History of newspaper

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Published on March 4, 2014

Author: babochka_mahaon

Source: slideshare.net

The first newspapers date to ancient Rome and China when governments controlled the information released to the public. For more than 2,000 years, some form of a newspaper has been published on almost every continent reaching billions of readers. From simple handwritten, one-page announcements to the digital age, newspaper reporting has evolved to keep readers informed of timely and important news stories. People around the world start their day by reading a newspaper. THE HISTORY OF NEWSPAPER REPORTING

Roman Newspaper Reporting Beginning in 59 B.C., Julius Caesar had the "Acta Diurna" to make daily Roman events public. The reporters, or "actuarii," were appointed by the senate to collect and report facts on political news, trials and marriages, deaths and festivals. Carved or handwritten on white stones and posted in public areas, the paper lasted until about 222 A.D. Римская газета В 59 г. до н.э. благодаря Юлию Цезарю начала издаватся "Acta Diurna", чтобы освещать ежедневные события римской публики. Журналисты, или "actuarii", назначались сенатом собирать и представлять факты о политических новостях, об исследованиях и браках, смертях и фестивалях. Высекались или от руки сводки новостей на белых камнях,которые размещались в общественных местах, это продолжалось до 222 г. н.э.

Chinese Newspaper Reporting The Chinese government produced the "Tipao," or handwritten news sheet used by officials in the 2nd century. Early Chinese reporters with access to important facts about government activities were sworn to secrecy. China's first public newspaper, "Kaiyuan," appeared in Beijing in the 8th century as hand-written one-page news sheets. Китайская газета Китайское правительство произвели "Tipao", или рукописный листок новостей использованный должностными лицами во 2-м веке. Ранние китайские журналисты, имеющие доступ к важным факты о деятельности правительства были приведены к присяге хранить тайну. Первая публичная газета Китая, «Kaiyuan», появилась в Пекине в 8-м веке, как рукописные новости на одной странице листа.

Italian Newspaper Reporting The corantos was a small, pamphlet printed whenever a news worthy event occurred. The world's oldest known monthly newspaper, "Notizie Scritte»,appeared as handwritten sheets in Venice in 1566. Called the "Gazette" for the coin gazetta used to buy it, the paper featured political and war stories. Distributed throughout Europe, the paper's format had news submitted by reporters with the name and date of that city. Итальянская газета Сorantos была маленькой, печатающийся в виде брошюры всякий раз, когда новость достойна освещения.Старейшая известная в мире ежемесячная газета "Notizie Scritte", появилась в виде рукописных листов в Венеции в 1566 году. Дали ей название «Газета» так как покупалась она за монету Gazetta, содержала в основном политические и военные истории. Распространяя по всей Европе, журналисты представляли издание с именем и датой этого города.

German Newspaper Reporting In 1447, German printer, JohannGutenberg, d eveloped the printing press, which allowed for the production of printed materials. News pamphlets emerged in the 1450s, and by 1588, a 24-page book with woodcut images appeared in Cologne reporting on the defeat of the Spanish Armada. Publisher Johann Carolus created the first allprinted newspaper, "Relation," in 1605. Немецкая газета В 1447, немецкий печатник, Иоганн Гутенберг, разработал печатную машину, что позволило производить печатную продукцию.Новости в виде брошюры возникли в 1450-е годы, а к 1588 году, 24страничная книга с изображениями появилась в Кельне с сообщением о поражении испанской Армады. Издатель Иоганн Карл создал первую полностью печатную газету, "Связь", в 1605 году.

European Newspaper Reporting By the 17th century, major European countries had daily or weekly newspapers. London's first newspaper, "Corante," began in 1621 and later became the "Daily Courant." The French "Gazette," was founded in 1631, but the world's oldest newspaper still in print since 1645 is Sweden's "Post-och Inrikes Tidningar" Author Daniel Defoe printed Europe's first political newspaper, "The Review," in 1705. However, Sweden was the first country to pass a law protecting freedom of the press in 1766. Европейским газета До 17-го века, в основном в европейских странах были ежедневные или еженедельные газеты. Первая газета в Лондоне, "Corante" издавалась в 1621 году, затем "Дейли Курант». Французская газета "Ведомости« была основана в 1631 году, но старейшую газету в мире в печатном виде с 1645 издаѐт Швеция, «Post-och Inrikes Tidningar». В 1705 году в Европе первая политическая газета Даниэля Дефо «Обзор». Однако снова Швеция была первой страной,которая приняла закон о защите свободы слова и прессы в 1766 году.

Early American Newspaper Reporting  "Publick Occurrences" printed only one issue in 1690 before the British stopped it, but the "Boston News-Letter" succeeded it with weekly publications in 1704. Newspapers appeared in Philadelphia, New York in the 1720s with Benjamin Franklin publishing "The Pennsylvania Gazette. When the Revolutionary War started in 1775, about 24 newspapers including the "Massachusetts Spy" and "New York Journal" were in publication. In 1791, the First Amendment, similar to Sweden's law, guaranteed freedom of the press.

19th Century American Newspaper Reporting Developed in 1844, the telegraph sent news across the country faster than before, and the Associated Press became the country's initial wire service in 1848. The larger printing presses of the 1850s allowed the printing of thousands of daily newspapers. The first American war correspondents were reporters, known as "Specials," who risked their lives to report on Civil War battles. By the 1890s, newspapers expanded their features to include banner headlines and black-and-white photographs. Разработанная в 1844 году, телеграф отправляет новости по всей стране быстрее, чем раньше, и «Associated Press» стал о главным телеграфным агентством в стране в 1848 году. Чем больше печатных машин 1850-х годов позволили печати тысячи ежедневных газет. Первые американскийе военные корреспонденты были журналисты, известные как "Specials", которые рисковали своей жизнью, чтобы сообщить о боях Гражданской войны. В 1890-х годах, газеты расширили свои функции, чтобы включить заголовки и чернобелые фотографии.

20TH CENTURY AMERICAN NEWSPAPER REPORTING THE FIRST TABLOID NEWSPAPER, "DAILY MIRROR," STARTED IN 1903 PRINTING SENSATIONAL CRIME AND SCANDAL STORIES. AT THE SAME TIME, THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI STARTED THE FIRST JOURNALISM SCHOOL. DURING THE 1920S, NEWSPAPERS WERE BOUGHT BY LARGER GROUPS, SUCH AS SCRIPPS-HOWARD OR THE HEARST GROUP, BUT NEWSPAPERS SAW A DECLINE IN CIRCULATION DUE TO RADIO AND TELEVISION NEWS IN THE 1950S. HOWEVER, AS OF 2011, NEWSPAPER WEBSITES DREW "NEARLY TWO-THIRDS OR 63-PERCENT OF ALL ADULT INTERNET USERS," ACCORDING TO THE NEWSPAPER ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA.

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