Published on February 15, 2014
Presented By Presented To Miss Nazia Waheed Aroosha Hussain (10) Ayesha Latif (15) Amina Hussain (05) Ayesha Bashir (14),
DEFINITION OF HISTORY OF EDUCATION The branch of knowledge that records and analyzes past events related to educational perspectives known as history of education.
PURPOSES OF EDUCATIONAL HISTORY History of education basically tells, indicates and suggests the ways and means to cover previous educational flaws. To analyze background of human culture, civilization and education in accordance with modern approaches. To study evolution in human approaches and practices. To introduce innovation in the field of education To help individuals to secure religious and prime moral values. etc.
EDUCATION IN ANCIENT GREECE The Greek city states are the clues that Greeks were much more developed and wise then their contemporary generations. Two of the city states which got fame and power then others were Sparta and Athens Two forms of education in ancient Greece Formal education: hired tutor & in school. Informal education: unpaid teacher & non-public setting.
Introduction to Sparta and Athens Alliance Peloponnesian War What’s the big idea? The two most powerful city-states in Greece, Sparta and Athens, had very different cultures and became bitter enemies.
Spartans and the Military Spartan society was dominated by the military. The Spartans believed that military power provided security and protection. Whole education based on Military training!
Spartan education Government held the entire control of education Sparta has autocratic approach towards the education. Education mainly based on physical training and fitness Along with men's women's are also allowed to get education but they did not fight. Curriculum Almost entirely gymnastic training (running, leaping, jumping, throwing, boxing, military Drill, wrestling, hunting) and discipline in itself.
Educational scheme of Spartans Ages 7-12 : Values Training Boys left home and got a basic education. Ages 12-18 : Physical Training Boys built physical skills through exercise. Ages 18-20 : Military Training Men learned how to fight as a part of an army.
Educational scheme of Spartans Ages 20-30 : Military Service Soldiers formed the body of the Spartan Army Age 30 : Full citizenship Soldiers could participate in the assembly and move back home.
Athens and the Athenians Athens was Sparta’s main rival. In addition to physical training, the Athenians valued philosophy, and the arts. clear thinking, Valued education Along with military training
Athenian education Athens has democratic approach towards the education. Women's are not allowed to get education Primary purpose was to produce Peoples prepared for peace and war Thinkers Peoples well trained in arts and sciences Curriculum Includes education of physical training, philosophical education and education of the fields of arts and science.
Educational scheme of Athenians Ages 7-15 : Elementary education Boys left home and go to school and learned physical training, athletics, and music, writing, reading, dancing and ethical poems Ages 15-18 : Secondary Education Physical Training (harsh exercise) Ages 18-21 : Military Training and Service Trained were sent to state borders for fighting
Educational scheme of Athenians Higher Education This was informal education. For this Plato’s academia and Aristotle’s lyceum was famous
SOCRATE: BREIF INTRODUCTION Socrates (AKA SUKRAT) was born approximately 470 BC, in Athens, Greece. Plato's Symposium provides the best details of Socrates's physical appearance. Short and stocky, with a snub nose and bulging eyes. Name: Socrates Philosopher Birth date: c. 470 BC Death date: c. 399 BC
SOCRATE: BREIF INTRODUCTION Socrates possessed a different kind of attractiveness, due to brilliant debates and penetrating thought. Socrates always emphasized the importance of the mind over other body parts • When the political climate of Greece turned, Socrates was sentenced to death by hemlock poisoning in 399 BC.
Major contribution: Socratic method Perhaps his most important contribution to Western thought is his dialectic method of inquiry, known as the Socratic method or method of "elenchus", This contribution provides him mantle of father of political philosophy, ethics or moral philosophy and a figurehead of all the central themes in Western philosophy.
Use of the Socratic method It was designed to force one to examine one's own beliefs and the validity of such beliefs. The Socratic method is a negative method of hypothesis elimination, in that better hypothesis are found by steadily identifying and eliminating those that lead to contradictions.
PLATO: BREIF INTRODUCTION Plato born approximately 428 B.C., ancient Greek philosopher. Plato was a student of Socrates and a teacher of Aristotle. Both of his parents came from the Greek aristocracy (upper classes). Name: Plato Philosopher, Writer AKA: Aristocles, Platon, son of Ariston Plato's father, Ariston, descended from the kings of Athens and Messenia. His mother, Perictione, is said to be related to the 6th century B.C. Greek statesman Solon (Advisor).
PLATO: BREIF INTRODUCTION As a young man, Plato experienced two major events that set his course in life. One was meeting the great Greek philosopher Socrates. The other significant event was the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta, in which Plato served for a brief time between 409 and 404 B.C.
PLATO: BREIF INTRODUCTION • After Socrates's death, Plato traveled for 12 years throughout the Mediterranean region, studying mathematics with the Pythagoreans in Italy, and geometry, geology, astronomy and religion in Egypt. • During this time, or soon after, he began his extensive writing. • In the middle, period, of his life Plato writes in his own voice on the central ideals of justice, courage, wisdom and moderation of the individual and society. • The Republic was written during this time
Founding the platonic Academy in Athens • Sometime around 385 B.C., Plato founded a school of learning, known as the Academy, which he presided over until his death. • The Academy's included curriculum astronomy, mathematics, political and philosophy. biology, theory
Stages of Education 5th stage (30-35) According to Plato there are different stages of education 4th stage (20-30) The 6th stage (35-50) Dialectic ultimate principles of reality mathematical training 3rd stage (18-20) Music and gymnastic 2nd stage (7-17) 1st stage: (0-6) physical and military training child stay with mothers for moral education Interaction with people Social office
Aristotle : BREIF INTRODUCTION Aristotle was born on the Chalcidice peninsula of Macedonia, in northern Greece. • His father, Nicomachus, was the physician of king of Macedonia. • At the age of 18 Aristotle migrated to Athens, where he joined the Academy of Plato. He remained there for 20 years as Plato’s pupil and colleague. Name: Aristotle Philosopher Birth date: 322 BC Death date:384 BC
He then traveled to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor. Aristotle married Hermias's adoptive daughter (or niece) Pythias. Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During that time he gave lessons to Alexander. THE LYCEUM At the age of 50 Aristotle move back in Athens and he established his own academy for general public known as the Lyceum.
• He built a substantial library and gathered around him a group of brilliant research students, called “peripatetics” from the name of the walkway (peripatos) in which they walked and held their discussions. He used inductive and deductive methods for finding out knowledge
Curriculum of lyceum: • Gymnastic (to develop the spirit of sportsman ship and to develop good habits for the control of passion and appetite). • Music and Literature (for moral and intellectual development). • Mathematics (to develop the power of deductive reasoning). • Physics and Astronomy was also given much importance with practical training in citizenship.
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