History Handouts by Mr. Herbert Saquing Corpuz

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Information about History Handouts by Mr. Herbert Saquing Corpuz

Published on January 21, 2009

Author: corpuz

Source: slideshare.net


These are the Handout Materials in Philippine History. The references used are the following;

The History of the Filipino People by Teodoro Agoncillo
History of the Philippines by Gregorio and Sonia Zaide

PHILIPPINE HISTORY Be proud of being a Filipino! SY2: 2008- 2009 PHILIPPINE GEOGRAPHY A. Origin of the Philippines 1. Legends • The story of the bird, the sky, and the sea 2. Theories i. Part of a lost continent • It was believed that the Philippines was a remnant of a vast continent in the pacific which had sunk during pre- historic times like the fabled Atlantis lost somewhere in the Atlantic Ocean. • This lost pacific continent was called “Lemuria” or “Mu”. • Its remnants aside from Philippines were Borneo, Celebes, Java, Sumatra, and other islands of the pacific. ii. Volcanic Origin • It was proposed by Dr. Bailey Willis. • According to this theory, Philippines was born due to the eruptions of sea volcanoes in remote epochs. iii. Land Bridge Theory • This theory suggests that Philippines was once a landmass bridging China and the Asian Mainland, to Borneo, Indonesia, New Guinea, and even Australia. The present China Sea was an exposed dry land known as the Sunda Shelf which covered an area of 1, 800, 000 square kilometers. During the post glacial age, about 250, 000 years ago, the world’s ice melted, causing the sea level to rise. Consequently, the lower land regions including the land bridges linking Asia and the Philippines were submerged, thus, Philippines archipelago was formed. • This theory is supplied by the following plausible reasons; a. Similarity of fauna and flora in Asia and the Philippines b. Similarity of rock structure c. Existence of the shallow China Sea between the Asia Mainland and the Philippines d. The presence of a fore deep at the eastern margin of the Philippines indicating the archipelago was once the edge of the Asia continental Platform B. Archipelago’s Name 1. Filipinas • The name given to Philippines in 1543 by the ill- starred Spanish explorer, Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, in honor of Prince Felipe of Austria who later became Philip II, the greatest king of Spain. • This name first appeared on a rare map published at Venice in 1554 by Giovanni Battista Ramusio. 2. Philippine Islands • The anglicized name of Filipinas during the American colonial regime. 3. Republic of the Philippines • The name given to Philippines after the decolonization in 1946. 4. Ma-yi/ ma-i Prepared by: Mr. Herbert Saquing Corpuz

PHILIPPINE HISTORY Be proud of being a Filipino! SY2: 2008- 2009 • The name given to Philippines by the early Chinese traders such as Chau Ju Kua and Wang Ta- Yuan. • Same names such as Mintolang for Mindanao, Makilu for Manila, and Pishoye for Visayas were also dubbed to Philippines by the Chinese. • Ma- i is generally accepted to refer to the island of Mindoro in Luzon because of its gold and proximity in the Chinese mainland. 5. Rizaline Republic • The name proposed by the Katipunan General Artemio Ricarte in honor of Dr. Jose Rizal. 6. Maharlika • It was proposed by former President Ferdinand Marcos after his dream of making the Philippines great again. 7. Pearl of the Orient Seas • The most romantic name of the Philippines. • It was originally given in 1751 by father Juan J. Delgado as a name of Manila (Pearl of the Orient) and was also mentioned by Manuel De Azcarraga y Palmero. • It was also grunted by Dr. Jose P. Rizal in his published article in the Hong Kong Telegraph. C. Geography and Resources 1. Location • The Philippine Archipelago sprawls a little above the equator in Southeast Asia between latitude 4 degree 23” and 21 degree 25” north and longitude 116 degree and 127 degree east. • Philippines has a very strategic location due to the following; a. It serves as a bridge between the cultures of the East and the West. b. It lies at the crossroad of international air and sea routes. c. It looms as bastion of democracy in an area where dictators and communism hold sway over Asian Nations. d. It is the citadel of Christianity between the largely Christian west and largely non- Christian east. Hence, its role as “Christian Light of the World”. 2. Area • The Philippines is an archipelago of 7, 107 islands of which 2, 773 are named. • It has a total land area of 115, 707 sq. miles or 299, 681 sq. km. • Luzon has an area of 40, 814 sq. miles while Mindanao has 36, 906 sq. miles. • Y’ Ami Isle is the northernmost point of the Philippines. 3. Shape • Philippines is an inverted Y- shaped archipelago of numerous islands, islets, coral reefs, abundant rivers, lakes and bays, mountains and valleys, cool plateaus, and scenic volcanoes. • Christian Scholars commented that Luzon is like a Helmet, Visayas and Mindanao is the Arms and Legs, and Palawan is Spirit Sword. 4. Climate • The Philippine climate is tropical and monsoonal in character. • The two distinct seasons are dry season and wet season. • The temperature varies from 21 degree Celsius to 32 degree Celsius. Prepared by: Mr. Herbert Saquing Corpuz

PHILIPPINE HISTORY Be proud of being a Filipino! SY2: 2008- 2009 • The coldest month is January and the Hottest is May. 5. Regions • • Region 9- Zamboanga Peninsula Region 1- Ilocos Region • • Region 10- Northern Mindanao Region 2- Cagayan Valley • • Region 11- Davao Region Region 3- Central Luzon • • Region 12- SOCCSKSARGEN Region 4A- • Region 13- CARAGA CALABARZON • Region 4B- MIMAROPA • CAR- Cordillera Administrative Region • Region 5- Bicol Region • NCR- National Capital Region • Region 6- Western Visayas • ARMM- Autonomous Region of Muslim • Region 7- Central Visayas Mindanao • Region 8- Eastern Visayas 6. Natural Resources • Soil is the most important natural resources in the Philippines primarily of most people earn a living from tiling the land. Filipinos are fortunate of having a highly fertile land. • The country has rich plant life. Agricultural experts believed that 8,120 species of plants grow in the country, that is, about 1,000 varieties of orchids, 1,000 species of rice, and 3,000 species of trees. • 850 species of birds are found in the Philippines. Carabao is the most useful animal for it serves as farmer’s best friend. • At least 2,000 species of fish are found in the waters of the Philippine archipelago. • Philippine forest lands have a total area of 16,633,000 hectares which represents 55 percent of the total land area. The Philippines rank third in forest reserves. • Philippines is one of Asia’s great gold producing regions. • Energy in the Philippines is used to supply electricity and fuel to run factories, light homes, and offices. 7. Beauty Spots • The Banaue Rice Terraces was built more than 2,000 years ago by hardy Ifugaos using only their bare hands and crude stone tools. • The Mount Mayon is the Crowning Glory of the Philippine Natural Wonders. • Manila Bay is one of the Enchanting Wonders of the Country. • Other beauty spots are being rediscovered. 8. Historical Places • Luneta Park- It was a beautiful setting built in honor of the Philippines greatest hero, Dr. Jose P. Rizal. It is used to be called Bagumbayan Field where Rizal was executed by a Spanish military firing squad at early dawn of December 30, 1896. • Corregidor- It is a national shrine nicknamed as “The Rock”. This was the vlast bastion to fall to the invading Japanese in 1942. Such made it the symbol of the determined resistance of its Filipino and American defenders. • Paoay Church- It was built in 1694 commissioned by the Augustinian friars led by Fr. Antonio Estavillo. It was declared as one of the national treasures by former president Ferdinand Marcos. • Intramuros (Fort Santiago)- It was the old capital of Manila which was built in 1571. It was used to be the seat of colonial powers of both Spain and the United States of America. It was also a dreaded prison under the Spanish regime and the scene of Prepared by: Mr. Herbert Saquing Corpuz

PHILIPPINE HISTORY Be proud of being a Filipino! SY2: 2008- 2009 countless military police atrocities during the Japanese occupation. Here, too, Dr. Jose Rizal spent his last hours before his execution at Bagumbayan. • Aguinaldo Shrine- It was here where Emilio Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence from Spain on June 12, 1898. This was where the Philippine flag first raised. • Cavite Shrine- It was in this place where Emilio Aguinaldo was declared the first president of the Philippine republic. The republic of which the first in Asia. • Barasoain Church- It was here where the constitution of the republican government was drafted on September 15, 1898. this constitution was also known as the Malolos Constitution because the church is located in Malolos, Bulacan. • Mount Samat- It is situated at Pilar, Bataan. It is in this mountain that the gigantic cross named as “Dambana ng Kagitingan” (Altar of Valor) was erected on April 1942. the cross symbolizes the heroic and courageous defense made by fatigue, hungry, and sick Filipino and American soldiers in regaing our freedom during world war II. THE FILIPINO PEOPLE A. Origin of the Filipinos Prepared by: Mr. Herbert Saquing Corpuz

PHILIPPINE HISTORY Be proud of being a Filipino! SY2: 2008- 2009 1. The Religious Sources(Friar- Historians Ideas) • The ancestors of the Filipinos sprung out of the soil like wild plants. • Filipinos were created by the sun. • Filipinos were produced from base metals by the magic act of the ancient alchemist or termed as herbolarios. • Filipinos descended from the Adam of Asia; the other Adam being European Adam, for whom the Spaniards and the Jews came from. • Filipinos were descendants of Tarshish, one of Noah’s great grandsons, who settled in the Philippines after the great flood. 2. Legends • The first Filipino couple sprang out from bamboo nodules. They were named Lalake and Babae or Malakas and Maganda. • The second legend claims a racial superiority in the brown complexion of the Filipinos that is Filipinos were baked by God named Bathala. 3. Theories • Migration Theory- It was proposed by Professor H. Otley Beyer. Beyer believed that Filipinos came from to the Philippines in different waves of migration. Such is explained in the table: Dawn Man Negritos Indonesians A Indonesians B Malays Date of 250,000 years 25,000- 30,000 3,000- 4,000 1,500- 500 BC 20 BC Migration ago years ago BC  Thickly  Black skin  tall  shorter  Characteristics medium  5 ft tall  slender  bulky body Haired height  Brawny  dark kinky  light  dark  slim but hair complexion complexion well built  round black  thin lips  thick lips  brown skin  high  large nose  eyes black hair  flat noses  aquiline dark brown nose eyes  He lived   They had permanent dwellings.  Ways of Life Nomadic They by means  They lived  They wore clothing and introduced of through personal ornaments. iron metal,  They knew agriculture, mining, gathering hunting, smiting, wild fishing, and and copper tools. pottery plants, by foraging for making, fishing, wild plants. cloth  and They wore weaving, hunting little and jewelry clothing. making.  They have crudest religion.  They were among the world’s best archers and herbalists • Critiques Prepared by: Mr. Herbert Saquing Corpuz

PHILIPPINE HISTORY Be proud of being a Filipino! SY2: 2008- 2009 a. Prof. Beyer used the 19th century scientific methods of progressive evolution and migratory diffusion as the basis for his hypotheses, which have now been proven to be too simple and unreliable to explain such theory. b. The empirical archaeological data for this theory was based on surface finds and mere conjecture, which lot of imagination and unproven data included. c. There are no evidences of the existence of the Dawn Man. So far, the oldest human fossil in the Philippines is the skull cap of a stone aged Filipino about 22,000 years ago which was excavated by Dr. Robert B. Fox inside Tabon Cave in Palawan on May 28, 1962. d. Undue credit is given to the Malays as the original settlers of the lowland regions and the dominant cultural transmitters. e. The migration theory does not agree with the real character of Filipinos, who are adaptive and highly creative people because it suggests that the Filipinos were only passive receptors of outside culture. • Core Population Theory- The early inhabitants of the Philippines are treated as a unit, consisting of a core population to which were added accretions of people who moved in from the region, but the movements were erratic rather than sequential wave. The people of Southeast Asia belonged with the same unit. This theory asserted that Filipinos were not merely passive receptors of outside culture but adaptors and in some way initiators of creative changes. It puts emphasis on the cultural integrity and adaptability of the Filipinos which made this theory favored by modern scholars. • Critiques a. The core population theory is still evolutionist and assumes too many facts as given where they are yet many gaps in the theory. b. It is vague as opposed to the easily understood migration theory. B. Filipino Traits 1. Strengths of the Filipino Character • Family Orientation- It refers to a genuine and deep love for the family. For the Filipinos, the family, as the basic social institution, includes not only the father, the mother, their brothers and sisters, but also the grandparents, the aunts, the uncles, the cousins, and even the ceremonial relatives. Concern for the family is eloquently manifested in the honor and respect given to parents and the elders, in the care given to children, the generosity extended to a kin in need, and in the great sacrifices one endures for the welfare of the family. • Hard Work and Industry- It refers to one’s willingness to risk taking jobs in a foreign land with a different culture, not to mention the social cost. • Flexibility, Adaptability, and Creativity- Filipinos have the capacity to adjust and to adapt to conditions and circumstances in a given environment, both physical and social. They have the ability to improvise and make use of whatever is on hand in order to create and produce new things out of discarded scraps, for survival. • Pakikipagkapwa- tao- It refers to a deep sense of concern for one’s dignity and respect. This is manifested in a basic regard for justice and fairness to others. “Pakikiramay”, the sensitivity to people’s feelings- “pakikiramdam” and “pagtitiwala” are bonds that promote feelings of closeness to one another and become the foundation of unity. • Joy and Humor- It refers to propensity to cheer and laugh and have a fun loving approach to the ups and downs of life. Laughing at themselves and the mess they are in is an important coping mechanism. Prepared by: Mr. Herbert Saquing Corpuz

PHILIPPINE HISTORY Be proud of being a Filipino! SY2: 2008- 2009 • Faith and Religiosity- Filipinos have a deep faith in God. Their innate religiosity enables them to comprehend and genuinely accept reality in the context of God’s will and plan. Filipinos live very intimately with religion and prayers have been important part of their lives. 2. Weaknesses of Filipino Character • Extreme Personalism- It refers to the extent to which one is able to relate personally to things and people determines the recognition of their existence and the value attached to them. This extreme personalism often leads to graft and corruption and other malpractices in our government institutions. • Extreme Family Centeredness- The extreme excessiveness of family centeredness becomes detrimental to the welfare of a larger community. The use of one’s office and power to promote the interest of one’s family results in the utter lack of concern for the common good. • Lack of Discipline- This results in the use of shortcuts or the “palusot” syndrome, “nakaisa”, “nakalamang”, and “nakadaya”, in the Filipino vocabulary, words loaded with implied values. In several instances, Filipinos are guilty of the “ningas- cogon” tendency. They start their projects with full enthusiasm and interest, which abruptly die down, leaving things unfinished. What a waste! • Lack of National Consciousness- A proper understanding of one’s history is a very important factor in the development of national consciousness because it will serve to demonstrate how the present is influence by the past. • Colonial Mentality- These conditions are attributed to two dimensions- lack of patriotism and national integration and the strong preference for imported goods, foreign ideas and ways. • Passivity and Lack of Initiative- While it is true that Filipinos can adjust to circumstances in a given environment and posses some creative talents; they are generally passive and lacking in initiative. One has to be told what has to be done. They can tolerate inefficiency, poor service, and even violation of human rights. In many ways, it can be said that Filipinos are too patient for long suffering (“matiisin”), easily resigned to one’s fate, even if they are oppressed or exploited. • Kanya- kanya Syndrome- It refers to a selfish and self- serving attitude that generates a feeling of envy towards others, particularly when one’s peer has gained honor or prestige because of hard work. They demonstrate some hostile attitudes and feelings by recoursing to unfounded and malicious criticism “tsismis” and “intriga” to bring others down. This crab mentality that characterizes many Filipinos is counter productive. One evident manifestation of kanya- kanya syndrome is one’s personal ambition and the drive for power and status that is completely insensitive to the common good. It often results in the non cooperation of members of the community. • Lack of Exhaustive Study and Self-analysis- The Filipinos have a tendency to be superficial and sometimes even somewhat flighty. Confronted with serious problems, both personal and social, there seems to be no deliberate and intelligent alternative plan to solve the problem. In most cases, they joke and laugh about serious problem affecting them. Anyway, these problems are not mine alone. If there are strategies to solve these problems, they are only panacea. They easily accept and are even satisfied with the superficial explanations and hasty solutions to the problems. Another factor related to this issue is that Filipinos give too much emphasis on form, “maporma” rather than on the Prepared by: Mr. Herbert Saquing Corpuz

PHILIPPINE HISTORY Be proud of being a Filipino! SY2: 2008- 2009 substance. In most cases, they have a tendency to be satisfied with rhetoric and substitute this for reality. ASIAN HERITAGE A. INDIANIZATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIA • Indianization refers to the propagation of the Indian Civilization. • This propagation was a two-way process, that is, the propagation of the Indian Civilization was effected not only by the Indian Colonists and colonizers, but also by the Southeast Asians themselves. These Southeast Asians, particularly the Malays, were bold navigators. Hence, visiting the parts of India let them acquire Indian culture and brought them to their native countries. Prepared by: Mr. Herbert Saquing Corpuz

PHILIPPINE HISTORY Be proud of being a Filipino! SY2: 2008- 2009 1. The Sri Vijaya and Majapahit Empire Sri Vijaya Majapahit Other names Sin-fo-tsi(Chinese) Zabagin(Arabian) Nationality Malayan Culture Indianized Capital Palembang Majapahit Capital Mahayana Buddhist Brahmanistic Hindu The Philippines was never ruled by the Sri Vijayan and Majapahit Empire due to ff:  There are plenty of historical materials on Sri Vijaya as a maritime power and its relation with China in the annals of Tang, Yuan, Sung, and Ming Dynasty. Of those materials, there is no mentioned about Philippines being a vassal state of the Sri Vijaya Empire.  Chau-ju-kua in his chronicles, listed fifteen vassal states of the Sri Vijaya and the Philippines is not one of them.  Contemporary authorities on the history of Southeast Asia never claimed that Philippines was a vassal state of the Sri Vijaya Empire.  The claim of Prapanca in his eulogistic poem, Negarakertagama, that ninety- four vassal states of Majapahit Empire includes Solot which he referred as Sulu of the Philippines is not real. Most likely, Solots are the tiny island in the lesser Sundas which still bears the name Solot and the northeastern part of Borneo. 2. Relations with the Orang Dampuans • The Orang Dampuans or Men of Champa are group of immigrants who came in the Philippines from Southern Annam (Modern Vietnam) between 900- 1200 A.D. • They established a trading post in Sulu that resulted in a flourishing trade between Sulu and Southern Annam. • Their main interest is to have trade with Buranuns People of Sulu). • Their increasing prosperity aroused jealousy of the Buranuns who in fit of anger, massacred some Orang Dampuans. • Having superior weapons, they took their bloody revenge on the Buranuns and having leveled the enemy’s village to the ground, sailed to their homeland. 3. Relations with Bandjarmasin • The Orang Bandjar (Men of Bandjarmasin) were immigrants from Bandjarmasin, Borneo settled in Sulu and engaged actively in the rich pearl trade. • They introduced the Indian influences in Sulu in which made Buranuns possessing Hindu customs and worshipping vedic gods. Evidences:  An evidence of the Philippine intercourse with the Indianized countries of southeast Asian nations is found in the manuscript entitled, Suma Oriental, which was written by Tome Pires. According to this Pire Codex, the Lucoes (People of Luzon) annually Prepared by: Mr. Herbert Saquing Corpuz

PHILIPPINE HISTORY Be proud of being a Filipino! SY2: 2008- 2009 sent trading vessels to Borneo and Malacca and the Bornean traders used to sail to Luzon to buy gold or food stuffs. Relics Place Year Specifics Gold Image of Wawa River near 1917 Tara (Beyer) Agusan Esperanza, Agusan Province Bronze Image of Mactan, Cebu 1843 Hindu God Siva (Beyer) Mactan Lokesvara (Francisco) Copper Image of Mactan, Cebu 1843 Elephant God of Hindus Ganesha Clay Medallion Calatagan, Batangas 1958 Buddho- Siamese Art of Calatagan (Francisco) Gd Garuda Brooke’s Point, 1961 Mythical bird which served as Pendant of Palawan a vehicle of Hindu god Vishnu Palawan Ceramics from Rizal province, Cambodia, Batangas, Laguna, Annam, and Siam Mindoro, Sorsogon and palawan 4. Indian Influences in the Philippines • Religious Beliefs  Bathala- Chief God of the Tagalogs who was derived from Bhattara- great lord. Creator of the Universe Protector of Men Destroyer of Men Prepared by: Mr. Herbert Saquing Corpuz

PHILIPPINE HISTORY Be proud of being a Filipino! SY2: 2008- 2009  Also of Hindu origin was the belief of the ancient Filipinos that the universe is alive with devas and hantus, good spirits and evil spirits or demons, through whom all good and evil are done in this world. • Mythology and Folk Literature  Bantugan, the mythological hero of the Maranaos and Lumawig, the legendary savior of the Bontoc are identified with Indra of Hindu mythology.  The Darangan of Lanao, the Lam-ang of Ilokandia, and the Ibalon of Bicolandia and the Ilim and the Hudhud of the Muontain Province were inspired by the Mahabharata and other Hindu epics. • Fables  The Tagalog story of the monkey and the turtle, the tale of the race between the deer and the snail, and the Visayan anecdote of the hawk and the hen.  The hilarious adventures of Juan Tamad reveal traces of Hindu influences. • Customs and Traditions  Placing of a fresh flower garland around the neck of the visitor upon his arrival or departure, symbolic of hospitality and friendship.  Before marriage, a groom gives dowry to bride’s parents and renders personal services in the house of his future parents- in- law.  After the wedding ceremony, the guests throw rice upon the bride and the groom.  The offering of a buyo (a mixture of betel nut, ikmo leaf, and lime) to a guest as an expression of hospitality.  A childless couple goes on pilgrimage to a holy shrine, whose deity is believed to have the power to grant the virtue of fertility to those not blessed with children. • Superstitious Beliefs  A maiden who sings merrily before a stove while cooking will marry an old widower.  A comet is a bad omen, for it is a harbinger of famine, war, or some other calamity.  A pregnant woman who eats twin bananas will give birth twins.  When a cat wipes off its face with paws, a visitor is coming to the house.  If a sleeping person dreams that one of his teeth falls out, somebody close to him will die. • Mode of Dressing  Of Indian origin were putong (turban) of the men and sarong (lower garment) of the women in pre-Spanish Philippines.  The Muslim men in Mindanao and Sulu wear tight- fitting trousers which resemble the Indian putees and their women use embroidered shawls which are suggestive of the Indian sari. • Industries  Quicklime mining in Masbate  Boat building  Weaving of cotton clothes  Metal works • Musical Instruments  Kudyapi (Guitar) • Language Prepared by: Mr. Herbert Saquing Corpuz

PHILIPPINE HISTORY Be proud of being a Filipino! SY2: 2008- 2009 Filipino Sanskrit English Ama Ama Father Asawa Atawa Spouse Raha Raha King Saksi Saksi Witness Maharlika Mahardlika Noble B. EARLY CONTACT WITH CHINA • Sino- Philippine intercourse begun in 10th century A.D. during the Sung Dynasty. • The earliest known authentic data of the Sino- Philippine in 982 A. D. was recorded by a Chinese chronicler, Ma- Tuan- Lin in his monumental work entitled, Wen Shiann Tung Kao (General Investigation on the Chinese Cultural Sources) • The following are the Chinese influences in the Philippines: • Manufacturing/ occupations/ games  Gunpowder  The method of placer gold mining  The art of metallurgy  The use of porcelain, gold, silver, tin and other metals  Blacksmithing  Goldsmithing  Kite flying  Gambling- jueteng, kuwaho, pangginggi • Manner of Dressing  The sleeved jackets (kangan) of the pre-Spanish Filipino males, the loose trousers of the Muslim and the dresses of women of Sulu and Minadanao.  The use of slippers, bakya(wooden Shoes), fans and umbrellas.  Of Chinese introduction was the yellow garb of native nobility, the blue dress of the commoners, and the wearing of white clothes for mourning. • Culinary Art and Diet  Roasting of pigs for a delicious meat  Brewing of tea for drinking  Cooking of such dishes as lumpiya, pansit, mami, tsapsoy, and ukoy  Appetizers such as tahuri, heko, toyo  Edible vegetables including bataw, petsay, and upo • Social Customs  Fixed marriage  Hiring of go-between in marital negotiations  Employment of professional mourners during the funeral and the veneration of departed ancestor.  The filial respect accorded by children to their older brothers and sisters, parents and elders.  The explosion of firecrackers on the advent of new year and other festivals  The collection of tong (percentage fee) by the owner of a gambling joint.  The haggling between the merchant and customer to arrive at the final fix price of commodity Prepared by: Mr. Herbert Saquing Corpuz

PHILIPPINE HISTORY Be proud of being a Filipino! SY2: 2008- 2009  The beating of gongs to celebrate a feast among pagan Filipinos of northern Luzon, the Muslim Filipinos of Sulu and Mindanao. • Language Filipino Chinese English Bakya Bak- kiah Wooden Shoes Bantay Bang- tai Sentinel Gunting Kan- ting Pair of scissors Pinto Pin- to Door Susi So- si Key C. EARLY RELATIONS WITH JAPAN • The regions settled by the Japanese during the pre- Spanish times were the delta of Cagayan River, the Lingayen Gulf Region, and Manila. • The town of Agoo in Lingayen Gulf was busy center of trade with Japan which was later called by the Spaniards as Puerto de Japon. • The following are the Japanese influences: • Industries  Manufacture of arms and tools  The tanning of deer skins  Artificial breeding of ducks and fishes which is Japan’s greatest legacy to our ancestors. EARLY FILIPINO ANCESTORS A. THE BARANGAYS • Well organized independent villages. • It originated from balangay, a Malayan word meaning “sailboat”. • It is a self- sustaining community ruled by a datu. • It consisted of from 30- 100 families while some having a population of more than 2,000. Prepared by: Mr. Herbert Saquing Corpuz

PHILIPPINE HISTORY Be proud of being a Filipino! SY2: 2008- 2009 B. HOUSES AND DWELLINGS • Bahay kubo (nipa hut)- houses which were made of wood and bamboo, roofed by nipa palm leaves. It had a bamboo ladder that could be drawn up at night or when the family was out. It had a gallery called batalan where big water jars were kept for bathing and washing purposes. Under the house were kept the rice, firewood, and animals. • Some lived in tree houses which were built on the top of trees for better protection against the enemy. • The badjaos (sea gypsies) of Sulu Sea still live in boat houses. C. FOOD AND DRINKS • Rice- staple food • Earthen Jars/ bamboo tubes (Ilocano/Itawes- Banga) - where food are being placed for cooking. • Banana Leaves (don bahat- Itawes)- serves as plates • Coconut Shells (tahuk- Itawes)- used as drinking cups • Makkammat(Itawes)/ Agkammet(Ilocano)- eating with the use of fingers • Fire was used to cook food. Such were produced by rubbing two pieces of dry woods (hulu- Itawes, bulu- Ilocano, Boho- Tagalog) which, when heated, produced a tiny flame. • Angang (Itawes)/ Burnay (Ilocano)/ huge bamboo tubes- used to store drinking waters • Wines were also drank by early Filipinos such are the following:  Tuba- wine taken from coconut sports  Basi- an Ilocano wine brewed from sugarcane  Pangasi- Visayan wine made from rice  Lambanog- Tagalog wine taken from coconut palm  Tapuy- Igorot wine taken from rice D. MODE OF DRESSING Men Women Upper Garment Kangan Baro Lower Garment Bahag Patadyong Head Dress Putong Ipit (Itawes), punggos (Ilocano) Accessories Kolombigas (gold armlets) Samul- Ilocano, Balitok- Itawes (gold Samul- Ilocano, Balitok- Itawes between teeth), aritut- Itawes (gold between teeth) (earrings), dusaru- Itawes (necklace), purselas- Itawes (bracelet) Footwear Barefooted E. TATTOES • It serve two purposes a. To enhance their bodily beauty b. To show their war record • Men were more tattooed than women. Children were not tattooed at all. • The Visayans are the most tattooed Filipinos. They were called pintados or painted people. F. NATURAL COURTESY AND POLITENESS Prepared by: Mr. Herbert Saquing Corpuz

PHILIPPINE HISTORY Be proud of being a Filipino! SY2: 2008- 2009 • When two persons of equal rank met on the road, they removed their putong as a sign of courtesy. • When a person addressed his superior, he took off his putong, put it over his left shoulder like a towel, and bowed low. He addressed his superior with the word “po”, which is equivalent to “sir”. • When a man and a woman walked together, the man was always behind the woman. It was considered impolite for a man to walk ahead of his woman companion. Whenever the entire family went out, the mothers and daughters walk ahead, while fathers and sons walk behind. G. CLEANLINESS AND NEATNESS • They bathed daily. Their favorite hour for bathing in the river was at sunset when they had finished their daily toil. • They washed their hair regularly with gugo and water. They anointed it with coconut oil (denu- Itawes, Lana- Ilocano) and other lotions. • They washed their mouths (makkulumummug- Itawes) and cleaned their teeth (ginat- Itawes: sand- English was used to clean their teeth) upon waking up in the morning. They filed their teeth to make it even. They chewed buyo which made their teeth colored but strong. • They kept a vessel full of water at the door of every house, and every person, whether belonging to the house or not, upon entering, take water from this vessel and wash his feet, especially during rainy season. H. FAMILY LIFE • It is the basis of the society, hence, family ties, as they are today, was close and strong. • The children were given considerable attention, affection and discipline by their parents. They were trained to be loyal to the ancestral god, to respect the elders, to love their parents and to obey the datu and barangay rules. • The father was the head of the family, thus, his words were law to children. • The mother was the housekeeper. She enjoyed the sole privilege of naming the children. I. SOCIETY AND SOCIAL CLASSES • The pre- Spanish society was divided into three social classes: a. Maharlikas- nobles- they constituted the barangay aristocracy, the highest social class. This class was composed of the affluent slave- owning families, including the datu, his family and relatives and the rich people. b. Timawas- freemen- they constituted the middle class in the barangays. They were free- born persons and emancipated slaves. They formed the majority among the inhabitants of every barangay. c. Alipin- slaves- they belonged to the lowest social classes. The causes of slavery were the following:  Birth  Captivity in war  Purchase  Failure to pay debts  Penalty for crimes committed Kinds of Slaves 1) Aliping Namamahay- they lived in their houses. They owned their property. They could marry without their master’s consent. They could not be sold. Prepared by: Mr. Herbert Saquing Corpuz

PHILIPPINE HISTORY Be proud of being a Filipino! SY2: 2008- 2009 2) Aliping Saguiguilid- they owned no property. They lived in their master’s house. They could not marry without their master’s consent. They could be sold anytime. Slaves could emancipate themselves and become a freeman in various ways of emancipation as follows: 1) Marriage 2) Purchase 3) Voluntary action of the master Hence, a slave woman who married a freeman or a noble automatically becomes free. A slave man could become free by paying his master a certain sum of gold. A slave- owner, according to customary laws, might emancipate his slave for saving his life in the war or for having served his family faithfully for many years. • There was no caste system unlike in India. Hence, a noble could become slave, a freeman could rise to nobility, and a slave could become a freeman. J. WOMENS’ POSITION • Tribal Laws and Customs recognized them as equal to men. • They could own and inherent property. • They could engage in trade and industry. • If they were daughters of datus who had no sons, they could inherit the chieftaincy and rule barangays. • They had the exclusive privilege of naming their children. • Many women were famous in songs and stories as follows:  Sibabae- the legendary first woman in the world  Lubluban- the legendary lawgiver of the Visayans  Lalahon- the Visayan goddess of fire and volcanoes  Kalangitan- the sultana of the Pasig and Lakandula’s grandmother K. AMUSEMENTS • They held banquets to celebrate a good harvest, a wedding, a religious sacrifice and a victory in war. Such are celebrated with much eating, drinking, singing and dancing. Though they drink too much, this does not mean losing their senses rather, they will only become talkative and livelier. • They had games such as carabao races, wrestling, fencing, boat races and stone-throwing contests. L. MUSIC • They were lovers of music. • They had various musical instruments as follows: 1) Kudyapi- Tagalog guitar 4) Tultogan- Visayan bamboo drum 2) Kalaleng- Tinggian nose- flute 5) Silbay- Ilocano reed flute 3) Kulintamg- Muslim xylophone 6) Suracan- Subanun cymbal • They had plenty of folk dances such as: 1) Kumintang- Tagalog love dance 3) Dandansoy- Visayan tuba dance 2) Mahinhin- Tagalog courtship dance 4) Kinnoton- Ilocano ant’s dance Prepared by: Mr. Herbert Saquing Corpuz

PHILIPPINE HISTORY Be proud of being a Filipino! SY2: 2008- 2009 5) Panjalay- Muslim wedding dance 6) Tadek- Tinggian love dance • Their songs expressed all aspects of life. Among these are the following: 1) Tagumpay- Tagalog song of victory 5) Dal-lot- Ilocano ballad song 2) Dallu- Negrito religious song 6) Kuilay- kuilay- Tinggian wine song 3) Ayeg- klu- Igorot serenade song 7) Tudob- Agusan harvest song 4) Bactal- Tagbanua death song M. MARRIAGE CUSTOMS • Before marriage, the groom gave a dowry to the family of the bride (bigaykaya). It consisted of gold, land, slaves or anything else of value. The groom had to work in the house of his bride for a certain period of time to do the following:  Carrying water and firewood to the house  Assisting the bride’s father in plowing the field  Assisting in the planting and harvesting of rice • Other dowries were in the form of the following:  Panghimuyat: the amount of money given to the bride’s parent, the mother for the nocturnal efforts in rearing the girl to womanhood.  Bigay- suso- the payment given to the girl wet- nurse who fed the bride during infancy with milk from her breast.  Humaraw- the amount given to the bride’s parents as reimbursement for the amount spent in feeding the bride during infancy.  Sambon- the amount given to the bride’s relatives. • The state of courtship immediately before marriage is called Pamumulungan or Pamamalae. • For Muslims (Mindanao):  Panalanguni- betrothal or engagement  Pedsungud- settlement of dowry  Pegkawing- marriage ceremony • They also practiced divorce with the aforementioned grounds: 1) Adultery on the part of the wife 4) Cruelty 2) Desertion on the part of the husband 5) Insanity 3) Loss of affection 6) Childlessness N. BARANGAY GOVERNMENT • Barangays were virtually independent village- kingdoms. • Each barangay was ruled by a chieftain called Datu. The rulers of bigger barangay kingdoms assumed the title of raha, hari or lakan. • Datu- he was the chief, executive, legislator, and judge of the barangay and in time of war, he was the commander of the barangay warriors. He obtained his position by inheritance, being a son or daughter of a datu. In case the datu died without any legitimate son or daughter, the people of barangay choose their new datu who should be the strongest, richest, or wisest man in the barangay. Despite his great powers, he was not an absolute ruler. The datu should consult the barangay elders in their approval of the following matters:  Declaration of war with the enemy barangay  The marriage of the barangay lakan (prince) or lakambini (princess)  The negotiation of a political alliance with another barangay.  Making new laws for the barangay. Prepared by: Mr. Herbert Saquing Corpuz

PHILIPPINE HISTORY Be proud of being a Filipino! SY2: 2008- 2009 • The barangay elders also took part in judicial trials of persons accused of certain crimes and the datu’s decision could not be binding without their approval. • There were also confederations of barangays. The causes of these emergence were the following:  For better protection against enemies  The marriage of a lakan of a barangay with the lakambini of another barangay O. BARANGANIC RELATIONS • Barangays concluded treaties of alliance and friendship with each other, sealed by a traditional ceremony of the blood compact called sandugo (one blood). • Sometimes wars broke up between barangays. Such according to Captain Miguel Loarca were caused by the following:  When one goes to another village and was put to death without any reason  When one’s wives were stolen from them  When one went to any village and he was badly treated or aggrieved P. LAWS • The early Filipinos had both oral and written laws. • The oral laws were their customs (ugali) which had been handed down orally from generation to generation.  According to legend, the lawgiver of the pre- Spanish Philippines was a woman named Lubluban, the great granddaughter of the first man and the first woman of the world. • The written laws were promulgated by datus with the help of the barangay elders and announced to the people by a barangay crier known as umalohokan. • Take note that the much known Kalantiaw Code of the Philippines has been proven to be suspect of origin and contents. Hence, it should be believed in. Q. RELIGION • The early Filipinos were pagans except that of Moros in Minadanao and Sulu. • The following were their gods and goddesses:  Bathala- supreme god and the creator of heaven and earth  Idianale- Tagalog goddess of agriculture  Lakampati- Tagalog god of harvest  Sidapa- Visayan god of death  Apolaki- Pangasinan war god  Kidul- Kalinga god of thunder  Dal’lang- Ilocano goddess of beauty  Malyari- Zambal god of power and strength  Poko- Tagbanua god of sea  Kolyog- Ifugao god of earthquakes • They worshipped ancestral spirits called anitos (Tagalog) or diwatas (Visayan). To these anitos the sacrifices called, maganito, were offered. The ritual was performed by a priest or priestess called katalona or babaylan. • They also worshipped nature in the belief that such natural objects were the habitats of the spirits. • They also believed in life after death. The good soul would go to heaven, called kaluwalhatian (Tagalog) or Ologan (Visayan), while the bad soul would go to hell called, kasamaan (Tagalog) or Solad (Visayan). Prepared by: Mr. Herbert Saquing Corpuz

PHILIPPINE HISTORY Be proud of being a Filipino! SY2: 2008- 2009 R. BURIAL AND MOURNING CUSTOMS • The corpse was embalmed and was buried near his home, in a cave or on headlands overlooking the sea. Clothes, foods, weapons and, sometimes slaves were buried with the dead. • The relatives of the dead wore rattan bands around their neck, arms, and legs; used white garments; and abstained from eating meat and drinking wine during the period of mourning. • Mourning for a dead man is called maglahe, for a dead woman it was termed morotal; and for a datu, larao. When a datu died, a herald announced the event and the larao were then observed. No colored clothes were worn by the grieving people. All wars and quarrels were suspended. Singing in boats returning from sea was prohibited. All warriors carried their spears with points downward and their daggers with hilts reversed. S. SUPERSTITIONS • Early Filipinos believed in witches as follows;  Asuang- assumed the form of a dog, a bird, or any animal and devoured human flesh  Mangkukulam- caused people to die or be sick by pricking a toy with his magic pin  Tianak- sucked the baby’s entrails by means of his elongated proboscis  Tigbalang- appeared in a form of a dog, a horse or an old man to deceive his victims. • They believed in the magical power of amulets and charms such as;  Anting- anting- believed to make its possessors invulnerable  Gayuma- a love potion which can arouse an adamant woman’s affection  Odom- Bicol magic herb which makes its possessor invisible to the human eye  Uiga- Visayan charm which enables any man to cross a river without getting wet • They also had superstitious beliefs which until now are surviving as follows:  The appearance of a comet is an ill omen, for it is harbinger of war, pestilence or calamity.  If a pregnant woman cuts her hair, she will give birth to a hairless child.  A pregnant woman should not eat twin bananas, otherwise she will give birth to twins.  A girl who sings before the stove while cooking will marry an old widower.  When a cat wipes its face with its paws, a visitor is coming to house. T. LANGUAGES • The early Filipinos had different languages and dialects which were originated from a common linguistic form, the Malayo- Polynesian language. • Tagalog was regarded by the early Spanish writers as the best. U. WRITING • The ancient Filipinos had their own writing system following their alphabet called baybayin which was originated from the asokan alphabet of India. • A sharp- pointed iron instrument called sipol was used as pen. • They engraved words in a bamboo tubes, wooden boards, or leaves of plants which were used as paper. • The ancient writing is still preserved by the Mangyans of Mindoro and the Tagbanuas of Palawan. V. LITERATURE Prepared by: Mr. Herbert Saquing Corpuz

PHILIPPINE HISTORY Be proud of being a Filipino! SY2: 2008- 2009 • Early Filipino literature consisted of bugtong (riddles), awit (songs), salawikain (proverbs), myths, legends and poetry. • The following folk epic have been preserved:  Ifugao Alim and Hudhud  Ilocano Lam-ang  Bicol Handiong  Kalinga Ullalim  Maranao Bantigan  Maguinadanao Indarapatra and Sulayman  Illanon Agyu  Taosug Parang Sabil W. EDUCATION • Early Filipino education was both academic and vocational. • The father trained his sons to be warriors, hunters, fishermen, miners, lumbermen, and shipbuilders. The mother, on the other hand, trained her daughters in cooking, gardening, sewing, and other household chores. • There was an ancient barangay school in Panay termed as Bothoan under the charge of a teacher, usually an old man. 3R’s were taught in this school- arithmetic, reading, and writing X. ARTS • Architecture was expressed in the bahay- kubo style of dwelling. • They early painting was that of tattoo. • Sculpture was manifested in their anitos. Y. SCIENCES • Filipinos had knowledg

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