Structural genes: gag, pol and env Regulatory genes: LTR (long terminal repeats) rev and neg

Enveloped RNA retrovirus

Spherical 120 nm in diameter envelope proteins make the spikes on the membrane.

Truncated conical capsid

Electron dense core

Two copies of the single stranded (+) RNA

Enzymes: Reverse transcriptase, Integrase & Protease

Structural genes: gag, pol and env

Regulatory genes: LTR (long terminal repeats) rev and neg

HIV infects CD-4 positive cells CD4+ T-cell lymphocytes Macrophages Lymph node follicular dendritic cells Langerhans cells Binding to CD4 by gp120 Entry into cell by fusion requires gp41 and coreceptors CCR5 (Beta chemokine receptor) CXCR4 (alpha chemokine receptor)

HIV infects CD-4 positive cells

CD4+ T-cell lymphocytes

Macrophages

Lymph node follicular dendritic cells

Langerhans cells

Binding to CD4 by gp120

Entry into cell by fusion requires gp41 and coreceptors

CCR5 (Beta chemokine receptor)

CXCR4 (alpha chemokine receptor)

Envelope lost and RNA uncoated DNA made from RNA using reverse transcriptase DNA and Integrase migrate to nucleus forming a provirus by integrating viral DNA to host DNA

Envelope lost and RNA uncoated

DNA made from RNA using reverse transcriptase

DNA and Integrase migrate to nucleus forming a provirus by integrating viral DNA to host DNA

Rate of viral replication regulated by the activity of regulatory proteins (tat/rev, nef, etc) Co-infections (e.g., Mycobacterial) stimulate the HIV-infected cells to produce more virus Transcription and translation produces necessary polyprotiens which are cleaved by the HIV protease Assembly

Rate of viral replication regulated by the activity of regulatory proteins (tat/rev, nef, etc)

Co-infections (e.g., Mycobacterial) stimulate the HIV-infected cells to produce more virus

Transcription and translation produces necessary polyprotiens which are cleaved by the HIV protease

Assembly

Maturation/release of virus. The half-life of this processing of HIV into mature virions is about 90 minutes. Each infected cell can produce an average of 250 new virions by budding before it fails and dies.

Maturation/release of virus. The half-life of this processing of HIV into mature virions is about 90 minutes. Each infected cell can produce an average of 250 new virions by budding before it fails and dies.

 

Depends on: Viral load (no. of RNA copies/ml plasma) Genetics Mode of transmission Viral load is the most important marker to determine prognosis and effectiveness of treatment

Depends on:

Viral load (no. of RNA copies/ml plasma)

Genetics

Mode of transmission

Viral load is the most important marker to determine prognosis and effectiveness of treatment

Category A (A1-A3: > 500 to <200 CD4+ T cells/µl): Acute and asymptomatic HIV infection +persistent generalized lymphadenopathy Category B (B1-B3: 500 to <200 CD4+ T cells/µl) : symptomatic but not conditions in C Category C (C1-C3: 500 to <200 CD4+ T cells/µl) : AIDS defining conditions AIDS: A3, B3, or C1-3

Category A (A1-A3: > 500 to <200 CD4+ T cells/µl): Acute and asymptomatic HIV infection +persistent generalized lymphadenopathy

Category B (B1-B3: 500 to <200 CD4+ T cells/µl) : symptomatic but not conditions in C

Category C (C1-C3: 500 to <200 CD4+ T cells/µl) : AIDS defining conditions

AIDS: A3, B3, or C1-3

 

 

 

List of symptoms of HIV/AIDS: Early infection : More common to develop a brief flu-like illness 2-4 weeks after becoming infected. Signs and symptoms may include: Fever Headache Sore throat Swollen lymph glands Rash

List of symptoms of HIV/AIDS:

Early infection :

More common to develop a brief flu-like illness 2-4 weeks after becoming infected. Signs and symptoms may include:

Fever

Headache

Sore throat

Swollen lymph glands

Rash

Later infection : May remain symptom-free for eight or nine years or more You may develop mild infections or chronic symptoms such as: Swollen lymph nodes — often one of the first signs of HIV infection Diarrhea Weight loss Fever Cough and shortness of breath

Later infection :

May remain symptom-free for eight or nine years or more

You may develop mild infections or chronic symptoms such as:

Swollen lymph nodes — often one of the first signs of HIV infection

Diarrhea

Weight loss

Fever

Cough and shortness of breath

Latest phase of infection (AIDS) : HIV-antibody test plus at least one of the following: The development of an opportunistic infection — an infection that occurs when your immune system is impaired — such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) –Now called Pneumocystic jirovecii A CD4 lymphocyte count of 200 or less — a normal count ranges from 800 to 1,200

Latest phase of infection (AIDS) :

HIV-antibody test plus at least one of the following:

The development of an opportunistic infection — an infection that occurs when your immune system is impaired — such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) –Now called Pneumocystic jirovecii

A CD4 lymphocyte count of 200 or less — a normal count ranges from 800 to 1,200

The signs and symptoms of some of these infections may include: Soaking night sweats Shaking chills or fever higher than 100 F (38 C) for several weeks Dry cough and shortness of breath Chronic diarrhea Persistent white spots or unusual lesions on your tongue or in your mouth

The signs and symptoms of some of these infections may include:

Soaking night sweats

Shaking chills or fever higher than 100 F (38 C) for several weeks

Dry cough and shortness of breath

Chronic diarrhea

Persistent white spots or unusual lesions on your tongue or in your mouth

Headaches Blurred and distorted vision Weight loss You may also begin to experience signs and symptoms of later stage HIV infection itself, such as: Persistent, unexplained fatigue Soaking night sweats

Headaches

Blurred and distorted vision

Weight loss

You may also begin to experience signs and symptoms of later stage HIV infection itself, such as:

Persistent, unexplained fatigue

Soaking night sweats

Shaking chills or fever higher than 100 F (38 C) for several weeks Swelling of lymph nodes for more than three months Chronic diarrhea>1 month Persistent headaches If you're infected with HIV, you're also more likely to develop certain cancers, especially Kaposi's sarcoma , cervical cancer and lymphoma

Shaking chills or fever higher than 100 F (38 C) for several weeks

Swelling of lymph nodes for more than three months

Chronic diarrhea>1 month

Persistent headaches

If you're infected with HIV, you're also more likely to develop certain cancers, especially Kaposi's sarcoma , cervical cancer and lymphoma

Symptoms of HIV in children : Children who are HIV-positive may experience: Difficulty gaining weight Difficulty growing normally Problems walking Delayed mental development Severe forms of common childhood illnesses such as ear infections (otitis media), pneumonia and tonsillitis

Symptoms of HIV in children :

Children who are HIV-positive may experience:

Difficulty gaining weight

Difficulty growing normally

Problems walking

Delayed mental development

Severe forms of common childhood illnesses such as ear infections (otitis media), pneumonia and tonsillitis

AIDS defining conditions: Encephalopathy, HIV-related (PMLE) Pneumonia, recurrent (leading cause of death)

AIDS defining conditions:

Encephalopathy, HIV-related (PMLE)

Pneumonia, recurrent (leading cause of death)

 

ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay): Done to detect HIV antibodies in patient’s serum (antigens used are p24, p17, gp160, gp120, and gp41). Anti-p24 is the first reliably detected antibody but declines as viral titers rise in late infection Envelope antibodies rise more slowly but stay high at the end Env antigens show major antigenic variation ELISA for p24 useful early

ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay): Done to detect HIV antibodies in patient’s serum (antigens used are p24, p17, gp160, gp120, and gp41).

Anti-p24 is the first reliably detected antibody but declines as viral titers rise in late infection

Envelope antibodies rise more slowly but stay high at the end

Env antigens show major antigenic variation

ELISA for p24 useful early

Western blot for antibodies specific to HIV Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) HIV DNA PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction): Qualitative to detect HIV infection in newborns of mothers are HIV+ Quantitative HIV DNA PCR to determine viral load to assess treatment Useful in detecting HIV during window period ( i.e. no antibodies in serum even though infected with HIV; 3-6 months)

Western blot for antibodies specific to HIV

Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA)

HIV DNA PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction):

Qualitative to detect HIV infection in newborns of mothers are HIV+

Quantitative HIV DNA PCR to determine viral load to assess treatment

Useful in detecting HIV during window period ( i.e. no antibodies in serum even though infected with HIV; 3-6 months)

Culture for HIV (with antigen detection in culture): HIV infection in newborns whose mothers are HIV+ To assess drug resistance

Culture for HIV (with antigen detection in culture):

HIV infection in newborns whose mothers are HIV+

To assess drug resistance

HAART: Highly Affective Anti-Retro Viral Therapy: Anti-retro viral therapy is recommended if: Patient is asymptomatic/ symptomatic + CD4 count of <350/µl / any AIDS defining condition / plasma HIV RNA greater than 100,000 copies/ml HAART combines two types of antiretroviral drugs: Triple cocktail 2NRTI’S + 1PI or 2NRTI’S + 1NNRTI

HAART: Highly Affective Anti-Retro Viral Therapy:

Anti-retro viral therapy is recommended if:

Patient is asymptomatic/ symptomatic + CD4 count of <350/µl / any AIDS defining condition / plasma HIV RNA greater than 100,000 copies/ml

HAART combines two types of antiretroviral drugs: Triple cocktail

2NRTI’S + 1PI or

2NRTI’S + 1NNRTI

RTI’s (Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors): Zidovudine (AZT/ZDV), Didanosine (DDI), Zalcitabine (DDC), Stavudine (D4T), Lamivudine (3TC) NNRTI’s (Non-Nucleoside RTI’S) : Delavirdine, Nevirapine, Efavirenz Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor: Adefovir Tenofovir Protease Inhibitors: Indinavir, Ritonavir

RTI’s (Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors): Zidovudine (AZT/ZDV), Didanosine (DDI), Zalcitabine (DDC), Stavudine (D4T), Lamivudine (3TC)

NNRTI’s (Non-Nucleoside RTI’S) : Delavirdine, Nevirapine, Efavirenz

Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor: Adefovir Tenofovir

Protease Inhibitors: Indinavir, Ritonavir

Entry inhibitors/Fusion inhibitors: Maraviroc, Enfuvirtide Integrase inhibitors: Raltegravir Maturation Inhibitors under trails: Bevirimat & vivicon

Entry inhibitors/Fusion inhibitors: Maraviroc, Enfuvirtide

Integrase inhibitors: Raltegravir

Maturation Inhibitors under trails: Bevirimat & vivicon

For needle stick: Postexposure Prophylaxis ZDV+3TC 28 days, but in high risk (high viral RNA copies) a combination of ZDV+3TC+Indinavir Pregnancy: ZDV full dose, trimester 2 and 3+ 6 weeks to neonate reduces vertical transmission by 80% ZDV restricted to intrapartum period + NEVIRAPINE- 1 dose at onset of delivery+ AZT+3TC for 1 week after delivery Neonate: 1 dose of Nevirapine within 24-72 hrs after birth + ZDV for 1 week Symptomatic tx and antibiotics/antivirals/glucocorticoids/thalidomide /antifungals/metronidazole for bacterial, viral, autoimmune, fungal and parasitic infections.

For needle stick: Postexposure Prophylaxis

ZDV+3TC 28 days, but in high risk (high viral RNA copies) a combination of ZDV+3TC+Indinavir

Pregnancy:

ZDV full dose, trimester 2 and 3+ 6 weeks to neonate reduces vertical transmission by 80%

ZDV restricted to intrapartum period + NEVIRAPINE- 1 dose at onset of delivery+ AZT+3TC for 1 week after delivery

Neonate: 1 dose of Nevirapine within 24-72 hrs after birth + ZDV for 1 week

Symptomatic tx and antibiotics/antivirals/glucocorticoids/thalidomide /antifungals/metronidazole for bacterial, viral, autoimmune, fungal and parasitic infections.

http://www.avert.org/aids-timeline.htm http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/basic.htm#hivest http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/stateprofiles/Louisiana/Louisiana_Profile.htm Ingelheim, B. (2004). Additional information on clinical trials with nevirapine in pMTCT [PDF document]. Retrieved October 14, 2008, from http://www.boehringer- ingelheim.com/hiv/news/download/medical_attach_HIVNET.pdf

http://www.avert.org/aids-timeline.htm

http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/basic.htm#hivest

http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/stateprofiles/Louisiana/Louisiana_Profile.htm

Ingelheim, B. (2004). Additional information on clinical trials with

nevirapine in pMTCT [PDF document]. Retrieved October 14, 2008, from http://www.boehringer- ingelheim.com/hiv/news/download/medical_attach_HIVNET.pdf

National Institutes of Health. (2008). AIDS. Retrieved October 14, 2008, from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/aids.html Chan-Tack, K. M. (2007). Early symptomatic HIV infection. Retrieved October 14, 2008 , from http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic86.htm

National Institutes of Health. (2008). AIDS. Retrieved October 14, 2008, from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/aids.html

Chan-Tack, K. M. (2007). Early symptomatic HIV infection. Retrieved October 14, 2008 , from http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic86.htm

Mayo Clinic. (2008). HIV/AIDS . Retrieved October 14, 2008, from C:Documents and SettingsMSUDesktopDSECTION=symptoms.htm Vistacion, T. , Reyes, R. , Salvacion, N. (2005). Principles of microbiology [Power point slides].Retrieved from http://www.raritanval.edu/servicelearning/HS/student_work/HIV_Visitacion_Salvacion_%20Reyes_fall2005.pdf

Mayo Clinic. (2008). HIV/AIDS . Retrieved October 14, 2008, from C:Documents and SettingsMSUDesktopDSECTION=symptoms.htm

Vistacion, T. , Reyes, R. , Salvacion, N. (2005). Principles of microbiology [Power point slides].Retrieved from http://www.raritanval.edu/servicelearning/HS/student_work/HIV_Visitacion_Salvacion_%20Reyes_fall2005.pdf

“ I recommend the same therapies for all humans with HIV. There is no reason to believe that physiologic responses to therapy will vary across lines of class, culture, race or nationality.” Paul Farmer “ Investment in AIDS will be repaid a thousand-fold in lives saved and communities held together.” Dr. Peter Piot, Executive Director, UNAIDS

 

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