Published on March 7, 2014
This period had been a period of many changes: advancement in technology and a period of many inventions. Claude Debussy French composer who adapted the style of impressionism to his music. He employed the whole toe scale and abandoned the concept of tonality. Igor Stravinsky Bela Bartok A Russian composer who established new trend in music. He combined the traditional and modern trend A Hungarian considered a famous progressive modern musical composer. He made use of Hungarian folktunes in his music. Arnold Schoenberg He is known for the radical sound f his music. He made use of a different style of singing which is called Sprechstimme. John Cage An American composer of modern music noted for his highly unconventional ideas and techniques of composition and performance.
A time of expansion. The keynote of the Romantic spirit was freedom: political, economic, religious personal and artistic. The common purpose is the free expression of man’s feeling about music. Frederic Chopin One of the leading composers of this period. His music is the greatest ever written for the piano known as the “Poet of the Piano”. The piano is the most important instrument of this period. Franz Schubert One of the leading composers of art songs. An art song is a composition for solo voice that combines melody, poetry, and accompaniment into an integrated form in which all three play equally important roles. Guiseppe Verdi The greatest composer of Italian opera. He composed 27 operas. Among these are La Traviata, II Trovatore and Rigoletto. Franz Lizst He was known as the piano virtuoso of his period. Exploited the tonal and technical sources of the piano.A rhapsody is a declamatory piece in freeform using different melodies that vary in mood and tempo Hector Berlioz He was the great romantic composer who expanded the orchestra. He exploited the timbre that the full symphony orchestra can make. Recognized as the master orchestrator of his era.
This period is also called the “Age of Reason.” In music, the term classical refers to the period which extends roughly from the death of J.S. Bach to the death of Beethoven. In general, classical music can be described as elegant, graceful, and refined. Ludwig van Beethoven He was a talented pianist and composer and was recognized as the “Prince of all Composers”. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart He was considered by many as the greatest musical genius of all time. He was a child prodigy. Mozart’s music is clear, delicate and simple. He was one of the composers who wrote many sonata as it is a very important piece in this period. Franz Joseph Haydn He was known as a gentleman and best known for his symphonies. He was able to compose over 100 symphonies. He developed the symphony into a long form for large orchestra. Classical Concerto Classical Opera A concerto is a sonata for solo instrumental and orchestra. Solo instrument was composed of three movement just like sonata and symphony. The term opera usually implies a heroic or tragic drama. This was formally called as opera series(serious opera). Another kind is comic opera. The types of opera are opera comique (France), opera buffa (Italy), Ballad opera(English) and singspiel.
This means “Rebirth”, a secular rebirth for men delighted with life. This was the time when man discovered that the world is round. One of the most important event during this period was the invention of printing and paper. Leonardo da Vinci (Mona Lisa) Motet A short polyphonic composition with sacred words and meant to be performed on religious or festive occasions. Madrigal A polyphonic music for four or five voices with secular text in the vernacular language. Michelangelo (Madonna and Child) Lute Is a popular instrument during this period. It is a 16-stinged instrument and played by plucking. Has a special kind of notation called tablature. Used as a solo instrument or played by grouped players. Rafael (Saint George and the Dragon)
The word “Baroque” came froma Portoguese word “baroco” which means a “pearl of irregular shape”. It is an era of absolute monarchy. George Frederick Handel He was a great figure in Baroque music. He conceived the idea of performing sacred works that are operatic in nature, without costly costumes and scenery. Harpsichord Early keyboard instrument Viola De Gamba Bass instrument Pipe Organ This was the most important instrument in Baroque period. The instrument itself originated in Egypt and was improved by the Greeks and Romans. It is a wind instrument that is played by means of keyboards and has several sets of pipe with varying lengths. Johann Sebastian Bach Leading composer of the Baroque Period. He was able to compose around 300 cantatas. Baroque Sonata Also called as partita which consist of series of dances derived by social or court dances of the time. Dance suite This is often used term in sonata. “Sonata da Camera” (Chamber sonata) “Sonata da Chiesa” (church sonata)