History of Philosophy

50 %
50 %
Information about History of Philosophy

Published on June 12, 2019

Author: MuhammadAli1224

Source: slideshare.net

1. Topic: History of Philosophy Presented to: Mr. Riaz Khan Dasti Presented by: Malik Muhammad Ali Roll No. : BSENL-17-25 Course: Philosophy (Phil 201) Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan – Bahadur Sub Campus Layyah

2. History of Philosophy: Philosophy is basically derived from two words “Philo” and “Sophy”. “Philo” means “to love” and “Sophy” means “wisdom or knowledge”. In history of philosophy we will basically derive the terms in chronological order. The history of philosophy is basically started from Greek mythology and it flourishes and moves from one step to another. Important Contributors Works Contributions I- Greek Philosophers (600-500 BC.) Thales (624-546 BC.) Thalestheorem. Sevensage of Greece He proposedthatall thingsare made up of water.Source of all thingsis water. Anaximander(611-547 BC.) OnNature AnaximanderandOrigin of GreekCosmology Apeiron an Anaximander:astudyin the originand Functionof Metaphysical Ideas. Original source of all thingsisa boundless intermediate element. He proposedthatuniverse originatesin separationof opposite matterand dyingthingsare returningtothe boundlesselementsfromwhichthey came.He saw universe asakindof organism, supportedby“pneuma” (CosmicBreath). Anaximenes(599-524 BC.) Philipicca Airisthe Arche All livingthingsare made upof vapor. Source of all livingthingsmustbe air or vapor. He proposedthateverything isair and source of all thingsin universe isair.He wasthe firstto distinguishbetweenstarandplanets. Pythagoras (580-500 BC.) Harmonyof Spheres Pythagorastheorem The Orderand Doctrine The Secrethistory of Pythagoras He believedthatall thingsare numbers.The worldcan be understoodthroughmathematics. Innumerabilityconstitutesthe true nature of things.He believedt5hat soul residesinbrainandisimmortal and itgoesintotransmigrationfrom one beingtoanothersometimesfrom humanto animal andthenit becomes pure.He alsobelievedthatworld dependsoninteractionof opposite betweenmalesandfemale,lightand darkness. Xenophanesof Colophon (570-480 BC.) Xenophanes of Colophon Fragments Buried his own son He stressed unity rather than diversity and viewed the separate existence of material things as apparentrather than real. Heraclitus ofEphesus OnPolitics “Everythingflows”.He proposedthat

3. (540-460 BC.) OnUniverse nature is in continuousflux.Lifeislike a river. The peaksand troughsare all the part of ride. Epicharmus of Kos (530- 450 BC.) 52 comedies that are now lost and in fragments. AgrostinosGa Kai Thalassa (Earth and Sea) Elpis (Hope) & Ploutos (Wealth) He wasof the view thatthe contionousexercise of virtue could overcome heredity,sothatanyone had potential tobe a goodperson regardlessof birth. 500-400 BC. ParmenidesofElea (540- ? BC.) The way of truth Proem Parmenides of Elia : Fragments : A Text and translation with Introduction. “Nothingcan come from nothing”.He assertedthatchange is impossible, and that comingintoexistence or ceasingto existare likewise impossible,sothateverythingis permanent, ingenerated,indestructible and unchanging. Anaxagoras (500-428 B.C.) Cosmologytheory Simpliciusof Cilicus “Somethingofeverythingin everything” orthe universe was a mixture of al,itsingredients,although the mixture istrulyuniformandthese ingredientsvariesfromtime totime and place to place.Andthisisa natural processwithoutthe helpof any god. Zenoof Elea (490-430 BC.) Reductio ad absurdum The Paradoxes Fatherof stoicism. He devisedseveral paradoxesseemingtoshow that motionisimpossible. He proposed that motionisnothingjustan illusion. Empedocles(490-430 B.C.) StrasbourgPapyrus Theoriesof Causation Worldis consistof more than one single substance.(earth,air,fire and water) Gorgias(483-374 BC.) Ecomiumof Helen Defense of Palamades Technai He believedthatthere wasno absolute formof virtue butthat if was relative toeachsituation.He believed that rhetoricwaskingof all other sciencesbecause itwascapable of persuadinganycourse of action. Protagoras of Abdera (481-420 BC.) Alethia Paretheon Onthe Gods He believedinanobjectivestandard of truthwhicheveryone needsto apprehendandacknowledgeinorder to live afull life. Sophist Onthe Non-Existent (Protagoras,Antiphon,Herodes Atticus,Gorgias,SextusEmpiricus, Dissoi Logoi) were professional teachersof Greece. Theyattackedon traditional moral valuesmarksthe beginningof ethical philosophy.

4. Socrates (470-399 B.C.) Socraticmethod The gadflyof Athens Trial andExecution The onlythingI know is thatI know nothing.He elaboratedthe question answeringmethod. Leucippus(5th Century BC.) AtomistDoctrine Greatworldsystem All thingsare composedof indivisible external particles. Epicurus (448-370 B.C.) Calistolos Antidorus Timocrates Hgisianax Onthe Criterion Epicureanschool of thought. He held the notion that highestobjective isto leada pleasantlife throughmoderate living. 400-300 BC. Antisthenes(444-365 BC.) DialogicaVaria Tragica& Homerica Theoryof Ethics. Theoryof Logic True happinessis notfoundin external advantages.Itisin everyone’sreach. He isthe founderof Cynicism. Aristippus(440-366 BC.) Phaedo(bookonsoul) Cleombrotus The highest aimof lifeis to gain possible sensory enjoyment. Hippocrates (430-377 B.C.) HippocratesOath Vismedicatrix nature HippocraticCorpus He wasthe firstmedical practitioner. He foundedthe CoanSchool of Medicine.He removedthe stance of disease aspunishment Aesara of Luciana (around 350 B.C.) Archytasof Tarentum Morality& Natural laws Greekphilosopher.She introspecting aboutthe nature of nature and structure of humansoul we can identifyastandardof personal and publicmorality. Plato (428-347 B.C.) Apology Theoryof forms HapicusMajor Lawsof nature He wasconcernedwiththe relation between “whatisimmutable” and “what flows”.He proposed“theoryof ideas. Bestwayof state isclass structuredaristocracyruledby philosopher-kings. The formof Good the ultimate source of realityand value Xenophon(427-355 BC.) Anabasis Memorobilia Hiero Oeconomicus He wasa political philosopherandhe proposedaview thata man should live alife ina state not accordingto state will butaccordingto hisownwill Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) Lyceum The unmovedmover 200 dialogueswere writtenbyhim He stressedthathighestdegreeof realityisthathow we perceive things. The distinguishedbetweenformand substance.Andthese are the facts

5. aboutnatural world. Happinessisour highestgood. State providesagood life toitscitizens onthe basisof circumstances. II- Hellenistic andChrist Era 300-200 BC. Theophrastus (371-287 BC.) Peri PhytonHistoria Physikondoxai He basicallystrengthen the beliefsof people onthe systematicunity andto reduce the transcendental elements Pyrrho (360-270 BC.) Stoics& Skeptics Pyrrho,His Antecedents,andHis Legacy Everytheorycan be opposedbyan equal validcontradictorytheory;we mustsuspend judgmentonall issues. Epicurus (341-270 BC.) Calistolos Antidorus Timocrates Hgisianax Onthe Criterion Epicureanschool of thought. He held the notion that highestobjective isto leada pleasantlife throughmoderate living. Strato of Lampsacus (340-268 BC.) Of kingship Of justice Of Goods Of gods Onthe Void OnHappiness He wasof the materialisticbelieved that everythinginuniverseismade composedof matterand energy.He formulatesasecularview inwhich God ismerelythe unconscious force of nature. Timon (320-230 BC.) The Silloi Indalmoi He wasthe kingof the state andhe embarkeduponthe sarcastic approach towardsthe dogmaticviews of philosophers. 200-100 BC. Carnaeades(214-129 BC.) Cleitomachus To Pithanon He workedonhumanfreedom, determinismandtruthvalues.He gave the bivalence principle that(only statementP,eitherPistrue or false) III- Roman Era Philosopher 100 BC-01 AD Lucretius (99-55 BC.) De rarum natura He proposed a view that death is nothing to us.it means that when we became dead our bodies remain dead but our soul are always alive,they are immortal 01 – 100 AD Cicero(106-43 B.C.) Adatticum De Orate He formedthe conceptof “humanism”. Philo(20 BC – 40 AD) EveryGoodMan isFree Onthe Eternity Onthe Providence He synthesizesthe revealedfaithand philosophical reason.He occupiesa unique positioninthe historyof philosophy.He isalsoregardedby

6. fore-runnerof Christiantheology. Senecathe younger(4 BC – 65 AD) Adluccilium Naturalesquaestiones Proposedasloganfor humanism school of thought “to mankind, mankind is holy” 100-200 AD Epictetus(55-133 AD.) The Discourses Enchiridion He proposedaview thatnature of thingsalwaysbasedontwothings (Inclusive(health,wealth,fame) and Exclusive (judgment,impulse) power). To become successful inlifewe must control overexternal things.Sothatis improvesthe innerjudgmentand innercalmness. Marcus Aurelius(121-180 AD.) Meditations The Essential He wasthe emperor.He hasno faith on afterlifeandhismotivesabout desire are verycorrupt.He encouragedGreekculture inRome. 200-400 AD SextusEmpiricus (3rd century) Outline of Pyrrhonism Againstthe Mathematicians He wasfamousskeptic. He argued that we shouldsuspendjudgment aboutvirtuallyall beliefs.Thatis,we shouldneitheraffirmanybelief as true nor denyany beliefasfalse. Plotinus(205-270 AD.) Enneads Six booksof nine treatises Timaeus All thatexistisGod. Soul isilluminated by the lightfromthe God, while matteris the darknessthathas no real existence. Hypatia (350-415 AD.) Almagest Plotemaicmodel Proposedthe importance of mathematicsin life.She wasthe most prominentladywhoworkedin mathematics,whoencouragedthe conceptof circle,triangle and hyperbola. Augustine of Hippo(354- 430 AD.) Confesssions De Civitate Dei De Trinitate He arguedthat skepticshave nobasis for claimingtoknow thatthere is no knowledge,andhe believedthat genuine humanknowledge canbe establishedwithcertainty.He believedreasontobe a uniquely humancognitive capacity that comprehends deductive truthandlogic. IV- Medieval Philosophers 500—800 AD Boethius(480-524 AD.) Consolationof Philosophy He arguedaboutacceptance of hardshipina spiritof philosophical

7. The Metresof Boethius detachmentfrommisfortune.He arguedthat fortune all happens with the will of god. John Philoponus(490- 570 AD.) Onthe Eternityof Worlds Theoryof Impetus He arguedthat motionisintrinsic propertyof the movingobjectitself. John of Dasmascus (680- 750 AD.) Isogogue Panarion Pege gnoseos Philosophyisthe knowledge of things (divine andhumanthings) whichare inso far as theyare, thatis, knowledge of the nature of things whichhave beingboth. (Visibleand Invisible). 800-900 AD Al-Kundi (801-873 AD.) Al-Falsafahal-ulafima dunal-tabi’yatwaal- tawhid He laidthe foundationforexplaining the problemof free will ina philosophical way.Real actionsare not the resultof intentionorwill and that the will of manis a psychological powermovedbythoughts.Defined God as an absolute andtranscendent being. John the Scot (815-877 AD.) De Predestinations De divisione He arguedthat God isthe beginning and endof all beingsandthe dual mode of existence of thingsare intelligibleandsensible nature. 900-100 AD Al-Razi (865-925 AD.) Alchemy Kitabal-hawi He developedthe theoryof five eternals,accordingtowghichworldis producedoutof an interaction betweenGodandfourothereternal principles(soul,matter,timeand place). Al-Farabi (870-950 AD.) al-ijtima’al-fadil al-madinaal-fadila He acclaimedGodto be Absolute beingasthe firstcause.He regarded the ideal state governedbyImam.The virtuoussocietywhere people cooperate togain happiness.Society isdividedintowicked,ignorantand errant people. 1000-1100 AD Ibn-Sina(980-1037 AD.) Maqalafi’l-nafs The bookof Healing al-Hikmaal’Arudiya That there isa parallelismbetween philosophyandtheology.

8. Anselm(1034-1109 AD.) De grammatico The De Veritate The Monologion He arguedthat withoutthe absolute truth (God),andwithoutthisabsolute truth or belief ourbasicfaithisin trouble.He use the priori to understandthe basicconceptsof absolute truth. Al-Ghazali (1058-1111 AD.) Tuhafatul al-Falsifah Ihyaal-‘Uiumal-Islamia He arguedthat philosophyis incomplete withoutreligion.He furtherarguedthat God knowsby essence notbyknowledge.Ethicsis aroundthe control of soul and body and rewardsare spiritual notbodily. 1100-1200 AD PeterAbelard (1079-1160 AD.) Sicet Non(Yesor No) The philosophyof Peter Albelard Medieval philosopher. Carefullyanalyzesthe moralityof intent. Moral goodnessliesin intendingtoshow love of Godand neighborandbeingcorrectinthat intension. Averroes(1126-1198 AD.) TAHFUL AL-TAHAFAT Kitabal-Falsafa He saidmaterialismandintellectis same for whole mankind.He accepted Aristotle viewthatmanisa social animal andhe can’tlive ina solitary life. He believedintwo separate truths,that of religionandthatof philosophy. Maimonides(1135-1204 AD.) Guide forPerpexed Mishnah It isimpossiblefortrutharrivedat by humanintellecttocontradictthose revealedbyGod.He alsoproves Aristotle viewthatGodcare is always providenttohumanitynotindividual. St. Francis of Assisi (1182-1226 AD.) CantciumFratrisSolis RgullaBullata Admonites Influencedbymystical tendenciesin Neo-Platonism, soughtareturnto the firstprinciple of being. 1200-1300 AD Albertthe great (1193- 1280 AD.) SummaTheologiae OnCleavingtoGod OnUnionwithGod He wasneo-platonism.He basically arguedon the doctrine of church and discussedabout the matter of music as it effectsonsoul. Thomas Aquinas (1214- 1274 AD.) SummaContraGentiles Onthe Truth of Catholic Faith SummaTheologica Quinquae viae He proposedthe ideathat God is alwaysverifiedthroughreasonand rational explanation.Reconciled Aristotelianethical naturalismwith Christianity.Proposedfourkindsof lawsfor state to relate betweenstate and church.

9. Roger Bacon (1214-1294 AD.) OpusMajus OpusMinus OpusTertium SpeculumAlchemiae The mirrorof Alchemy He wasa medievalEnglish philosopherandFranciscanfriarwho placedemphasisonthe studyof nature throughempiricism. Siger(1240-1280 AD.) De unitate intellectus Hebembarkeduponthe church of that time andtalkedforthe well being of the people.He criticallyevaluate the philosophyof ThomasAquinas 1300-1400 AD Marsiliusof Padua (1270- 1342 AD.) The Defenderof Pence DefensorPacis He basicallycriticizespope andgave the three foldview of state,firstis Aristotle wayof state,secondone is church and thirdone isthe wayof people forminggovernment. WilliamofOckham (1288-1348 AD.) OckhamRazor Entianonsunt multiplicandaor necessitate He devisedthe viewsof divine omnipotence,grace andjustification as well asethics Jean Buridan (1300-1358 AD.) OnHeavens ParvaNaturalia He workedbasicallyonmathematics and natural philosophy.He arguedon theoryof motionthat onlyaninternal motive force,transmittedfromthe moverto the projectile,couldexplain itsmotion. John Wycliffe (1320-1384 AD.) De eucharistia De apostasia ContinuatioLogicae Thingsare placedinextra-ordinary worldand we basicallyperceive the thingsonthe basisof perceptionand theirphysical appearancesandwe perceive themonthe basisof two genre substancesandqualities. Nicole Oresme (1320- 1382 AD.) Condiciotheoryof accidents De origine,natura,jure et mutationibus momentarum He workedupontheoryof motion.He proposedthatmotionisa fluxus,a successive entityof itsownthatexists inaddition tothe mobile andthe thingsthat are acquiredduring motion. This isa clear departure from nominalisticposition. 1400-1500 AD Nicholasof Cusa (1401- 1464 AD.) ImagoDei SolaScriptura He basicallygave the political theory throughwhicha state can be run. He arguedboththe church andthe state shouldworktogetherina wayfor the basicwell-beingof people. Lorenzo Valla(1407-1457 AD.) De voluptate De Professione religiosorum He isbestknownforhis textual analysisthatprovedthe donationof Constantine wasaforgery.

10. Pico dellaMirandola (1463-1494 AD.) Dignityof Man De ente etuno He talkedaboutthe dignityof man that how man differfromother creaturesas man isa creationwith unique andimportanttrait,free will. V- Early ModernPhilosophers 1500-1550 AD DesideriusErasmus (1466-1536 AD.) QurelaPacis Copia,Eramus He wasthe memberof churchand he devisedthe doctrine of free will of CatholicChurch. NicholoMachiavelli (1469-1527 AD.) The Prince Discorsi sopralaprima deca di TitoLivio He devisedthe relationshipbetween ethicsandpowerina society.His famousquotationis“endjustifiesthe mean”.If bloodsheddingforathe sake of societyisnota bad thing. Martin Luthur (1483- 1546 AD.) The Law and the Gospel Theologyof the Cross He believed,rather,thatphilosophy and reasonhadimportantrolesto playinour livesandinthe livesof community. 1550-1600 AD John Calvin(1509-1564 AD.) Michael Servetus ReformsinGeneva He helpedpopularizethe beliefinthe sovereigntyof Godinall areasof life, as well asthe doctrine of predestination. Francisco Suarez (1548- 1617 AD.) De Incarnatione De sacramentis De religione De operasex dierum He isthe eminentrepresentative of Scholasticism.;he adheredtoa moderate formof Thomismand developedmetaphysicsasa systematicenquiry. GiordanoBruno (1548- 1600 AD.) Operalatine Conscripta Operamagiche Bruno burnedatthe stake fora stubbornadherence tohisthen unorthodox beliefs –includingthe ideasthatthe universe isinfinite and that othersolarsystemexist 1600-1650 AD Francis Bacon (1561-1626 AD.) NovumOrganum Advancementof Learning He proposedthatthe defectsof all previoussystemsof beliefsabout nature,he argued,layin the inadequate treatmentof the general propositionsfromwhichthe deductionwere made. GalileoGalilei (1564-1642 AD.) Dialoguesconvcerning twoworldsystem He proposed fundamental conceptsin kinematics,dynamicsandballistics.He gave the “Law ofInertia”. Hugo Grotius(1583-1645 AD.) De IndisandMare Liberum De Jure Belli acPacis He proposedthe basicpolitical thoughtsandmoral theoriesof enlightenment

11. Rene Descartes (1596- 1650 AD.) Discourse onmethod --.MeditationsonFirst Philosophy Philosophyshouldgofromsimple to the complex toconstructa new insight.Proposedthe conceptof dualism, andsaid “Ithink therefore I am”. 1650-1700 AD Thomas Hobbeps (1588- 1679 AD.) Levianthan Elementsof Law He isthe firstgreat modern materialist.He heldthatall thatexists isbodiesinmotion.“Good”and “evil” denote whata person“desires”or “hate”.A sense of transferof power shouldbe inpeople tolive honorable &peaceful life. Jacques Rohault (1617- 1672 AD.) Traite de physique Cartesianmodel He gave the qualifiedsupporttoits corpuscular oratomicformof explanation,assumingthat“small figuredbodies”were the underlying physical reality. GeraudCordemoy(1626- 1684 AD.) Discourse de l’action descorps Discourse psychiae de la parole He basicallyworkedontheoriesof language.He proposedthe notion that the mainconcern of the beingis liesinlanguage anditremain Cartesianwiththoughts. Richard Cumberland (1631-1718 AD.) De legibusnaturae He proposedthe view thatself- advantage isnot the chief concernof thingsbutthe advantageof whole societyisthe mainconcernof the state John Locke (1632-1704 AD.) AnEssay concerning humaneducation Anessay concerning toleration We perceive objectsindirectlyby meansof perceptionof them. God gave natural rightsand state is createdfor the protectionof that rights Baruch Spinoza(1632- 1677 AD.) Improvementto understanding:Ethicsand Correspondence of Benedictde Spinoza Tratadopolitico Spinozainterpretedthisasmeaning bothlove of God and love of humanity.Everythinginthe material worldhappensthroughnecessity. Issac Newton(1643-1727 AD.) PhilosphiaePrincipia Mathematica He proposed “Lawof Gravitation”.He arguedthat by law of gravitation thingsfall ongroundand things movesonground. 1700-1750 AD GottfriedLeibniz(1646- 1716 AD.) Discouse on Metaphysics The CalsulusWar The ultimate realityof thingsisnon material,invisible unitsof force.

12. John Norris (1657-1711 AD.) A collectionof Miscellanies The root of liberty He believedthatgodtruthand love is ineveryaspectof life,andthat the purpose of educationandknowledge be onlyto betterunderstandgodand religion(Christianity) ChristianWolff(1679- 1754 AD.) Dissertatioalgebracia de alogrithmo infinitesimali differentiali Psychologiaempirica He proposesthatthe purpose of knowledge shouldnotbe rootedin whathe calls“the puristof the knowledge of truth”butalsoinits utilityandpractical valuesithasfor humanin everydaylife.He workedon logic. George Berkeley(1685- 1753 AD.) A Treatise Concerning the purpose of human knowledge AnEssay towardneew theoryof vision. Material realitydoesn’texist.We perceive onlyideas. Everythingwe see and feel is‘aneffectof God’spower. David Hartley (1705-1757 AD.) ObservationonMan HisFrame HisDuty andHis Expectations He soughtto explainnotonly the phenomenaof memory,whichother had similarlyexplainedbefore him, but alsothe phenomenaof reasoning, and of voluntaryandinvoluntary action. 1750-1800 AD Thomas Reid (1710-1796 AD.) Essayon the intellectual powerof man Essayon the active powerof Human Mind He believedthatcommonsense shouldbe or at leastisthe foundation of all philosophical inquiry.The foundationinoursensesshowsthat we are inthisworld. David Hume (1711-1776 AD.) A Treatise toHuman Nature AnEnquiryconcerning humanunderstanding Dialoguesconcerning Natural Religion Each elementwasonce sensed,and enteredthe theatre of the mindinthe formof a real ‘impression’.The act that pleasesourmoral sensibility is one that reflectsthe agent’s benevolentcharacter. Jean-JacquesRousseau (1712-1778 AD.) The Social Contract Discourse of Inequality Emile oron education He believedthatpeople neithergive up theirrightsto the state nor entrust them.People shouldunite instate for creatingsocial impact. Adam Smith (1723-1790 AD.) Wealthof Nation The Theory76 of Moral Sentiments Lectureson Jurisprudence He talkedaboutCapitalism. He talked aboutfree marketeconomyanda laissez-faireeconomy. Immanuel Kant (1724- 1804 AD.) Critique of Pure Reason Critique of Practical Reason All ourknowledge of the worldcomes fromour sensationandinsensation by experience.Butinour reasonthere

13. Critique of Judgment are decisive factorsthatdetermine how we perceive the worldaroundus. A part of happinessmustbe measured interm of qualityandquantity. Edmund Burke (1729- 1797 AD.) ReflectionsonFrench Revolution A philosophical enquiry A vindicationof Natural Theory His political principleswererootedin moral and natural lawsand western traditions.He believedinprescriptive rightsand that those rightswere God- given. Thomas Jefferson(1743- 1824 AD.) Note4sonthe state of Virginia A Manual of Parliament The Portable He outlinednew political principles that launchedanew nation.Asa framerof the VirginiaStatue of ReligiousLiberty,he spearheaded earlyeffortstoseparate churchand state. JeremyBentham (1748- 1832 AD.) El Panoptico A fragmenton government The bookof fallacies A utilitarian.Pleasure canbe evaluatedquantatively.Dismissedtalk aboutnatural rightsas meaningless. G. W.F. Hegel (1770- 1831 AD.) The Phenomenologyof mind Science of Logic Philosophyof Rights Realityisthe expressionof thought and reason.There are three stagesof knowledge (thesis,antithesisand synthesis). VI- Modernphilosophers 1800-1850 AD F. W. J. von Schelling (1775-1854 AD.) Onthe essence of hiumanfreedom the Abyssof Freedom The Indivisible Remainder All of nature – boththe human soul and physical reality –isthe expression of one Absolute,orworldspirit,he believed.He wantedtounite mind and matter. Ralph WaldoEmerson (1803-1832) Self Reliance Nature The essaysof Ralph Waldo He believedinremainingthe divineas somethinglarge andvisible,whichhe referredtoas nature:such an ideais knownas transdentalism, inwhich one perceivesanew Godand their body,and becomesone with their surroundings Alexisde Tocquevillie (1805-1859) DemocracyinAmerica the OldRegime and Resolution Tocqueville inAmerica He believe thatAmericanjurysystem was particularlyimportantin educatingcitizeninself-government and rule of law.He oftenexpressedthat how the civil jurysystemwasone of the most effective showcaseof democracybecause itconnected citizenswiththe true spiritof the justice system

14. John Stuart Mill (1806- 1873) OnLiberty The Subjectionon Women Principlesof Political Economy A utilitarian.Pleasure –a part of happiness –mustbe measuredin termof qualityandquantity.The functionof state isto promote general happiness. Augustus De Morgan (1806-1871) A budgetof Paradoxes Memiorof AugustusDe Morgan His majorcontributionare in mathematicswhere he induced Morgan lawsand workleadingtothe developmentof the theoryof relationsandthe rise of modern symbolicorlogic. CharlesDarwin (1809- 1882) Origionof Species The Voyage of the Beogle “Theoryof evolution”. He made a “bridge” betweentworealmsof thoughts. Soren Kierkegaard(1813- 1855) Either/Or Fearand Trembling He proposedthree stagesof life (aestheticstage,ethical stage, religiousstage). Max Stirner (1816-1856) The egoand itsown Stirner’scritics All thingsare nothingto me He claimsthatphilosophydoesn’t botheritself withwithobjects (Religion),nordoesit“make anobject (Art).Itis basicallyadifferential betweenartandreligion. Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862 AD.) Walden Walking A weekonthe Concord He gave the view inhisessayto civil disobedience,whichshowsthatwe shouldbe disobedienttowardthe unjuststate 1850-1900 CE Karl Marx (1818-1883) Capital The Communist The Germanideology He gave the view of capitalismandhe alsoprovidedthe view of labortheory of value includingthe capital profit and surplusvalue.Hismajor contributionsare ineconomicsand politics. Herbert Spencer(1820- 1903) The Godwulf manuscript Godsave the Child He heldthe notionthatthe life of humanin a societywasa struggle for existence ruledbysurvival of the fittest.Heblateracceptedthe theory that natural lawswere one of the causesof biological evolution. CharlesSanders Peirce (1839-1914) The essential Pierce Collectedpapersof Pierce The Fixationof Belief The sum of consequenceswill constitute the entire meaningof the conception WilliamJames(1842- 1910) The Principlesof Philosophy The varitiesof Religious Experience What differentiatebetweenyouand me and presentedworld-formulabe true one.

15. FriedrichNietzsche (1844-1900) BeyondGoodandevil ThusSpoke Zaratushtra He anticipatedimportantthemesof existentialism.Distinguishbetween slave moralityandmastermorality. Ferdinandde Saussure (1857-1913) Course inGeneral Linguistics Melangesde Linguistics He isconsideredasfatherof linguistics.He wasthe firstwho emphasisonthe studyof language for use of language ina properway. Edmund HusserI (1859- 1938) Logical Investigation The crisisof European sciences Firstgreat phenomenologist. He gave the procedure bywhichthe realityof objectsandeventsare perceivedin humanconsciousness. John Dewey(1859-1952) Democracyand Education How we think Experience and Education Think isnot a search fortruth but is aimedat solvingpractical problems. Rabindranath Tagore (1861- Gitanjli Kubiwala Gora UnitedIndiatradition thathow Indian culture isacquiringconditionsof modernworld. Max Weber(1864-1920) The Protestant PoliticsasaVocation Science asa Vocation He gave rationalizationtheorywhich referstothe processbywhichmodern societyhasincreasinglybecome concernedwithEfficiency:achieving the maximumresultswithaminimum amountof effort G. E. Moore (1873-1958) PrincipiaEthica The Nature of Judgment Some judgmentsof Perceptions A deference of Common Sense He assertedthatphilosophical argumentscan sufferfromconfusion betweenthe use of aterm ina particularargumentandthe definition of thatterm.He namedthisconfusion naturalisticfallacy.One saygoodand othersay beautiful thanitmeansboth are true because the value of goodnesscanneverbe judged. 1900-1950 AD George Santayana (1863- 1952) The Sense of Beauty The Life of Reason The Last Purtin He basicallycontributedinphilosophy interm of beautyand the beautyin sense of aesthetics.He moveda notionthat“those whocannot rememberthe pastare condemnedto repeatit” H. A. Prichard (1871- 1947) Moral Obligations Kanttheoryof Knowledge Moral Writings He wasfamousethical intuitionism. He arguedthat moral obligations cannot be reducedtoanythingelse, but isperceivedbydirectintuition. Bertrand Russell (1872- 1970) Historyof Western Philosophy Philosophyisthe wayof thinking aboutthe world,universe,and

16. The Problemsof Philosophy society.Itworksby askingverybasic questionsaboutthe nature of human thoughts,the nature of universe and the connectionbetweenthem.Butit doesnotmean thatphilosophyisnot aboutthe real world Max Scheler(1874-1928 AD.) The HumanPlace in the Cosmos Onthe Eternal in Man He studiedthe structure of mental experiencestoencompassit judgmentswithvalues,moralityand concepts.he movedthe notionthat everyconsciousexperience Irelated to man Ernst Cassirer(1874-1945 AD.) The Philosophyof SymbolicForms AnEssay onMan The mythsof the State He arguedthat man issymbolic animal,whereasanimalsperceive the worldbyinstinctanddirect experience andsensoryperceptions, humancreatesthe universe of symbolicmeaning. Pierre Theilhardde Chardin (1881-1955 AD.) The Phenomenonof Man The Future of Man Christianityand Evolution He gave the theorythat if the world evolutionisconvergentandChristis the center,thencosmogenesis becomesaChristogenesis“meaninga processthat formsthe Total Christ. Jacques Maritain (1882- 1973 AD.) The Degree of Knowledge Man and State AnIntroductionto Philosophy He proposedthe notionthat“Lacked knowledge of humanity’sultimate end” Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951 AD.) OnCertainty TractatusLogico- Philosophicus He saidthat ethicsisthe code of life by whichwe live inthisworld. Gabriel Marcel (1889- 1973 AD.) The Mysteryof Being BeingandHaving He wasexistentialismanditsviewfor life’sexperiencesandinteractionsre meaningless Martin Heidegger(1889- 1976 AD.) Beingandtime Whatis calledthinking He showsthathuman realityisoften lostininauthenticandeverydaylife. But humanbeingcan alsofindhis authenticityandopenthe mysteryof the Being,source of all things WalterBenjamin(1892- 1940 AD.) ArcadesProject Illuminations He wasof the view thatphilosopher and critical theoristcanbe gaugedby the diversityof hisintellectual influenceandthe continuing productivityof histhoughts. Karl Popper (1902-1994 AD.) The OpenSocietyand itsEnemies Objectiveknowledge He arguedthat scientifictheoriesare distinguishedfromnon-scientific theoriesandpseudo-science bybeing

17. falsifiable claimsaboutthe world. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905- 1980 AD.) Nausea BeingandNothingness The Wall Emphasizedthe significance of abandonmentanditsimplications. Karl Jaspers (1905-1982 AD.) Wayto Wiosdom The question of GermanGuilt “Individual freedompermeateshis work” VII- Post Colonial Thoughts LeopoldSedar Senghor (1906 - ) The CollectedPoetry Ethiopiques Formulatedthe conceptof negritude, whichassertsan essential uniqueness inAfricanculture. Hannah Arendt(1906- 1975 AD.) The HumanCondition The Originof Totalitarianism She talkedaboutfreedomof will, freedomof choice anddecides betweentwothingsthe goodandthe evil andwhose choice ispre- determinedbymotive whichhasonly to be arguedto start its opration. Simon de Beauvoir (1908-1986) The SecondSex The Maridians Extendedthe discussionof feminism intoall areas of intellectual endeavor. Claude Levi-Strauss(1908 - ) The Savage mind The elementaryKinship AdaptedandappliedSaussure’s structuralismapproachto ethnographicresearch. AlbertCamus (1913- 1960) The Stranger The Plague He emphasizedonthe absurdityof worldand the inabilityof the individualtomeetgenuinehuman needswithinit Francisco Miro Quesada (1918 - ) LecionesCoraje LessoninCourage Notedforhiswork intheoryof knowledge andpolitical theory,which avoidsmetaphysical solutionsto problems. Chaikh Anta Diop (1923- 1986) The AfricianOriginof Civilization The Cultural Unityof Black Africa ArguedblackAfricawasthe originof EgyptianCivilization. Zygmunt Bauman (1925- 2017) LiquidModernity LiquidLove He talkedonmodernitythatitcontrol overour nature,hierarchical bureaucracy,rulesandregulations – all of whichattemptedtoremove graduallypersonal insecurities, makingchaoticconceptof humanlife ina well order. Michel Foulcast(1926- 1984) Discipline andPunish The Orderof Things Providedacritique of conventional social madnessandsexuality.

18. Noam Chomsky (born 1928) SyntatcticStructures Hegemonyof Survival He isthe linguist,whogenerative conceptof transformational generative grammarwhichisfounded on mentalistphilosophy. Jaakko Hintikka (1929- 2015) The Principlesof Mathematics Language,Truthand Logic He isone of the modern philosopher whoemphasisonthe value of truth and logicandby logicw basically determinesthe things Martin Luthur Jr.(1929- 1968) IHave a Dream Where DoWe Go From Here Ledthe AfricanAmericansdrive for equal civil rights. Jacques Derrida (1930- 2004) Of grammatology Spectersof Marx Influential Frenchdeconstructionalist. Desmond Tutu (1931 - ) The Bookof forgiving NoFuture Without Forgiveness Providedsignificantspiritualand moral leadershipinthe successful struggle againstapartheid. Richard Rorty (1931- 2007) Philosophyandthe Mirror of True Achievingourcountry Interpretedcontinentalphilosophy througha pragmatic perspective. Val Plumwood(1939- 2080) Environmental Culture The Eye of Crocodile Findsthe inferiorizationof women and nature to be linkedandgrounded inthe rationalistconceptionof human nature and the liberal conceptsof the individual. Carol Gilligan(1936- ) Ina different The birthof Pleasure Arguesthatmen andwomenhave characteristicallydifferent waysof reasoningaboutmoral issues. Cornel West(1953 - ) Race Matters Democracymatters Bestknownfor hisanalysisof depth dimensionsof racial issues VIII- Feminist philosophers 1950-2000 CE Bell Hooks (1955 - ) All aboutLbove Ain’tIa women Her critical analysisof typesof feminismthatfail todojustice tothe needsof minoritywomen. GloriaSteinem(1934 - ) My Life onthe Road revolutionfromWithin She broughtfeministissuestothe public’sattention. Kate Millett(1934-1947) Sexual politics Flying Arguesthatpatriarchy extendstoall areas of life. Sara Ruddick (1935-2011) Maternal thinking Experience of beingamotheris influencesone’s moral perceptions. Ann Ferguson (1938- ) Sexual Democracy Bloodatthe Root We shouldpursue amono- androgynoussocietytoensure that we are all fullyhuman. Joyce Trebilcot Dyke Ideas The androgynoussocietyshould include asmanyoptionsas possible,

19. includingtraditionallymale typesand traditional female types. Marilyn Frye (1941- ) The Politicsof Reality WillfulVirgin Of masculine andfeminine are shaped by ideasof dominance and subordination. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak (born 1942) InotherWorld Outside the teaching Machine She basicallyembarkedonthe rights of womeninsucha way that they shouldbe place at equal status accordingto men Nancy Chordorow (1944- ) The Reproduction Feminismand Psychology Difference betweenmenandwomen can be tracedto the psychodynamics of the nuclearfamily. ShulamithFirestone (1945 - 2012) The Dialecticof Sex AirlessSpaces Arguedthatnew reproductive technologiescouldfree womenfrom oppression. Susan MollerOkin (1946- 2004) Justice,genderand Family WomeninWestern Philosophy Criticize the traditionalthemesof justice. IX - EasternPhilosophy Before 256 BC Guan Zhong (diedin645 BC.) Guanzi Romancesof Three Kingdoms Economicsdialoguesin ancientchina He proposedthe notion “balancing the lightand the heavy”. He wasthe chancellorof the state and he proposedthe social lawsinsucha waysthat everyone isequal and everyone shouldgetthingsaccording to theirnecessities. Confucius(551-479 BC.) The Bookof document The Doctrine of the Mean and the Great Learning Empasizedthe perfectibilityof people as well astheirabilitytoeffectthings for the better. Sun Tazu (544-496 BC.) The Art of War He basicallywrote philosophyabout the militarystrategiesinsuchaway by militaryrule we canrule the world ina goodway otherwise itisgoodfor nothing. 475-221 BC. Laozi (4th CenturyBC.) Tao Te ching Zhuangzi He isthe basicproponentof Taoism. In Chinese Taoismisawayof life (the Chinese word“Dao”or “Tao” means “way”). Its fundamental meaningis that simplicityorselflessness,means leadingalife of spontaneity. Mencius(372-289 BC.) Confuciusdescribedanethical Heaven and ethical humanbeingthat

20. correspondedtoandwas supervised by Heaven,forMencius,anethical humanbeingisa moral universe on hisown.He gave the theorythat “humannature is good.” Yang Chu (370-319 BC.) The Gardenof Pleasure He wasthe firsttostudy philosophyof humantendencies.He gave philosophyof deaththatdeathis natural and everyone shouldneither have the fearnor awe about death. Xun Zi (310-237 BC.) Discourse onMusic UndoingFixation CorrectNaming He gave the notionthat heartshould be the lordof the body,andusingthe heartto directdesiresanddecide on rightand wrongaccords withthe way. Zou Yan (305-240 BC.) Bizarre Transformations Endand Renewal He isa naturalistphilosopherandhe gave the view thateverythingin universe isthe combinationof five basicelements (Wood,Fire,Earth, Metal and Water) and all thingsare the combinationof these things. GongsunLongzi (300 BC.) GongsunLongzi and otherNeglectedOnes The worksof Kung –Sun Lung-Tzu He gave the notionthat twothingsare not alwaysequal inanysense if we have the conceptof horse and a white horse thenwe can clearlysaythat a horse isa basicand general concept but a white specifyaspecificcolorso the term horse andwhite horse isnot same. 221 BC - 220 CE Huai Nun Tzu (179-122 BC.) Bookof Han Recordsof Great Historian He wasthe Taoistphilosopherswho gave the concept of way of life that one shouldlive alife asitis because manyincidentshappensinlifebutlife goeson. Yang Xiong (53 BC-18 CE.) Tai xuan Fayan He saidthat humannature is a mixture of goodand evil.One becomesgoodpersonbydeveloping the good andan evil personby enhancingthe evil. Wang Chong(27-97 CE.) Lun-heng The Philosophical thoughtsof Wang Chong There wasa notioninpastthat nature occurrence isdue to mans actionsbut He opposedthatview thathuman actionshave no effectof natural phenomenaandeverythinghappens inuniverse naturally. ChengHsuan (127-200 CE.) Tao-Te-Ching He wasthe Chinese religious philosopherwhogave the conceptof

21. goodand evil inthisuniverse and bothdependsuponitscause. 220 – 907 CE Wang Pi (226-249 CE.) Daodejing TangJiyaoLegend He wasof the view thateverythingis governedbyitsownprinciple;there is no ultimate principle thatunderlies and unitiesall things. Zhiyi (538-597 CE.) The Essentialistsof BuddhistMeditations The Six Dharma Gatesto the Sublime He claimthat humannature contains evil andthat evenBuddhacannotbe completelyridof hisevil nature Li Ao (722-841 CE.) Martyrs’Shrine MountaintopLove He gave the view thathumannature iswhat that isbestoweduponhimby nature and all people share same nature.The reasonwhyhardly everyone becomeasage isthat people ‘emotions’. 907 – 1368 CE Shao Yang (1011-1077 CE.) IsangYan MoviesSlope He proposedthatthere are two basic factor that effectsthe happeningof thingsthat are one negative darkor feminineandone positivebrightor masculine,whoinfluence the destiniesof creaturesandthings Zhou Dunyi (1017-1073 CE.) TongShu Reconstructionthe ConfuscianDao In the universe everythingischanging but the one thingthat isdoinga work to unite all procedure thatisunityand stabilitywithinthe vastwhole. Zhu Xi (1130-1200 CE.) The Reflectionof things at ZhuXi Learningtobe a sage He gave the notionthat human emotionsandfeelingsplaysandrole for a man to be a sage otherwise everypersonissame. ChengYi (1033-1107 CE.) IChing The Yi River He gave the view thathumannature isgood and everyactionthatisdone by humannature isdue to the process of hisgoodwill andpositive thinking. 1368 – 1912 CE Liu Tsung-Chou(1578- 1645 CE.) The Reconstructionof Ming Philosophy New dimensionsto Confucianism He isa Neo-Confucianism.He basically workedonthe nature of humanbeing that how he acts ona certain situationsinaway due to hisintellect. He gave the theoryof hsin(mind) and hsing(nature) todeterminethe humannature. Huang Zongxi (1610-1695 CE.) OnLaws Schools He basicallygave the political reforms that the autocratic rule isselfishand

22. SelectingGoodMen he condemneditanddeclaresthat worldshouldbelongtopeopleand people have equal righttolive their lives&theyhave equal rightsin society. Wang Fuzhi (1619-1692 CE.) ChuanshanYishuQuanji Yijing(Bookof chnges) He workon ethicsandarguedthat no valuesinnature;virtuesandvalues are assignedtoobjectsandactionsby humanbeings.Inshorthuman being isnot inherentof evil doingbutitis natural course and it happensandthe basicmoral nature of humanbeingsis groundedbyhisfeelingsforothers. YenYuan (1635-1804 CE.) The Analetsof Confucius Some T’angand Pre T’ang text He promotedthe ideathateverything inthe authenticConfucianwayhad direct,broad,clear,commonsense aimat whata personshouldbe and do. Sun Yet-Sen(1866-1925 CE.) The International Developmentof China Three Principlesof the People He gave three principlesof people that make Chinaa free,prosperous and powerful nationandthatare nationalism, democracyandlivelihood of people. Liang Qichao (1873-1929 CE.) Onthe Young China Intellectual Trendsin the Ch’ingPeriod In hisperiodhe gave the formula of hundredday’sreformswhere he steppedintothe stage of developmentcharacterizedbythe growthand spreadof the theoryof evolutionandof humanism. X - ModernChinese Philosophers 1912 – 1950 CE Hsiung Shih-li (1885-1963 CE.) Humanityandself cultivation The Sumof Our Follies He gave ontological theoriesthat cosmosis one greatwhole.Itsbasic nature,whichisthat of mind,will,and consciousness, isconstantand continuous.Itisdynamica vast ever- runningcurrentsof changes,ina processof perceptual transformation, producingall thingsandtwofactors are contributinginthiscurrentthatis closing& opening. Liang Sou-ming(1893- 1988 CE.) Xingyiquan Baguazhang He gave the conceptof rural reconstructionandproposedthatthe basicway of rural reconstructionis cultivationof groupunity, developmentof science and technology,andthe eliminationof

23. outdatedtraditions. T’ang Chun-I (1909-1970 CE.) Poemsof the Late The Courtof the Lion He proposedthe notionthatmessage of Confucianismwasthe affirmation of humanlife asitexists.He contractedthat withBuddhism, Christianity,religionthatpromote humantranscendence overthe physical worldorthe acceptance as the physical worldasa illusion. XI- Indian Philosophers Ancient Philosophers Pre-History Yajnavalkya (7th Century BC.) Brihadaranyaka Upanishad His basicconceptissoul,self andfree. He proposedthatlove isdrivenbya person’ssoul 1000 – 600 BC Parshva (872-772 BC.) ParshvaBhoomi Parshvanathama He proposedthata personisfree in hiswill andthe basicay to leada life is non-violence principle (ahimsa) 600 – 400 BC Siddhartha Gautama (663-483 BC) Teachingsof the Buddha Dhammapada He isthe foundingfatherof Buddhism school of thoughtand he has a believe that he proposedthatway that humansufferingscanbe cure and that can be cure in a waywhentheyhave a spiritual relationshipwithgodand theywill follow the principle of ahimsaor patience Carvaka (around 600 BC.) BarhaspatyaSutras Carvaka/Lokayata It’san ancientIndianmaterialism that holdsdirectperception,empiricism, and conditional inference asproper sourcesof knowledge,embraces philosophical skepticismandrejects Vedas,Vedicritualismand Supernaturalism. 321 – 184 BC Chanakya (350-275 BC.) Arthashastra SampurnaChanakya Neeti He wasa philosopherandapolitical reformerandhe proposedthe conceptof internal andexternal securityof the state and the rightsof the people inhabitinginthe state. 184 BC – 100 CE Patanjali (around 2nd Century) Hatha Yoga Pradipika Rigveda He gave the Yoga philosophyyogais basicallymeansunion,mergingof soul

24. and mindinthe divine elementwithin us whichiscalledconcentration.Itisa wayto gain higherspiritual level 100 – 300 CE Nagarjuna (150-250 CE.) Parajnaparamita Mulamadhyamakakarika He arguedthat ignorance isthe basic wayof all sufferingof mankind. There isa midwaybetweenexistence and annihilation. 300-550 CE Buddhaghosa (5th Century) Mahavashama Abhidharma He wasreputedlyresponsible foran extensive projectof synthesizingand translatingalarge bodyof Sinhala commentaries. Inhiscommentaries he gave the conceptof human understandingof conceptof yogacare, the conceptof mindandsoul with concentration. Dignaga (480 540 CE.) PramanaSamuccaya Hetucakra He holdsa view thatthere are only twoinstrumentsof knowledge or valid cognitions;perceptionorsensation and Inference orreasoning. Uddyotakara (5th / 7th Century) Kanada’sdoctrine The Veshishika He criticizedthe Dignagatheoryof perception,the Buddhistdenialof soul and mindconcentration. 600 – 900 CE Dharmakirti (7th Centruy) Foundationof Dharmakirti RecognizingReality He gave the philosophythat perception,inference andword reliabilityisthe basicsource of knowledge. 1100 – 1500 CE Shri Madhvacharya (1238-1317 CE.) SadacharaSrimuti Uddhavagita He is the Indian philosopher who gave the concept that soul and body areseparated from each other and Vishnu sect is the highest in this universean accordingto him. Heb basically advocated realismand dualism. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486-1534 CE.) ChaitanyaCharitamirta BhagavataPurana He was the proponent of Vishnu sect andhe advocatedthe policyVaishnavism that promoteda notationthat lordVishnuis the supreme soul 1500 – 1800 CE Vallabhacharya (1497-1531 CE.) Adhyaya I Srimadanubhasyam He is from the monismschool of thought accordingto him body and soul is the singleone. He gave the concept of Nondualism. Shah Wali Ullah (1703-1772 CE.) Hujja-tul Ballagha The conclusiveargument from God He was the philosopher who gave the concept of economic welfare of the stare he argued that the economy of the state

25. References: 1- http:/www.scribd.com>doc> The-History-of-Philosophy (23/3/19) 2- http:/cms.gcg11.ac.in> attachments> articles_on_philosophy(20/3/19) 3- http:/en.m.eikipedia.com>Philosophy>introduction(24/3/19) 4- http:/www.philopedia.com>Historyof Philosophy(4/4/19) 5- Gaarder, J (1996). Sophie’sWorld,The BerkleyPublishingGroup,New York,USA. 6- http:/www.theradicalacademy.com>history_of_philosophy_timeline_view (15/4/19) 7- http:/www.prezi.org>History+of+philosophy(12/4/19) 8- Bruder,K. & Noel,B.(FifthEdition).Philosophythe powerof ideas,CaliforniaState Press, California 9- http:/www.timelineindex.com(dated25/5/19) http:/www.philosophybasics.com(dated22/5/19) is basically thecapital and reso9uces available.And he said thatshelter, food, social security and sex arethe basic need of an individual. XII- ModernIndian Philosophers 20th Century Swami Vivekanand (1863-1902 CE.) RajaYoga KarmaYoga He gave the view of education that it is rooted in traditional Indian Philosophy that nurtures the ideals of harmony, compassion,tolerance,and peace; and where man-making and character- buildingarebasic objectives. Mahatma Gandhi (1869- 1948 CE.) HindSawarj Indiaof myDreams He gave the theory of non-violence (that we can take revenge by peace if someone slaps on your facethen again presenthis face to him) and he as the one who provideIndia’s Independence from Great Britain Osho (1931-1990 CE.) Book of Secrets Tarot Zen He said that(I understand) that we all are born a pure soul (likemirror) and then we gather dirt from well-intentioned but conditioned society,parents, school;and priests and looseconnection between our true selves so we must “remove the dirt. Amartya Sen(1933- CE.) Developmentas Freedom The Argumentative India He is the economist philosopher and he gave the theory that Capital ability in which he gave the notion that all the things in economy depends on its demand and supply.

Add a comment