History of World

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Published on March 20, 2019

Author: Dochurts

Source: authorstream.com

Slide 1: History of the World From the beginning until Now Slide 2: The kings of the  First Dynasty of Egypt  (c. 3150 - c. 2890 BCE) all worked toward the same ends: increasing trade, expansion of the kingdom through military campaigns, engaging in building projects (such as monuments, tombs and temples), and securing central rule of the country. They ruled from the  city  of Thinis , near Abydos, and from  Memphis . The first king, according to Manetho's chronology, was  Menes  who has come to be identified with the  pharaoh  once thought to be his successor,  Narmer . Narmer united the regions of Upper  Egypt  and Lower Egypt under central rule initially at Thinis before then building a palace at Memphis and shifting the seat of government to that city. Historian Margaret Bunson writes: Slide 3: The Neolithic period appears to have begun when the peoples of the  Natufian culture , which spread across present-day  Syria ,  Israel  and  Lebanon , began to practice agriculture. This  Neolithic Revolution  has been linked to the cold period known as the  Younger Dryas . This agriculture in the  Levant  is the earliest known to have been practiced. The Neolithic period in this region is dated 8500–4300 BCE and the  Chalcolithic  4300–3300 BCE. The term " Natufian " was coined by  Dorothy Garrod  in 1928, after identifying an archaeological sequence at Wadi al- Natuf which included a Late Levallois -Mousterian layer and a stratified deposit, the Mesolithic of Palestine, which contained charcoal traces and a microlithic flint tool industry. [3]   Natufian sites in Israel include  Ain Mallaha , el-Wad,  Ein Gev ,  Hayonim cave ,  Nahal Oren  and  Kfar HaHoresh . Slide 4: Our understanding of the  Chalcolithic  period in Israel and in the  Levant  is still far from perfect. It seems that Chalcolitic cultures appeared in the northern  Jordan Valley  around 4,800 BC, and in the southern parts of this valley, and, particularly, in  Teleilat el- Ghassul , around 4,500 BC. Though no direct evidence to this effect is currently available, it is possible that Chalcolithic civilizations have spread from the northern parts of Israel to its southern parts, over the course of several centuries, during the first half of the 5th millennium BC. Judging by evidence from the material culture, there seems to be no direct link between the Late Neolithic cultures and the early Chalcholithic cultures that replaced them, in this region. [4]  The Chalcolithic period ended in Israel around 3,500 BC, with the rise of the Early Bronze civilization. [5] Chief among the Chalcolithic cultures of the Levant is the  Ghassulian  culture of the mid to late Chalcolithic . It might have been preceded by the Bsorian culture. The Ghassulian culture itself is made of several subcultures, one of which is the  Beersheba culture . Slide 5: Location:  Giza, Egypt Built:  Around 2560 BC   Tomb of Pharoah Khufu   Still stands today. Size:  Height 480 ft. (146m) Mostly limestone   tallest building in the world till 1311 AD.. Slide 6: Israel escaped Egypt in 1405 BCE Slide 7: Israel 1200 – 1050 BCE Slide 8: Assyria conquered Israel 10 tribes of Northern Kingdom 753BCE Assyrian Occupation 656-639 BCE For the first time in their long history, the ancient Egyptians found themselves conquered by a foreign empire. The Assyrians on the whole preferred to exert their control over Egypt through local rulers, who in effect swapped the overlordship of the king of Kush for the (more distant) overlordship of the king of Assyria. This suited many of them very well. Above all, it suited the princes of Saise , in the Delta. Necko of Sais built up his power under Assyrian sponsorship, and was given the governorship of Memphis by them. His son Psamteck I (664-610 BCE) inherited Necko’s positions and then took full advantage of troubles elsewhere in the Assyrian empire to expand his power throughout the entire country. By 639 BCE Psamteck ruled an independent, united Egypt. Slide 9: National Revival 639-525 BCE Psamteck founded the 26th dynasty (639-525 BCE). The kings of this dynasty associated themselves with the glory days of Ancient Egypt by erecting monuments in the style of the Old Kingdom. This policy masked great changes that had taken place in the country. Sizeable communities of foreigners now lived within its borders. Libyans, Greeks, Phoenicians and Jews had brought their distinctive cultures as well as their particular technological skills with them – it was with Greek assistance that Neko II (610-595 BCE) set about building a canal linking the Nile to the Red Sea, and it was Phoenician seamen that he sent on a famous expedition to explore the west coast of Africa. Naukratis , a  Greek colony , was now the chief port of Egypt. Foreign mercenaries lived in scattered settlements throughout the country. Temples now owned much of the cultivated land, correspondingly weakening the economic base for royal power. Slide 10: The Babylonian Threat The kings of the 26th dynasty resumed the traditional Egyptian policy of seeking to secure a predominant influence in  Palestine . Their chief opponent was now the resurgent power of  Babylon, under its dynamic leader Nebuchadnezzar , who had take over from  Assyria  as the leading empire in the Middle East. The Babylonians defeated the Egyptians at the battle of Carchemish (605 BCE), and so got the upper hand in Syria. Two Babylonian invasions of Egypt (601 and 569 BCE) were beaten back. Psamtek II (595-589 BCE) secured the allegiance of the Philistine cities, and Apries (589-570 BCE) supported Judaea in her abortive revolt against Babylon (589 BCE) before occupying the Levantine cities of Tyre and Sidon (574-750 BCE). His successor, Amasis (570-526 BCE) occupied Cyprus in 560 BCE. In the south, Psamtek II had invaded Nubia , and penetrated as far as Napata, but had not occupied the country. Slide 11: Heliopolis, University of the Ancient World About 13 miles northeast of the Great Pyramids of Giza, in Pharaonic Egyptian times, stood the pinnacle of higher earning of Egypt, and in fact of the whole ancient world of the time – Heliopolis. From Old Kingdom times, and probably before, and on into New Kingdom times Heliopolis was the center of Astronomy, Geometry, Medicine, History, and Philosophy. The high priests of Heliopolis were called “Chief of Observers” or “Greatest of Seers”. Into the time of ancient early classical Greece, all the great scholars and thinkers visited Heliopolis to study, or if they couldn’t visit they wanted to. According to the ancient Greeks, no less than the likes of Homer (8th century BCE), Solon (circa 600 BCE), Pythagoras (circa 540 BCE), Plato, Solon’s distant descendant (circa 400 BCE) all frequented Heliopolis, as adult students! Plato’s young student, the Greek astronomer Eudoxus of Cnidus received a scholarship to support him for 16 months of study in Heliopolis, where the Heliopolitan priest Ichonuphys taught him the exact length of the solar year (as Strabo described), for which discovery Eudoxus himself was later credited. … Slide 12: Persian Conquest 525 BCE The occupation of Cyprus proved to be the high watermark of Egyptian success under the 26th dynasty. In 545 BCE a new power in the  Middle East , the  Persian empire , took that island from the Egyptians. The Persians went on to conquer the Babylonian empire, and in 526 BCE invaded Egypt. At the battle of Pelusium the Egyptian army was defeated, and Egypt incorporated into the huge Persian empire. This event marked the effective end of the history of ancient Egypt as the home of an autonomous civilization. Henceforth her history was as a member of a wider world, her fate largely determined by foreign players. Continue:  Part 6:  Ancient Egypt 500 BCE – 30 BCE  – ancient Egypt under the Persians, Alexander the Great and the Ptolemies Slide 13: 308 BC. The temple of Ra was said to have been, to a special degree, a depository for royal records, and Herodotus states that the priests of Heliopolis were the best informed in matters of history of all the Egyptians. Heliopolis flourished as a seat of learning during the Greek period; the schools of philosophy and astronomy are claimed to have been frequented by  Orpheus ,  Homer , [9]   Pythagoras ,  Plato ,  Solon , and other Greek philosophers.  Ichonuphys  was lecturing there in 308 BC, Slide 14: The initial objective of Ptolemy's reign was to establish firm and broad boundaries to his newly acquired kingdom. That led to almost continuous warfare against other leading members of Alexander's circle. At times he held  Cyprus  and even parts of mainland  Greece . When these conflicts were over, he was firmly in control of Egypt and had strong claims (disputed by the  Seleucid dynasty ) to  Palestine . He called himself king of Egypt from 306 BC. By the time he abdicated in 285 BC, in favour of one of his sons, the  Ptolemaic dynasty  was secure. Ptolemy and his descendants showed respect to Egypt's most cherished traditions — those of religion — and turned them to their own advantage. Alexandria became the centre of the Greek and  Hellenistic  world and the centre of international commerce, art and science. The  Lighthouse of Alexandria  was one of the  Seven Wonders of the Ancient World  while during the reign of  Ptolemy II Philadelphus , the  Library of Alexandria  was the biggest library in the world until it was destroyed. The last Pharaoh was a Greek princess,  Cleopatra VII , who took her own life in 30 BC, a year after the  battle of Actium . [5] Slide 15: Eusebius Hieronymus Sophronius , thankfully known as St.Jerome , took a roundabout path to becoming one of history’s most significant  Bible  translators. He was born in northeast Italy in 345. By the age of 29, he was a disciplined scholar and an ascetic Christian. Then he had a dream that accused him of being preoccupied with secular learning (“You are a follower of Cicero,” the dream said, “not of Christ”). So for the next several years Jerome lived an ascetic life in the Syrian desert, studying and transcribing the Scriptures and mastering Hebrew. He became secretary to Pope Damasus in 382, which proved to be his date with destiny. By the time he entered Damasus’s service, he was probably the greatest Christian scholar in the world. Slide 16: The Jews already tried to rebuild the Temple. In 363 A.D., egged on by the Roman Emperor Julian the Apostate, the Jews tore down every remaining stone from the old temple to begin rebuilding it. But God miraculously halted this work. Jesus predicted that not one stone of the Jewish Temple would remain atop another.  The Romans utterly destroyed the Temple in 70 A.D.  What many people don't know is that in 363 A.D. the Jews tried to rebuild it, but God would have none of this.  In doing so, Jews themselves took the remaining stones from the Temple Mount.  In hindsight, the extraordinary act of Moshe Dayan handing over the Temple Mount to the Muslims can actually be seen as an Act of God.  This is because, according to Scripture -only after the Lord returns will the Jewish Temple be rebuilt. Slide 17: After Yashua ’ s crucifixion nearly 70 years after the resurrection. The Judean population revolted against the Roman Empire in 66 CE during the period known as the   First Jewish – Roman War   which culminated in the   destruction of Jerusalem in 70   CE. During the siege, the Romans destroyed the   Second Temple   and most of   Jerusalem . This event marked the beginning of the Roman exile, also called Edom exile. Jewish leaders and elite were exiled from the land, killed, or taken to Rome as slaves. Slide 19: 633 AD. Arab Muslims  first attacked the Sassanid territory in 633, when general  Khalid ibn Walid  invaded  Mesopotamia  (Sassanid province of  Asōristān ; what is now  Iraq ), which was the political and economic center of the Sassanid state. [4]  Following the transfer of Khalid to the Byzantine front in the  Levant , the Muslims eventually lost their holdings to Sassanian counterattacks. The second invasion began in 636 under  Saad ibn Abi Waqqas , when a key victory at the  Battle of al- Qādisiyyah  led to the permanent end of Sasanian control west of Iran. The  Zagros mountains then became a natural barrier and border between the  Rashidun Caliphate  and the Sassanid Empire. Due to continuous raids by Persians into the area,  Caliph Umar  ordered a full invasion of the Sasanian empire in 642, which led to the complete conquest of the Sasanians around 651. a[›] Directing from  Medina , a few thousand kilometres from the battlefields of Iran, Caliph Umar's quick conquest of Iran in a series of well-coordinated, multi-pronged attacks became his greatest triumph, contributing to his reputation as a great military and political strategist. [3] Slide 20: Muhammad was born around 570 AD to a widowed mother who died just six years later.  He grew up poor and orphaned on the margins of society, which was controlled by tribal chiefs and trading merchants.  He worked for his uncle, Abu Talib , as a camel herder.  Although his uncle had some standing in the community, Muhammad himself did not rise above his lowly station until he was 25, when he met and married a wealthy widow, Khadija , who was 15 years older. His wife's trading business not only nurtured Muhammad's natural talents of persuasion, but it also gave the successful salesman an opportunity to travel and acquire knowledge that was not as accessible to the local population.  He would later use this to his advantage by incorporating the stories that he had come across into his "revelations" from Allah, particularly the tales from the earlier religions, Judaism and Christianity .   Slide 21: The period of  Egypt ian  history  between the advent of Islam and  Egypt ’s entrance into the modern period opens and closes with foreign conquests: the Arab invasion led by ʿAmr ibn al- ʿĀṣ in  AD  639–642 and the Napoleonic expedition of 1798 mark the beginning and end of the era Slide 22: In June 1099, the Crusaders began a five-week siege of Jerusalem, which fell on July 15, 1099 ( 92.1.15 ). Eyewitness accounts attest to the terror of battle. Ralph of Caen, watching the city from the Mount of Olives, saw “the scurrying people, the fortified towers, the roused garrison, the men rushing to arms, the women in tears, the priests turned to their prayers, the streets ringing with cries, crashing, clanging and neighing.”The Crusaders took over many of the cities on the Mediterranean coast and built a large number of fortified castles across the Holy Land to protect their newly established territories ( 28.99.1 ), while also establishing churches loyal to Rome. For the Crusaders, the Dome of the Rock was the Temple of Solomon; the Aqsa mosque was converted to use as a palace and stables. Slide 23: Catalan Atlas Pictured Manu Musa 1375 AD became a target of Europe for it’s wealth Manu Musa Reigned 1312 AD Journey to Mecca 1324 AD gave wealth to Cairo, Timbuktu Arabs Conquered Egypt 2 nd time 1250 AD Christian Crusade 1095 AD – 1099 AD under Pope Urban II retake Egypt First Conquest of ISLAM (639 AD– 868 AD) Capture Egypt with the TURKs Muhammed Died 632 AD Birth of ISLAM First Bible Translation from Hebrew and Greek to English Vulgate 400 AD Roman Catholic Bible Return of a Mix multitude of converts with a remnant of Hebrews 73 AD Roman Conquest of Jerusalem 70 AD Exodus from Israel Slide 27: The cultural differences of the many nations of Africa has been mainly hidden from the world today.  Since the African continent has been lumped into one with the false creation of race.  It has lead the world to believe that all people with black skin are of the same culture, customs, behavior.  As a consequence of this, the Hebrew culture that has existed in Africa for thousands of years has gone unnoticed.  We are told the customs are ‘TRADITIONAL” AFRICAN BELIEFS.  THEY HAD NO WRITINGS, NO REAL LANGUAGES SO THIS MEANS THE ANICNET EGYPTIANS AND HEBREWS COULD NOT BE AFRICAN.  This is the farthest from the truth.   Slide 28: During the transatlantic slave trade, over 99% of the captives were taken from the West Coast of Africa. THE CONGO, NIGER, NIGERIA, GUINEA, SENEGAL, CAMEROON are just a few of the Numerous West African nations that supplied an unlimited number of captive Hebrews.  The people of those nations such as the KAFFIR, BO, GREBO, IGBO, MARIBUCK, MAVUMBA, AKRA, FANTI, AKIN, YORUBA, KONGO, AND ASHANTI, have practice various elements of the ancient biblical Hebrews culture for thousands of years. Slide 29: In the first place, many Hebrewisms were discovered in the ASHANTI tribal customs. Then, several ASHANTI words were found to have a striking resemblance to those of equivalent Hebrew meaning.  Finally the supreme being of the ASHANTI gave a strong indication of being the "Yahweh" (YAH) of the "old testament” Slide 30: My Beliefs are That according to the scriptures Adam and Eves expulsion out of the garden. Curses of Sin and death were released upon the earth. After the Flood Noah was left to replenish the earth. This would be consistent with Africa having the highest concentration of all animal life. The Nile river Flowing from south to north. The mouth of the Nile housed civilizations of Egyptians who had Pharaohs who became the God’s of the earth, evoking the wrath of God. Separating Abraham to go to Canaan land he journeys to Egypt only to have Israel enslaved for century's whereas Moses delivers Israel returning to Canaan Heliopolis about 15 miles outside of Cairo was the religious institution for Plato who taught Aristotle, who taught Alexander the Great who hearing of the treasures and riches of their culture . Israel became a spoil by the Assyrians realizing that the treasures came from Egypt . The Egyptian riches becomes a target and the Assyrians were the first to conquer Egypt. Greece flourish in Athens because of the riches of Culture being shown in the Temples of Athens and the wealth of Corinth. The Romans Observe in turn raid Jerusalem and Egypt . In 70 AD Rome put down the revolt of the Hebrews. When the Hebrews fled most headed south did not settle in Egypt because Rome was in possession of Egypt crossing the Sahara which is the largest desert in the world. The Hebrews would never come back those who settled on the west coast of Africa. Others returned but not to rebuild the Temple Romans overshadowed Christianity as gentiles. Spreading churches all over the World as Roman Catholics symbolizing ( Catholic Copper Age until Roman Rule ) Roman Catholic. After 600 AD Muhammad births Islam they go to war conquering Egypt and North Africa. Mansa Musa an African King Who converts to invaded Muslims makes his pilgrimage to Mecca has so much Gold builds so many cities puts African riches on the Atlas literally and figuratively . France, Spain, England targets Africa for its riches and a prey which finding a treasured people on the west coast of Africa enslaves them to build the new found world of the western islands America in particular. Through hard bondage the Hebrews became reunited with The Book of their Life heritage and Their Elohem Slide 31: Chalcolithic Period (4500-3200 BCE)3500 BCE - First Settlement of  Jerusalem Early Bronze Age (3200-2220 BCE) 2500 BCE - First Houses Built in Area Middle Bronze Age (2220-1550 BCE) 1800 BCE - Construction of First City Wall Late Bronze Age (1550-1200 BCE) 1400 BCE - First Mention of  Jerusalem  in  Cuneiform Amarna  Letters Iron Age I (1200-1000 BCE) 1200 BCE -  Jerusalem  is conquered by Canaanites ( Jebusites ) Iron Age II (1000-529 BCE) 1000 BCE -  King David  Conquers  Jerusalem ; Declares City Capital of  Jewish Kingdom 960 BCE - David's Son,  King Solomon , Builds  First Jewish Temple 721 BCE -  Assyrians  Conquer  Samaria ; Refugees Flee to  Jerusalem  and City Expands onto Western Hill 701 BCE - Assyrian Ruler  Sennacherib  Lays Seige to  Jerusalem 586 BCE -  Babylonian  Forces Destroy  Jerusalem  and Demolish  First Temple Persian Period (539-322 BCE) 539 BCE -  Persian  Ruler  Cyrus the Great  Conquers Babylonian Empire, Including  Jerusalem 516 BCE - Cyrus Permits Jews in Bablyonian Exile to Return to  Jerusalem ;  Second Temple  Built 445-425 BCE -  Nehemiah  the Prophet Rebuilds the Walls of  Jerusalem ; City Confined to Eastern Hill Hellenistic Period (332-141 BCE) 332 BCE - Greek Leader  Alexander the Great  Conquers  Judea  and  Jerusalem 332-141 BCE -  Ptolemaic  and  Seleucid  Rule in  Jerusalem Hasmonean Period (141-37 BCE) 141 BCE -  Hasmonean  Dynasty Begins;  Jerusalem  Again Expands Limits to Western Hill 63 BCE - Roman General Pompey captures  Jerusalem Herodian Period (37 BCE - 70 CE) 37 BCE -  King Herod  Restructures  Second Temple , Adds Retaining Walls 30 CE -  Jesus  Crucified by Romans in  Jerusalem Slide 32: Roman Period (70 - 324 CE) 70 CE - Roman Forces Destroy  Jerusalem  and Demolish  Second Temple 135 CE -  Jerusalem  Rebuilt as a Roman City Byzantine Period (324-638 CE) 335 CE -  Church of the Holy Sepulchre  Built 614 CE - Persians Capture  Jerusalem 629 CE -  Byzantine  Christians Recapture  Jerusalem  from Persians First  Muslim  Period (638-1099 CE) 638 CE -  Caliph Omar  Enters  Jerusalem 661-750 CE -  Jerusalem  Ruled Under  Umayyad  Dynasty 691 CE -  Dome of the Rock  Built on Site of Destroyed  Jewish  Temples 750-974 CE -  Jerusalem  Ruled Under  Abassid  Dynasty Crusader Period (1099-1187 CE) 1099 CE - First  Crusaders  Capture  Jerusalem Ayyubid Period (1187-1259 CE) 1187 CE -  Saladin  Captures  Jerusalem  from Crusaders 1229-1244 CE - Crusaders Briefly Recapture  Jerusalem  Two Times Mamluk Period (1250-1516) 1250 -  Muslim   Caliph  Dismantles Walls of  Jerusalem ; Population Rapidly Declines Ottoman  Period (1516-1917) 1517 -  Ottoman Empire  Captures  Jerusalem 1538-1541 -  Suleiman the Magnificent  Rebuilds the Walls of  Jerusalem British Mandate (1917-1948) 1917 - British Capture  Jerusalem  in World War I Divided City (1948-1967) 1948 -  State of Israel Established ;  Jerusalem  Divided By Armistice Lines Between  Israel  &  Jordan Reunification (1967- Present) 1967 -  Israel  Captures  Jerusalem 's  Old City  and Eastern Half; Reunites City Slide 33: Dr. Emile Hurts Jr. Apostle.hurts@gmail.com 2912 Willow Glenn Rd. Alexandria, La 71302 (318) 623 -6223

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