History of HIV

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Information about History of HIV

Published on April 21, 2008

Author: Rina

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  June 5, 1981 Theories abound…..:  Theories abound….. CMV Other viruses Poppers Stress / Immunity Overload Innate to Gays Multiple Terminologies:  Multiple Terminologies KSOI GRID Gay Compromise Syndrome AID Gay Cancer Community Acquired Immune Deficiency Lymphadenopathy Syndrome 1982:  1982 U.S. CDC formally establishes the term Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS); refers to four "identified risk factors" of male homosexuality, intravenous drug abuse, Haitian origin and hemophilia A. First AIDS case reported in Africa. First U.S. Congressional hearings held on HIV/AIDS. "GRID" or "gay-related immune deficiency" increasingly used by the media and health care professionals, mistakenly suggesting inherent link between homosexuality and the syndrome. Gay Men's Health Crisis, the first community-based AIDS service provider in the U.S., established in New York City. City and County of San Francisco, working closely with San Francisco AIDS Foundation, Shanti Project and others, develops the "San Francisco Model of Care," which emphasizes home and community-based services. “1,112 and Counting”:  “1,112 and Counting” “If this article doesn’t scare the shit out of you, we’re in real trouble. If this article doesn’t rouse you to anger, fury, rage, and action, gay men may have no future on this earth. Our continued existence depends on just how angry you can get. I repeat: Our continued existence as gay men upon the face of this earth is at stake. Unless we fight for our lives, we shall die. In all the history of homosexuality we have never before been so close to death and destruction. Many of us are dying or already dead.” “There are now 1,112 cases of serious Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome . . .” --Larry Kramer, New York Native, 1983 1983:  1983 The U.S. Public Health Service issues recommendations for preventing transmission of HIV through sex, blood transfusions. CDC warns against unwarranted fear of casual transmission. CDC adds female sexual partners of men with AIDS as fifth risk group. Orphan Drug Act signed into U.S. law, providing incentives to drug companies to develop therapies for rare diseases. PWAs take over plenary stage at U.S. conference and issue statement on the rights of PWAs referred to as “The Denver Principles.” National Association of People with AIDS (NAPWA) and National AIDS Network (NAN). AIDS organizations established in Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati CDC first set of “precautions” Hysteria: police-masks, gloves, refuse CPR 2803 US cases 1984:  1984 HIV, the virus, isolated by Luc Montagnier of the Pasteur Institute and Robert Gallo of the National Cancer Institute; later named the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). CDC states that abstention from IV drug use and reduction of needle-sharing "should also be effective in preventing transmission of the virus." AIDS Action Council formed by small group of AIDS service organizations from across the U.S. San Francisco officials order bathhouses closed; major public controversy ensues and continues in Los Angeles, New York and other cities. Needle exchange launched in Amsterdam US 7,699 cases, 3,655 deaths; Europe, 762 cases 1985:  1985 First International AIDS Conference held in Atlanta. At least one HIV/AIDS case has been reported from each region of the world. First case reported in China. First HIV test licensed by the FDA detects antibodies to HIV. Blood banks begin screening the U.S. blood supply. Pentagon begins testing all new recruits for HIV infection. Rock Hudson announces that he has AIDS and dies later this year. Ryan White, an Indiana teenager with AIDS, is barred from school; goes on to speak out publicly against AIDS stigma. AmfAR) is founded; Project Inform founded to advocate for faster government approval of HIV drugs. Nomenclature: AIDS/ARC Transmission reported through breast feeding Pres. Reagan first publicly mentions AIDS US: 16,000 cases; Worldwide, 20,000 Slide12:  Ryan White The Denver Principles:  The Denver Principles Founding Statement of People with AIDS/ARC Denver, Colorado. June 1, 1985 We recommend that health care professionals: Who are gay, come out, especially to their patients who have AIDS. Always clearly identify and discuss the theory they favor as to the cause of AIDS, since this bias affects the treatment and advice they give. Get in touch with their feelings (fears, anxieties, hopes, etc.) about AIDS, and not simply deal with AIDS intellectually. Take a thorough personal inventory and identify and examine their own agendas around AIDS. Treat people with AIDS as whole people and address psychosocial issues as well as biophysical ones. Address the question of sexuality in people with AIDS specifically, sensitively, and with information about gay male sexuality in general and the sexuality of people with AIDS in particular. Slide15:  We recommend that all people: Support us in our struggles against those who would fire us from our jobs, evict us from our homes, refuse to touch us, separate us from our loved ones, our community, or our peers, since there is no evidence that AIDS can be spread by casual social contact. Do not scapegoat people with AIDS, blame us for the epidemic, or generalize about our lifestyles. We recommend that people with AIDS: Be involved at every level of AIDS decision-making and specifically serve on the boards of directors of provider organizations. Be included in all AIDS forums with equal credibility as other participants, to share their own experiences and knowledge. Substitute low risk sexual behaviors for those that could endanger themselves or their partners, and we feel that people with AIDS have an ethical responsibility to inform their potential sexual partners of their health status. Slide16:  People with AIDS have the right: To as full and satisfying sexual and emotional lives as anyone else. To quality medical treatment and quality social service provision, without discrimination of any form, including sexual orientation, gender, diagnosis, economic status, age, or race. To full explanations of all medical procedures and risks, to choose or refuse their treatment modalities, to refuse to participate in research without jeopardizing their treatment, and to make informed decisions about their lives. To privacy, to confidentiality of medical records, to human respect, and to choose who their significant others are. To die and to live in dignity. 1986:  1986 2nd International AIDS Conference, Paris, France. U.S. Surgeon General Koop issues "Surgeon General's Report on AIDS", calling for education and condom use. National Academy of Science critical of the U.S. response to "national health crisis;" calls for a $2 billion investment. First panel of the AIDS Memorial Quilt created. Ricky Ray, a 9-year-old hemophiliac with HIV, is barred from Florida school; his family's home is firebombed the following year. Institute of Med. report calls for creation of National Commission on AIDS. Informal distribution of clean “works” begins: Boston, New Haven. 1st Gov’t campaign – “Don’t aid AIDS” Officially HIV (not LAV or HTLV-III) Clinical testing AZT show reduction of viral replication. 38,401 cases worldwide Slide19:  AZT 1987:  1987 AZT (a nucleoside analog) approved by FDA. Global Programme on AIDS launched by WHO FDA creates new class of experimental drugs, Investigational New Drugs (INDs), which accelerates drug approval by 2-3 years. U.S. adds HIV as a "dangerous contagious disease" to its immigration exclusion list; mandates testing of all applicants. Congress adopts Helms Amendment banning use of federal funds for education materials that "promote or encourage . . . homosexual activities." CDC holds 1st Natl. Conference on HIV and communities of color. "And the Band Played On“ is published. Liberace dies of AIDS. National Minority AIDS Council established. AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) established in New York in response to proposed cost of AZT; the price of AZT is subsequently lowered. Princess Diana shakes hand of AIDS patient ACTG founded President Kawanda of Zambia: “son has AIDS” US: 47,000 cases; Worldwide: 71,000 HIV/AIDS as an Epidemic of Significations (“Queering” the Epidemic):  HIV/AIDS as an Epidemic of Significations (“Queering” the Epidemic) Paula A. Treichler, Cultural Studies, October 1987 An irreversible, untreatable, and invariably fatal infectious disease that threatens to wipe out the whole world. A creation of the media, which has sensationalized a minor health problem for its own profit and pleasure. A creation of the state to legitimize widespread invasion of people’s lives and sexual practices A creation of biomedical scientists and the Centers for Disease Control to generate funding for their activities. A gay plague, probably emanating from San Francisco. The crucible in which the field of immunology will be tested. The most extraordinary medical chronicle of our times. A condemnation to celibacy or death. An Andromeda strain with the transmission efficiency of the common cold. An imperialist plot to destroy the Third World. Slide24:  A fascist plot to destroy homosexuals. A CIA plot to destroy subversives. A capitalist plot to create new markets for pharmaceutical products. A soviet plot to destroy capitalist. The result of experiments on the immunological system of men not likely to reproduce. The result of generic mutations caused by “mixed marriages.” The result of moral decay and a major force destroying the Boy Scouts. A plague stored in King Tut’s tomb and unleashed when the Tut exhibit toured the US in 1976 The perfect emblem of twentieth-century decadence. A disease that turns fruits into vegetables. A disease introduces by aliens to weaken us before the takeover. Nature’s way of cleaning house. America’s Ideal Death Sentence. An infectious agent that has suppressed our immunity from guilt. A spiritual force that is creatively disrupting civilization. . . . and so on. AIDS is not AIDS, it is . . . Slide25:  Names Project 1988:  1988 World AIDS Day first declared by WHO on December 1. UNAIDS: number of women living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa exceeds that of men. U.S. Surgeon General and CDC mail brochure, "Understanding AIDS" to all U.S. households. U.S. FDA allows the importation of unapproved drugs for persons with life-threatening illnesses, including HIV/AIDS. ACT UP demonstrates at FDA headquarters in protest of slow pace of drug approval process. First comprehensive needle exchange program (NEP) established in North America in Tacoma, WA. New York City creates first government-funded NEP and San Francisco establishes what becomes largest NEP in the nation. Global mobilization – Ministries of Health from 148 countries meet to discuss the crisis. 1989:  1989 First guidelines for PCP are issued by U.S. CDC. 5th International AIDS Conference in Montreal, Canada. U.S. Congress creates the National Commission on AIDS. Head of National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Dr. Anthony Fauci, endorses parallel track policy, giving those that do not qualify for clinical trials access to experimental treatments. AIDS activists stage several major protests about AIDS drugs during the year, including at the Golden Gate Bridge, the NY Stock Exchange, and U.S. headquarters of Burroughs Wellcome. First "Day Without Art" organized by Visual AIDS to acknowledge the impact of AIDS on the arts. Dancer and choreographer Alvin Ailey dies of AIDS. Hans Verhoef jailed entering US with AIDS. Burroughs decreases of AZT 20% ($7000). BMS: ddI. 142,000 cases worldwide, but WHO calls it a “gross underestimation” Slide28:  “Those of us most closely affected by the HIV epidemic are dizzy from trying to divide increasingly precious time between teaching about HIV, fighting political battles, and confronting the medical establishment at the same time as we live through the fears and illnesses of our friends and ourselves. This urgency makes it hard to stand still long enough to reflect about where we are going or how we understand this brave new world . . . “But soon we experience gaping holes in our sense of reality. At first, AIDS, our dying friends, our own fears of death and illness seem unreal, and we respond by thinking, ‘If I can just get through this part, life will return to normal. As more and more friends receive various diagnosis, and we live with new fears and new needs to allocate finite time and energy, it begins to dawn on us that this is our lives now, and things will never go back to the normal we once knew.” --Cindy Patton, Inventing AIDS, 1991 1990:  1990 6th International AIDS Conference, San Francisco, CA. To protest U.S. immigration policy, domestic and international non-governmental groups boycott the conference. (1992 conference, scheduled to take place in Boston, is moved to Amsterdam.) Ryan White dies at the age of 18. The Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act of 1990 is enacted, providing federal funds for community-based care and treatment services. In first year, it is funded at $220.5 million. U.S. FDA approves use of AZT for pediatric AIDS. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 enacted by Congress. First National Conference on Women and AIDS held in Boston. Kimberly Bergalis, of Florida, is believed to have been infected with HIV by her dentist, causing major public debate. Romanian children – transfusion. 307,000 cases worldwide (estimates of 9,000,000). 1991:  1991 NBA legend "Magic" Johnson announces that he is HIV-positive and retires from basketball. 7th International AIDS Conference, Florence, Italy. Housing Opportunities for People with AIDS (HOPWA) Act of 1991 enacted to provide housing assistance to people living with AIDS. CDC recommends restrictions on the practice of HIV-positive health care workers; Congress enacts law requiring states to take similar action. Red ribbon introduced as the international symbol of AIDS awareness at the Tony Awards. Freddie Mercury, lead singer of Queen, dies of AIDS. AMA/ADA recommends that “if +, tell your patients.” ddC approved 450,000 cases worldwide. 1992:  1992 8th International AIDS Conference ("A World United Against AIDS"), Amsterdam; would have taken place in Boston, but was moved due to U.S. immigration ban. International Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS (ICW) is founded. FDA licenses first rapid HIV test, which provides results in as little as ten minutes. AIDS becomes number one cause of death for U.S. men ages 25-44. Mary Fisher and Bob Hattoy, each HIV-positive, address the Republican and Democratic National Conventions, respectively. Tennis star Arthur Ashe announces he has AIDS; dies the following year. FDA approves ddC + AZT. CDC to revise definition. 1993:  1993 9th International AIDS Conference, Berlin, Germany. U.S. FDA approves female condom for sale in U.S. President Clinton signs HIV immigration exclusion policy into law. Congress enacts the NIH Revitalization Act, requiring NIH and others to expand involvement of women/minorities in all research. CDC expands definition of AIDS to reflect new knowledge about impact of HIV on women, IDUs. U.S. CDC initiates HIV prevention community planning process. "Angels in America“ wins the Tony Award and Pulitzer Prize. World class ballet dancer Rudolf Nureyev dies of AIDS. AZT resistance is noted, and 3TC is approved. A 60% increase Africa in one year. Concorde trial questions AZT in asymptomatic patients. World AIDS Day – giant condom. 14 million cases, 2.5 million AIDS. Slide33:  Obelisk Place de la Concorde 1994:  1994 U.S. Public Health Service recommends use of AZT by pregnant women to reduce perinatal transmission of HIV, based on “076” study showing up to 70% reduction in transmission. AIDS becomes leading cause of death for all Americans ages 25 to 44; remains so through 1995. FDA approves an oral HIV test, the first non-blood based antibody test for HIV. Elizabeth Glaser, co-founder of the Pediatric AIDS Foundation, dies of AIDS. Pedro Zamora, a young gay man living with HIV, appears on the cast of MTV’s popular show, The Real World; dies. Movie “Philadelphia” opens; Academy Award for Tom Hanks. Brazil: “enormous caseload.” WHO: females will outnumber males by 2000. Clinton accepts the resignation of Surgeon General Jocelyn Elders for remark about masturbation. 1995:  1995 First protease inhibitor, saquinavir, approved in record time by the U.S. FDA, ushering in new era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Clinton establishes Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS. First National HIV Testing Day created by NAPWA. Olympic Gold Medal diver Greg Louganis discloses that he is living with HIV, leading to public debate regarding disclosure of HIV status. Rap artist Eric Wright (Ezy-E of NWA) dies of AIDS. African impact is now believed to be 2-8% of the population. Nelson Mandela: “South Africa must speak out about HIV.” STD increases HIV transmission – Tanzania MILLION: 18 cases, 9.2 dead, 4-5 new/yr, 1.5 children 1996:  1996 11th International Conference, Vancouver, Canada: highlights effectiveness of HAART, creating period of optimism. Brazil: national ARV distribution; 1st developing country to do so. U.S. FDA approves first NNRTI, nevirapine. U.S. FDA approves HIV urine test and first home testing kit. FDA approves viral load test. The number of new AIDS cases diagnosed in the U.S. declines for first time in history of epidemic, though experience varies by sex, race and ethnicity. Time names researcher Dr. David Ho as its "Man of the Year." Former boxing champion Tommy Morrison announces he is HIV+. “Cocktail” / “Lazarus Syndrome” / “Pill Burden” Last full display of the AIDS quilt in DC; Clinton visits. Marked increases in Russia, India, Vietnam, China. 23,000,000 cases. 1997:  1997 AIDS-related deaths in the U.S. decline by more than 40 percent compared to the prior year, largely due to HAART. President Clinton announces goal of finding a vaccine in 10 years and the creation of the Bumpers Vaccine Research Center. Congress enacts FDA Modernization Act, codifying accelerated approval process, and allowing dissemination of information about off-label uses of drugs. “Hit hard, hit early” Realities: can’t eliminate 2-3 yrs, SE, resistance, adherence, cost, access, deep kissing/gingival disease Worldwide: “worse than we thought” 1:100 age 15-49 infected Caribbean – region of young being decimated 1998:  1998 Minority AIDS Initiative: African American leaders declare "state of emergency" and CBC calls on HHS to do the same. U.S Department of Health and Human Services issues first guidelines for the use of antiretroviral therapy in adults. First large scale human trials for an HIV vaccine begin. Despite earlier optimism, several reports indicate growing signs of treatment failure and side effects from HAART. DHHS Secretary Shalala determines that NEPs are effective, but Clinton does not lift the ban on use of federal funds for NEPs. Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) forms in South Africa; grassroots movement pushes for access to treatment. AIDS/human rights activist Jonathan Mann is killed in a plane crash en route to World Health Organization in Geneva. AIDS patients returning to work. Lipodystrophy, AIDS VAX, PI resist Sub-Saharan: 15-30% HIV+. Slide43:  Clinical manifestations of fat redistribution disorders in HIV Facial atrophy Buffalo hump Visceral fat accumulation 1999:  1999 First human vaccine trial in a developing country begins in Thailand. Congressional Hispanic Caucus, with the Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute, convenes Congressional hearing on impact of HIV/AIDS on Latino community. AIDS is now the 4th largest worldwide killer. Pres. Mbeki “AZT toxic” Uganda education efforts decrease transmission South Africa right to produce generics Early reports of impact of male circumcision. IDU = Russian explosion of cases. 33 million cases globally. 2000:  2000 13th International AIDS Conference, Durban, South Africa; first to be held in a developing nation. U.S. and UN Security Councils each declare HIV/AIDS a security threat. G8 Leaders acknowledge need for additional HIV/AIDS resources during Okinawa Meeting. President Clinton issues Executive Order to assist developing countries in importing and producing generic forms of HIV treatments. UNAIDS, WHO and other global health groups announce joint initiative with five major pharmaceutical manufacturers to negotiate reduced prices for AIDS drugs in developing countries. Global AIDS and Tuberculosis Relief Act of 2000 enacted by U.S. Congress, authorizing up to $600 million for U.S. global efforts. Millennium Development Goals, announced as part of Millennium Declaration, include reversing the spread of HIV/AIDS, malaria and TB as one of 8 key goals. Slide47:  U.S. Congress reauthorizes the Ryan White CARE Act for the second time. Clinton announces Millennium Vaccine Initiative, creating incentives for development of vaccines against HIV, TB and malaria. CDC reports that, among MSM in the U.S., African American and Latino cases exceed those among whites. Jesse Jackson tested publicly. Brazil: deaths decrease by 50%, in part due to universal access to SoC ARVs. India: 4 million cases. 34.3 million cases around the world. 1.3 million are among people under 15 years of age; estimates indicate that HIV/AIDS may kill 50% teens in worst areas of world. 2001 20th Anniversary:  2001 20th Anniversary UN General Assembly convenes first ever special session on AIDS. First Annual National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day in the U.S. UN Secretary-General Annan calls for a global fund to fight AIDS. The World Trade Organization announces "Doha Agreement", to allow developing countries to buy or manufacture generic medications to meet public health crises, such as HIV/AIDS. International pressure from HIV/AIDS activists leads generic drug manufacturers to offer to produce discounted, generic forms of HIV/AIDS drugs; several major pharmaceutical manufacturers agree to offer further reduced drugs prices in developing countries. Zimbabwe: 25% HIV+; leading cause death in South Africa. CDC: “HIV knows no color”, 30% African American MSM in 6 largest US cities. “In this effort, there is no us and them, no developed and developing countries, no rich and poor-only a common enemy that knows no frontiers and threatens all people.” --Kofi Annan Bush establishes National Office of AIDS Policy – but offers no funds for prevention and therapy. Big Pharma warned about overly optimistic advertising. 2002:  2002 The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria begins operations; approves first round of grants later this year. HIV is leading cause of death worldwide, among aged 15-59. UNAIDS Reports that women comprise about half of all adults living with HIV/AIDS worldwide. US National Intelligence Council releases report on "Next Wave" of HIV/AIDS, focused on India, China, Russia, Nigeria, and Ethiopia. Approval of OraQuick Rapid HIV-1 Antibody Test, by U.S. FDA; first rapid test to use finger prick. 1/3 teachers in Uganda and Malawi are estimated HIV+. 50% of Americans believe causal contact can transmit HIV. “Superinfection.” ABC: abstinence, be faithful, condoms. Children are taking the role of adults in many places affected by HIV because a generation has disappeared. The very fabric of society is disappearing with family structures crumbling. Slide50:  Condom Controversy 2003:  2003 President Bush announces PEPFAR, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, during the State of the Union Address; PEPFAR is a five-year, $15 billion initiative to address HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria primarily in hard hit countries. "3 by 5" Initiative announced by WHO, to bring treatment to 3 million people by 2005. The Clinton Foundation secures price reductions for HIV/AIDS drugs from generic manufacturers, to benefit developing nations. First Annual National Latino AIDS Awareness Day in the U.S. Swaziland: 38.6%; Botswana: 38.8%; Cuba: 0.03%. Vaxgen fails. 2004:  2004 15th International AIDS Conference ("Access for All"), Bangkok, Thailand; first to be held in Southeast Asia. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services announces expedited review process by FDA for fixed dose combination and co-packaged products. PEPFAR, President Bush's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, begins first round of funding. UNAIDS launches The Global Coalition on Women and AIDS to raise the visibility of the epidemic's impact on women and girls around the world. Global fund suspended in Ukraine due to poor management. The 3 x 5 initiative lacks funds; goals will not be met. Russia/E. Europe fastest rate of spread, Uganda prevalence down 70% due to prevention efforts. 15 million AIDS orphans. The Gates Foundation makes a $50 million grant to the Global Fund. World AIDS Day: Women, Girls, HIV & AIDS 2005—2006:  2005—2006 3 X %: An estimated 700,000 people had been reached by the end of 2004. First Annual National Asian and Pacific Islander HIV/AIDS Awareness Day in the US. FDA approves generics; AZT off patent. Nelson Mandela’s son dies AIDS. Global Fund suspends Uganda funding due to corruption. Skepticism persists in S. Africa. First Eastern European and Central Asian AIDS conference (EECAAC) held. Russia to host G8 Summit for first time (Saint Petersburg); HIV/AIDS to be addressed. 16th International AIDS Conference ("Time to Deliver"), Toronto, Canada. First Annual National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day in the United States. International AIDS Conference, 2006: Human Rights. Gains and Losses:  Gains and Losses We’ve made extraordinary progress in the treatment and management of HIV/AIDS, such that it’s now possible to think of chronic, manageable illness rather than immanent and invariable fatality. Treatment is better, more effective, and more accessible than ever . . . Gains and Losses:  Gains and Losses . . . but treatment is still only within the grasp of a relative few; it is still extraordinarily expensive (lifetime, $816,000); regimens are still difficult; side-effects are daunting; there are profound disparities within and between countries. Gains and Losses:  Gains and Losses AIDS activism has fundamentally changed the way we “do science” and carry out research; from the beginning, PWA/HIV activism has helped build a system of care and treatment in which people with HIV/AIDS have been viewed as active co-participants rather than treatment or research “subjects” . . . Gains and Losses:  Gains and Losses . . . but many of the early HIV/AIDS activists are no longer with us, and there is profound division—based on race, gender, geography, health status, sexual orientation, and other factors—about what the “AIDS agenda,” in 2006, is or should be. Gains and Losses:  Gains and Losses Within a relatively short period of time we built an extraordinary system of community-based care and services across the US, and in so doing substantially improved the lives of people living and affected by HIV/AIDS . . . Gains and Losses :  Gains and Losses . . . but the system of community-based HIV/AIDS care and services is showing signs, from almost every corner, of stress and localized collapse; the reasons are many, but include funding cuts, poor management, provincialism and in-fighting, and expanding service demands. Slide61:  San Francisco: “CARE Makes Cuts” (CDC, 2002) Detroit: “HIV/AIDS Organization Struggles to Survive” (Detroit Free Press, 2002) “Federal Investigation of Baltimore-Based AIDS Group Continues; Board Members Resign; Funding Threatened” (Baltimore Sun, 2004) “Whitman-Walker Clinic Closes Maryland Facility” (Washington Post, 2005) “Advocates for Youth Faces New Scrutiny” (Washington Post, 2003) “Church Will End AIDS Ministry” (Boston Globe, 2003) “Loss of Grant Will Close HIV Clinic in Zainesville” (Columbus Dispatch, 2003) “Agency Helping AIDS Patients May Close After State Pulls Funding” (Associated Press, 2004) “Idaho AIDS Group Closes Doors” (AP, 2002) Slide62:  “AIDS Group May Go Under, Says Audit” (St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 2004) “Local AIDS Foundation to Receive Less Funding” (Florida Times-Union, 2004) “AIDS Resource Alliance Shuts Down” (Orlando Sentinel, 2003) “Florida Clinic in Red Faces Closure” (Florida Sun-Sentinel, 2002) “AIDS Charity’s Funding at Risk; Must Put Financial House in Order” Wilmington, NC Morning Star) “East Alabama Outreach Running Out of AIDS Funds” (Associated Press, 2003) “San Francisco HIV Institute Readies to Close” (San Francisco Examiner, 2002) “David’s House is Closing It’s Doors” (Toledo Blade, 2004) “Group That Feeds AIDS Sufferers Struggling” (Columbus Dispatch, 2004) “Indiana is Asked to Repay Mismanaged AIDS Funds” (Indianapolis Star, 2002) “Cuts Threatens AIDS Shelter” (Detroit News, 2006) Slide63:  “Arkansas Health Department Audit Identifies $350,000 in Mismanaged Expenses in AIDS Division” (Arkansas Democrat-Gazette) “Carrollton HIV Clinic Shut Down; Funding, Confidentiality Concerns Cited” (Southern Voice—Atlanta, 2006) “AIDS Service Organization Loses Funding” (Southern Voice, 2006) “Federal Funding Cut Threatens Southern New Hampshire AIDS Program” (Associated Press, 2006) “Funding Cut May Impact Yellowstone AIDS Project” (Associated Press, 2005) “Boston’s Ryan White CARE Act Funding Reduced by $1.1 Million This Year; 10 Programs to be Eliminated” (Boston Herald, 2005) “New Mexico AIDS Services Faces Funding Cuts” (Associated Press, 2004) “Houston Hit Hard by Cuts in Funding for HIV/AIDS” (Houston Voice, 2004) Gains and Losses:  Gains and Losses We have made significant gains in educating individuals and communities to implement strategies that will reduce their risk of infection, including sexual risk and risk related to sharing of drug injection equipment . . . Gains and Losses:  Gains and Losses . . . but in recent years prevention has been increasingly hamstrung by ideological shifts that are not based on science; syringe exchange—though proven effective and safe—still cannot be funded with federal funds; and the need for long-term community and economic change, as opposed to mere one-on-one education, has become increasingly clear. Gains and Losses:  Gains and Losses The AIDS epidemic is over. The AIDS epidemic has just begun. Recurring Themes:  Recurring Themes Human Rights Marginalization Resource Inequity and Poverty Rise and Fall of AIDS, Inc. Sexuality and Gender Prevention Technology and Vaccines Continuous Progress in Treatment Continual Increase in Numbers Losing the Access Race Individual vs. Collective/State Rights Today:  Today “If no effective vaccine or cure is found within the next 20 years, areas of the world that are now witnessing explosive epidemics or are in their second or third wave of HIV infection may find themselves harder hit—and more deeply transformed—than Europe was by the Black Death.” -Laurie Garrett, “The Lessons of AIDS,” Foreign Affairs, July/August, 2005 “It is not finished yet. There is always more and worse to fear, beyond imagination.” -Seneca (d. 65 A.D.), Trojan Women

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