History & Timeline of Educational Programming

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Information about History & Timeline of Educational Programming
Education

Published on August 26, 2008

Author: basiyr

Source: authorstream.com

History of Computer Programming in Schools : History of Computer Programming in Schools A Short Timeline 1970’s Computer Literacy : 1970’s Computer Literacy `[C]omputer literacy must also mean the ability to do computing, and not merely to recognize, identify, or be aware of alleged facts about computing.'' (Luehrmann, 1981)‏ In the 1970’s Arthur Leuherman coined the phrase “Computer Literacy”. He described the concept thus: The IBM System/3 minicomputer was released by IBM in about 1970. from History of Computing. Computer Programming circa 1970’s : Computer Programming circa 1970’s Developing field with few programming languages Desktop computers far from wide distribution Computing was pay-as-you go on mainframes Used mostly in research in Universities for specialized students No general concept that k-12 learners could or would program computers Leuhermann & Papert were pioneers of the idea that learners could speak the language of computers and then teach/tutor computers Computer Programming circa 1980's : Computer Programming circa 1980's Papert publishes Mindstorms in 1980: It underscores the possibilities of constructionism with computers With the wider distribution of the PC CAI takes on a more central role in society. Apple, IBM & Atari all distribute a version of LOGO for their popular school computers LOGO is advanced as a pioneering effort in CAI Resnick & Ocko develop LEGO LOGO LOGO is distributed in educational settings in Europe, Latin America & Africa. England writes LOGO into the curriculum Computer Programming circa 1990's : Computer Programming circa 1990's LOGO comes under criticism for lack of development. Newer computers required upgrades to the program e.g. better graphics, more robustness etc. Some felt that LOGO was a “dumbing down” of real computer programming. Students need to learn C++, JAVA & other professionally used languages Learning the language requires a great deal of time & teacher guidance (Maddux, 1985)‏ Standards movement forces computer programming to become marginal in classrooms Computer Programming circa early 2000’s : Computer Programming circa early 2000’s LOGO proponents begin to package LOGO in more “modern” ways More focus on the subject matter & content area elements of programming e.g. Microworlds. Open source professional languages such as Python begin to gain prominence in classroom Commercial languages such as Java are used in schools LOGO is reinvented as Scratch and StarLogo TNG : LOGO summer institutes reemerge Alice & Elica 2D & 3D educational programming languages are born Computer Literacy (Cont’d)‏ : Computer Literacy (Cont’d)‏ Our fundamental philosophical premise here is that, like reading and writing, [computing] constitutes a new and fundamental intellectual resource. To use that resource as a mere delivery system for instruction, but not to give a student instruction in how he might use the resource himself, has been the chief failure of the [C]AI effort. What a loss of opportunity if the skill of [computing] were to be harnessed for the purpose of turning out masses of students who were unable to [use computing]! Taylor, R., Ed., The Computer in School: Tutor, Tool, Tutee, (New York: Teachers College Press, © 1980 by Teachers College, Columbia University. All rights reserved.), pp. 129-135. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education [Online serial], 2(3). Available: http://www.citejournal.org/vol2/iss3/seminal/article1.cfm

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