History of Quebec and Canada Module 4

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Information about History of Quebec and Canada Module 4
Education

Published on October 26, 2008

Author: harmonicagoldfish

Source: slideshare.net

Module 4 Early Stages of Parliamentary Government

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Module Outline Unit 1: Society in Lower Canada (1791-1840) Topic 1: The Constitutional Act (1791)‏ Topic 2: Economic Changes Topic 3: Social Changes Unit 2: Rebellions of 1837-1838 Topic 1: The Parti Canadien vs The British Party Topic 2: Stages in the Confrontation Unit 3: Union of the Two Canadas Topic 1: Lord Durham's Report Topic 2: Political Changes After 1840 Topic 3: Economic Changes After 1840

Unit 1: Society in Lower Canada (1791-1840)

Topic 1: The Constitutional Act (1791)‏

Topic 2: Economic Changes

Topic 3: Social Changes

Unit 2: Rebellions of 1837-1838

Topic 1: The Parti Canadien vs The British Party

Topic 2: Stages in the Confrontation

Unit 3: Union of the Two Canadas

Topic 1: Lord Durham's Report

Topic 2: Political Changes After 1840

Topic 3: Economic Changes After 1840

Society in Lower Canada (1791-1840) Constitutional Act – 1791 Why? To make the Loyalists happy Replaces Quebec Act Province of Quebec divided – 2 new provinces! Upper Canada Lower Canada Each province had their own structure of Government First time EVER in Canada – Legislative Assembly! Representative Gov’t NOT Responsible Governor had power of veto for laws passed by the Legislative Assembly

Replaces Quebec Act

Province of Quebec divided – 2 new provinces!

Upper Canada

Lower Canada

Each province had their own structure of Government

First time EVER in Canada – Legislative Assembly!

Representative Gov’t NOT Responsible

Governor had power of veto for laws passed by the Legislative Assembly

Upper is low, Lower is up…

Society in Lower Canada (1791-1840) Constitutional Act 1791 Political Structure created by the Constitutional Act  French Civil Laws in Lower Canada English Criminal Code in Lower AND Upper Canada

Political Structure created by the Constitutional Act



French Civil Laws in Lower Canada

English Criminal Code in Lower AND Upper Canada

Society in Lower Canada (1791-1840) Economic Changes Economy turned to TIMBER (wood)‏ Why? Big demand for timber because of NAPOLEANIC WARS Needed to build warships War of 1812  Canada has LOTS of wood

Economy turned to TIMBER (wood)‏

Why? Big demand for timber because of NAPOLEANIC WARS

Needed to build warships

War of 1812 

Canada has

LOTS of wood

Society in Lower Canada (1791-1840) Economic Changes What about our friend the FUR TRADE ? Went way waaaaaaaaaaaaaaay down really quickly Agriculture (wheat) also waaaay down Why timber so high? Preferential British Tarifs 70% + 9% 1810 % of Economic Activity 0% 75% 1770 Timber Fur Year

What about our friend the FUR TRADE ?

Went way waaaaaaaaaaaaaaay down really quickly

Agriculture (wheat) also waaaay down

Why timber so high?

Preferential British Tarifs

Society in Lower Canada (1791-1840) Economic Changes (1800-1840)‏ Canals  easier to trade/transport between Upper and Lower Canada Steamships could travel St Lawrence 1st Railway – 1836 La Prairie to St Jean Bank of Montreal (1817)‏ Canada’s 1 st big bank

Canals  easier to trade/transport between Upper and Lower Canada

Steamships could travel St Lawrence

1st Railway – 1836

La Prairie to St Jean

Bank of Montreal (1817)‏

Canada’s 1 st big bank

Society in Lower Canada (1791-1840) Social Changes (1800-1840)‏ Immigrants British Isles (Scotland, Ireland, England)‏ worked on canals and railways 1815-1850  1 million immigrants came to British North America Mainly Upper Canada , some Lower Canada French in Lower Canada saw immigrants as a THREAT

Immigrants

British Isles (Scotland, Ireland, England)‏

worked on canals and railways

1815-1850  1 million immigrants came to British North America

Mainly Upper Canada , some Lower Canada

French in Lower Canada saw immigrants as a THREAT

Society in Lower Canada (1791-1840) Social Changes (1800-1840)‏ Why a threat? Disease Competition for work/jobs More English speakers in Lower Canada Most from Ireland Potato famine Poor Many many people together on boats got sick Cholera Epidemic in Lower Canada killed thousands ( 1832 + 1834 )‏

Why a threat?

Disease

Competition for work/jobs

More English speakers in Lower Canada

Most from Ireland

Potato famine

Poor

Many many people together on boats

got sick

Cholera Epidemic in Lower Canada killed thousands ( 1832 + 1834 )‏

Society in Lower Canada (1791-1840) Social Changes (1800-1840) Conflict Patriotes French Canadian Professionals ( lawyers, doctors, notaries )‏ Spoke for the needs of French Community Chateau Clique English Commercial Class ( bankers, businessmen, merchants )‏ Spoke for commercial interests ($$ and trade)‏

Patriotes

French Canadian Professionals

( lawyers, doctors, notaries )‏

Spoke for the needs of French Community

Chateau Clique

English Commercial Class

( bankers, businessmen, merchants )‏

Spoke for commercial interests ($$ and trade)‏

Rebellions (1837-1838) Parti Canadien vs. British Party Parti Canadien = Patriotes Assembly (elected)‏ Wanted: responsible government to keep the seigneurial system and French civil law to protect the French language and culture business taxes to pay for roads to avoid spending money on projects which only benefitted the English government budgets to be controlled by the assembly an elected legislative council British Party=Chateau Clique Executive and legislative councils (not elected, appointed)‏ Wanted: laws that promoted business construction of canals and railways French assimilation union with Upper Canada property taxes

Parti Canadien = Patriotes

Assembly (elected)‏

Wanted:

responsible government

to keep the seigneurial system and French civil law

to protect the French language and culture

business taxes to pay for roads

to avoid spending money on projects which only benefitted the English

government budgets to be controlled by the assembly

an elected legislative council

British Party=Chateau Clique

Executive and legislative councils (not elected, appointed)‏

Wanted:

laws that promoted business

construction of canals and railways

French assimilation

union with Upper Canada

property taxes

Rebellions (1837-1838) Stages in the Confrontation 1830s Lower Canada – social and economic conditions got worse and worse. food shortages --> poor harvests and drastic drops in wheat production thousands of newly arrived British immigrants cholera epidemics "None of us go into town anymore. Many are moving into the country. Yesterday 34 corpses passed our house. Today, 23... not counting those in the old burial Ground and in the Catholic ground. 12 carts are employed by the Board of Health to carry away the dead who are interred without prayers." Alexander Hart, Montreal Merchant, 1832

1830s Lower Canada – social and economic conditions got worse and worse.

food shortages --> poor harvests and drastic drops in wheat production

thousands of newly arrived British immigrants

cholera epidemics

"None of us go into town anymore.

Many are moving into the country. Yesterday 34 corpses passed our house. Today, 23... not counting those in the old burial Ground and in the Catholic ground. 12 carts are employed by the Board of Health to carry away the dead who are interred without prayers."

Alexander Hart, Montreal Merchant, 1832

Rebellions (1837-1838) Stages in the Confrontation 1834 Papineau's 92 Resolutions Papineau --> leader of Patriotes Main demands * responsible government * control of public spending by the assembly * an elected legislative council 1837 Russell's 10 Resolutions Rejected Papineau's main demands

1834 Papineau's 92 Resolutions

Papineau --> leader of Patriotes

Main demands

* responsible government

* control of public spending by the assembly

* an elected legislative council

1837 Russell's 10 Resolutions

Rejected Papineau's main demands

Rebellions (1837-1838) Stages in the Confrontation 1837 (Fall)‏ Patriotes angry about the rejection Small demonstrations lead to open rebellion "Well I believe that the moment has come to melt down our tin plates and tin spoons and forge them into bullets." (Dr. Wolfred Nelson, an English Canadian who supported the Patriote cause)‏ Major battles --> British Army vs. Patriotes St Denis St Charles St Eustache

1837 (Fall)‏

Patriotes angry about the rejection

Small demonstrations lead to open rebellion

"Well I believe that the moment has come to melt down our tin plates and tin spoons and forge them into bullets."

(Dr. Wolfred Nelson, an English Canadian who supported the Patriote cause)‏

Major battles --> British Army vs. Patriotes

St Denis

St Charles

St Eustache

Results of the Rebellions 1838 (Fall) – Patriotes defeated Men exiled to Australia 12 men hanged Lord Durham Sent to Canada by British to... Investigate reason for Rebellions Suggest ways to solve political tensions in Upper and Lower Canada

1838 (Fall) – Patriotes defeated

Men exiled to Australia

12 men hanged

Lord Durham

Sent to Canada by British to...

Investigate reason for Rebellions

Suggest ways to solve political tensions in Upper and Lower Canada

Union of the Two Canadas Lord Durham's Report ( Feb. 1839 )‏ Angered the French Said French were inferior to English Said Canada is a land of two hostile groups So...what happened?

Angered the French

Said French were inferior to English

Said Canada is a land of two hostile groups

Union of the Two Canadas Act of Union (1840)‏ Upper and Lower Canada unite to become the Province of Canada Upper Canada --> Canada West Lower Canada --> Canada East One legislative assembly 42 elected officials from Canada West 42 elected officials from Canada East Debts are combined to one debt English becomes the official language of the Province of Canada @ first rejected Responsible Gov't , later leaders in East and West formed an alliance and adopted it in 1848

Upper and Lower Canada unite to become the Province of Canada

Upper Canada --> Canada West

Lower Canada --> Canada East

One legislative assembly

42 elected officials from Canada West

42 elected officials from Canada East

Debts are combined to one debt

English becomes the official language of the Province of Canada

@ first rejected Responsible Gov't , later leaders in East and West formed an alliance and adopted it in 1848

Union of the Two Canadas Economic Changes after 1840 Great Britain adopts free trade in 1846 No more preferential tariffs for colonies! Canada has to compete on the world market Export trade (wheat, timber) reduced BIG TIME Consequence --> 1854 Reciprocity Treaty Between British North American Colonies (Canada) and USA. Treaty to last 10 years

Great Britain adopts free trade in 1846

No more preferential tariffs for colonies!

Canada has to compete on the world market

Export trade (wheat, timber) reduced BIG TIME

Consequence --> 1854 Reciprocity Treaty

Between British North American Colonies (Canada) and USA.

Treaty to last 10 years

Union of the Two Canadas Reciprocity Treaty (1854)‏ free entry ( no tariffs ) for natural products ( wheat, fish, timber,coal ) of each country into the markets of the other. free access to each other's fisheries . Canada allowed free navigation on Lake Michigan United States allowed free navigation on the St. Lawrence River.

free entry ( no tariffs ) for natural products ( wheat, fish, timber,coal ) of each country into the markets of the other.

free access to each other's fisheries .

Canada allowed free navigation on Lake Michigan

United States allowed free navigation on the St. Lawrence River.

Union of the Two Canadas Economic Changes after 1840 Transporation System 1850-1860 more canals built and deepened more railways built People and places were being connected

Transporation System 1850-1860

more canals built and deepened

more railways built

People and places were being connected

References Quotes from: Canada: A People's History http://history.cbc.ca/?MIval=HistSearch.html All images are from http:// www.lbpsb.qc.ca /~history// , except for the following British North America, 1791 http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/h2/f1/nlc006838-v6.jpg Upper Canada, Lower Canada http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/11/79711-004-7CA7283C.gif

Quotes from: Canada: A People's History http://history.cbc.ca/?MIval=HistSearch.html

All images are from http:// www.lbpsb.qc.ca /~history// , except for the following

British North America, 1791 http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/h2/f1/nlc006838-v6.jpg

Upper Canada, Lower Canada http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/11/79711-004-7CA7283C.gif

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