History of Pharmacology

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Published on July 12, 2011

Author: Badarumar

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Slide 1: DR. BADAR UDDIN UMAR MBBS, MPhil. History of Pharmacology Sir William Osler said-: Sir William Osler said- “Medicine is a science of uncertainty and an art of probability” History of Pharmacology: History of Pharmacology Knowledge of drugs and their use in disease is as old as history of mankind But as a science Pharmacology is quite a young one Primitive men gathered the knowledge of healing and medicine by observing the nature, noticing animals while ill and by personal experiences after consuming certain herbs and berries as remedies History…. : History…. It is of intellectual interest to the physician to know how drugs are- Discovered and developed Often in the past, this was based on folklore or intelligent observation (e.g. digitalis leaf, penicillin) History ….: History …. Nowadays, new drugs are mostly developed by the organic chemist working with a pharmacologist, increasingly from basic knowledge about key molecular targets Usually some sort of biological screen is used to select among organic molecules for optimum pharmacological activity Babylo – Assyrian civilization: Babylo – Assyrian civilization Thought to be the earliest one revealed so far About 300 drugs used by ancient people are described in tablets found there These included plants, herbs, roots, seeds, juices, wood, minerals and stones Imhotep - “the One Who Walked in Peace”: Imhotep - “the One Who Walked in Peace” Vizier of a Pharaoh , lived about 2900 B.C. He is credited with many accomplishments in many fields and one of his activities seems to have been that of a successful physician He is one of the first medical men whose name is on record and rose from the role of medical hero to become God of Medicine He began using simple surgery instead of just magic Slide 9: Sir William Osler tells us that Imhotep was the- "first figure of a physician to stand out clearly from the mists of antiquity" Slide 10: Imhotep diagnosed and treated over 200 diseases , 15 diseases of the abdomen, 11 of the bladder, 10 of the rectum, 29 of the eyes, and 18 of the skin, hair, nails and tongue Imhotep treated tuberculosis, gallstones, appendicitis, gout and arthritis Imhotep cont…. Slide 11: He also performed surgery and practiced some dentistry Imhotep extracted medicine from plants He also knew the position and function of the vital organs and circulation of the blood system Imhotep cont…. The Healing Art and Disease: The Healing Art and Disease Physicians based their healing art upon the belief that evil spirits, hateful demons, and vengeful gods struck people with diseases Invisible arrows shot by the Greek god Apollo caused pain One treatment for disease was for the victim to travel to one of the man y pagan temples in Greece The Healing Art and Disease: The Healing Art and Disease The sick person made a sacrifice and then spent the night in the temple As he slept, he was supposed to dream away the sickness The Two Great Names in the History of Greek Medicine: The Two Great Names in the History of Greek Medicine Hippocrates Dominated the beginning of a period of remarkable scientific creativity, which lasted more than 700 years Galen Near the end of the period, both furthered scientific knowledge and crystallized it in an amazing volume of written works His influence lasted for 1500 years /45 generations Hippocrates (460B.C.-377B.C.: Hippocrates (460B.C.-377B.C. Hippocrates “The Father of Medicine” He was the first to attempt to separate the practice of medicine from religion and superstition Hippocrates developed his pledge of proper conduct for doctors - “I will use treatment to help the sick according to my ability and judgment, but never with the view to injury and wrong doing…Into whatsoever houses I enter, I will enter to help the sick” “The Hippocratic Oath”: “The Hippocratic Oath” A statement describing proper conduct. It was a pledge and is a guideline for honorable standards of action “I will use treatment to help the sick according to my ability and judgment, but never with the view to injury and wrong doing…Into whatsoever houses I enter, I will enter to help the sick” Hippocrates Refusing Gift from Alexander by Anne-Louis Girodet (1816): Hippocrates Refusing Gift from Alexander by Anne-Louis Girodet ( 1816) Apollo: Apollo Mythical creator of “Greek Materia Medica” His son was Asklepios (Aesculapius) to whom the emblem, a serpent (snake) on a staff (stick) has been attributed The serpent , symbolic of regenerative power , was sacred to Asklepios and to Apollo Head of Asklepios (Greek Coin, II Century B.C.): Head of Asklepios (Greek Coin, II Century B.C.) The earliest icon of medical significance Head of Asklepios was pictured on a silver drachma, a Greek coin minted on the island of Cos The centers of his cult were temples where the sick went, similar to our modern day sanatoriums , with emphasis on diet, massage, baths The Hippocratic Oath: The Hippocratic Oath “I swear by Apollo the physician and Asklepios and his daughters, Hygeia and Panacea , and all the Gods and Goddesses…” Hippocrates was also born on the Island of Cos Ebers papyrus: Ebers papyrus Scroll obtained from Egypt, dating back to 1550 B.C. Describes more than 700 drugs Lists the extensive pharmacopia of that civilization Included in this are: beer, turpentine, myrrh, , juniper, berries, poppy, lead, salt and crushed precious stones Ebers papyrus: Ebers papyrus Also included were products derived from animals, including lizard's blood, swine teeth, goose grease, ass hooves and the excreta from various animals The effects of many of these drugs on patients of antiquity can only be imagined Pen Tsao: Pen Tsao From ancient China comes evidence of that culture's extensive efforts to heal through the use of natural products The Pen Tsao , or Great Herbal, comprised forty volumes describing several thousands of prescriptions It was written by Emperor Shen Nung (2735 B.C.)-Father of Chinese Materia Medica Susruta: Susruta Ancient Hindu Medical Text Describes 760 herbs Early Roman Period: Early Roman Period ‘Celsus’ (25 B.C. to 50 A.D.) Made significant contributions to Therapeutics ‘Dioscorides’ was another significant figure, wrote “ Pedacius ”. Which describes drugs that are still in use [Acacia, Juniper, Gentian etc.] Early Roman Period: Early Roman Period ‘Pliny’ devoted seven of his books on remedies derived from plants Galen (130 to 200 A.D.) Described Wounds as “Windows to the Body”: Galen (130 to 200 A.D.) Described Wounds as “Windows to the Body” Galen, the great 2 nd century physician and anatomist, spent his early medical career as a surgeon to the gladiators He employed as many as 20 scribes to write down all that he said in the work and wrote 30 books He dissected countless animals in his prolific medical research The Arab Influence: The Arab Influence Arab medicine , so-called because of the language in which it was written down, greatly influenced the medical thinking of the West from the 12 th to 15 th centuries The Arabs played an import part in teaching the art of prescribing and surgery Arab medicine: Arab medicine Arabs introduced many new drugs like-castor oil, musk, ambergris, camphor, senna, mace, sandal wood, picrotoxin, nux-vomica, borax, gum, sandarace, tamarin, hops and spinach etc. ‘Abu Baker Muhammad Ibn Zakaria Al Razi’: ‘Abu Baker Muhammad Ibn Zakaria Al Razi’ One of the foremost Arab physician Known in the west as ‘Razes’ Wrote numerous books His most significant contribution was the introduction of mercurial ointment Arab Physicians: Arab Physicians ‘Abual Qazim Ibn Abbas Al Zahrawi’ (936-1013) was a native of Cordova and wrote “Al-Tashrif” ‘Ali Ibn Al-Abbas Almajusi’ (994) from Persian physician, wrote “Al-Kitab Al Maliki” with sections on materia medica ‘Abu Ali Al Hussain Ibn Sina’ (980-1037): ‘Abu Ali Al Hussain Ibn Sina’ (980-1037) Known as Avicenna “ the prince of physicians,” is noted for his- “Al Qanun Fi Tibb” [‘ Canon of Medicine’] Also wrote “Kitab Al Shifa” Al Quanun’s materia medica considered 760 drugs This work served as a chief guide to the medical sciences in the west for 12 th to 16 th centuries Avicenna (980-1037 A.D.) and the Canon of Medicine: Avicenna (980-1037 A.D.) and the Canon of Medicine The Arab Influence: The Arab Influence “Al Mamoon” (Mamonoides) was a famous figure in Spain during Moorish period Arab influence on European medicine lasted for long time until the 16 th or even 18 th century. Invention of newer drugs and remedies then led the shift from botanical to chemical materia medica. Rome Falls in 476 A. D.: Rome Falls in 476 A. D. The Dark Ages of Medicine begin Medicine in the Dark Ages (roughly 500-1050 AD): Medicine in the Dark Ages (roughly 500-1050 AD) Massive decline in the number, and quality, of medical writings available The relatively learned medicine was supplemented by the healing offered at shrines and by holy men Tales abound of miraculous cures via shrines and icons Some saints were almost specialists The Emergence of Medicine from the Dark Ages: The Emergence of Medicine from the Dark Ages Occurred around 1050 in the region of Salerno, southern Italy where this thriving medical community was in touch with the Greek and Arab worlds as well as the wealthiest and intellectually most advanced abbey of Europe, Monte Cassino In 1080, the Salernitan masters reintroduced theoretical speculation into medical teaching The Emergence of Medicine from the Dark Ages: The Emergence of Medicine from the Dark Ages From 1200, Latin translations of some Arabic texts by Constantine the African, re-established Galenic academic learning, combining commentary on a few set texts with philosophical discussion of wider issues By 1250, practical demonstrations of animal anatomy was introduced The Three Consequences of Translation Movement: The Three Consequences of Translation Movement 1.The amount of learned medical material suddenly burgeoned beyond all recognition 2.The language of medicine was heavily Arabized and its therapeutics depended heavily on Arabic sources, especially in pharmacology/surgery 3.Now, there was a heavy philosophical component, based on Aristotle (natural philosophy) in the new medicine The Age of Enlightment: The Age of Enlightment Paracelsus (1493-1541) and Chemical Remedies: Paracelsus (1493-1541) and Chemical Remedies One of the most famous questioners of medical authority Paracelsus was an enigmatic character, flamboyant, quarrelsome and reforming His somewhat eccentric behavior prevented his settling down in any one place and gave his life a vagabond flavor Paracelsus (cont…): Paracelsus (cont…) Not content with refuting the authority of Galen and Avicenna, he publicly burned their books He is credited with enlisting the help of chemicals in therapeutics and vigorously opposing polypharmacy , or the prescription of multiple ingredients in a single medicine The Art of Medicine Becomes Scientific: The Art of Medicine Becomes Scientific Although this movement was launched in the 17 th century during the Age of Enlightment, it was not until the 19 th century that the true age of science was born Advances of 18th Century: Advances of 18 th Century Main advances in Pharmacology was due to progress in chemistry Pharmacists showed serious interest in establishing physiological basis of drug actions Anesthetics were invented- The Birth of Anesthesia: The Birth of Anesthesia A nineteenth-century physician administering chloroform prior to surgery. Ether was one of the earliest anesthetics to be used but it was difficult to administer as it usually made the patient choke. Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829): Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829) Humphry Davy discovered laughing gas (nitrous oxide) which has made dentistry much less painful Sir James Young Simpson (1811-1870): Sir James Young Simpson (1811-1870) James Young Simpson discovered chloroform could be used as an anesthetic Simpson fought to make anesthesia an established part of surgery William Thomas Green Morton(1819-1868): William Thomas Green Morton(1819-1868) Invented a special glass inhaler and added perfume to ether Successfully used either to pull a tooth and to then perform painless surgery His tutor Dr. Charles Jackson gave Morton some advise on using ether and then later claimed it was all his idea Francois Magendie (1783-1855): Francois Magendie (1783-1855) French physiologist laid down the dictum- "Facts and facts alone are the basis of science" Experimental procedures with animals are the testing grounds for determination of drug action Claude Bernard (1813-1878): Claude Bernard (1813-1878) Worked in Magendie's lab Investigated the plant extract curare and proposed a site of action for this agent Rudolph Buchheim (1820-1879): Rudolph Buchheim (1820-1879) In 1847 Buchheim established the first laboratory devoted to experimental pharmacology in the basement of his home in Dorpat which is known as the cradle of experimental pharmacology Oswald Schmiedeberg (1838–1921): Oswald Schmiedeberg (1838–1921) Founder of modern pharmacology The son of a Latvian forester , obtained his medical doctorate in 1866 with a thesis on the measurement of chloroform in blood He worked at Dorpat under Buchheim , succeeding him in 1869 Oswald Schmiedeberg (1838-1921): Oswald Schmiedeberg (1838-1921) In 1872 Schmiedeberg set up an institute of pharmacology in Strasbourg , France (Germany at that time) which became a mecca for students who were interest in pharmacological problems Became professor of pharmacology at the University of Strasbourg Slide 59: Schmiedeberg studied the pharmacology of chloroform and chloral hydrate In 1869, he showed that muscarine evoked the same effect on the heart as electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve In 1878, he published a classic text, Outline of Pharmacology Oswald Schmiedeberg cont…. Slide 60: In 1885, he introduced urethane as a hypnotic He trained most of the men who became professors at other German universities and in several foreign countries He was largely responsible for the preeminence of the German pharmaceutical industry up to World War II Oswald Schmiedeberg cont…. Slide 61: The second world war was the impetus for accelerated research in pharmacology (the war time antimalarial program) in the U.S. and Introduced strong analytical and synthetic chemical approaches Slide 62: J.N. Langley (1852-1925 and Sir Henry Dale (1875-1968) Pioneered pharmacology in England , taking a physiological approach John J. Abel (1857-1938): John J. Abel (1857-1938) Established the first chair of pharmacology in the U.S.A. (U. Michigan, 1891) after training in Germany Able went to Johns Hopkins in 1893, and trained many U.S. pharmacologists He is known as "The Father of American Pharmacology" The Advent of Drugs: The Advent of Drugs Dr. Gerhard Domagk (1895-1964) discovered sulfa drugs This drug became world famous when Dr. Perrin H. Long used sulfa drugs to treat Franklin Roosevelt Jr. Sulfa was called a “wonder drug” because it killed bacteria but did not hurt the cells of human tissue History of Pharmacology : History of Pharmacology In 1897, Felix Hoffman , a research chemist employed by the "Farbenfabrikin vorm. Freidr. Bayer and Co." synthesized acetylsalicylic acid . On February 1, 1899, Aspirin® was registered as a trademark. On March 6 th of the same year, this drug was registered with the Imperial Patent Office in Berlin. Aspirin quickly become popular worldwide, and remains an important drug today. (Interestingly, it was not until 1971 that Sir John Vane discovered the mechanism of action of aspirin , a feat that earned him the 1981 Nobel Prize for Medicine.) History of Pharmacology: History of Pharmacology Paul Ehrlich described drug-receptor binding: “Corpora non agunt nisi fixate” P. Ehrlich (1908) (“Agents do not act unless they are bound”) In the United States, transformation was marked by the creation of the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (ASPET) in 1908. History of Pharmacology : History of Pharmacology The modern era These, and additional advances in the fields of chemistry and physiology, lead to the birth of modern pharmacology in the latter half of the 19 th century. Thus, Materia Medica evolved into the experimental science of pharmacology, which is devoted to understanding the physiological action of these molecules. Mold Becomes A Medical Ally in the Battle Against Bacteria: Mold Becomes A Medical Ally in the Battle Against Bacteria Sir Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) discovered penicillin which killed staphylococcal bacteria Florey and Chain isolated the chemical and found that it could be mass-produced, making it more affordable Penicillin was stronger (bactericidal) that sulfa (bacteriostatic) and had fewer side effects Technology and the 20th/21st Century(Medicines): Technology and the 20 th /21 st Century(Medicines) Antiseptics Antibiotics Antiepileptics Antipsychotics Chemotherapies Myoclonal Antibodies Vaccines Biologic Agents Continuing Story of Aspirin Blood Transfusions and Blood Banks Technology and the 20th/21st Century (Evaluative Procedures): Technology and the 20 th /21 st Century (Evaluative Procedures) Electron Microscope CT Scans MRI Scans MRA Scans Pet Scans Functional MRI The Human Genome Genetic Testing Genetic Enzyme Replacements Therapy Technology and the 20th/21st Century (Surgeries): Technology and the 20 th /21 st Century (Surgeries) Artificial Kidney Machine – Dialysis - Kidney Transplants Coronary Artery Bypass Angioplasty Total Hip and Knee Replacements Neurosurgery Lasik Surgery Organ Transplants - Heart, Kidney, Lung, Liver, Pancreas, etc. Challenges for the Future: Challenges for the Future Challenges for the Future: Challenges for the Future Obesity/Diabetes Mellitus Smoking The Geriatric Population Drugs/Medications Alzheimer’s Disease Depression Medicare/Medicaid Euthanasia Etc. “The Giant”(1923) by N. C. Wyeth: “The Giant”(1923) by N. C. Wyeth Slide 78: Thank You

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